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THE UPRIGHT SOUL..

THE INFLUENCE OF STEAM.
BY J. H. PERKINS.

All those yet referred to are but the interior Late to our town there came a maid,

circles of the influences already perceptible A noble woman, true and pure,

from the disturbing action of this one new Who, in the little wbile she stayed,

force. It does not confine itself to nationalizing Wrought works that shall enduro.

each several race, but it cosmopolizes nations. It was not any thing she said

This result is more noticable in Europe than in It was not any thing she did; It was the movement of ber head

America. Since 1830 all the world travels.The listing of ber lid.

Already the whole Caucasian race looks alike Her little motions when she spoke,

and talks alike, and is rapidly growing to live The presence of an upright soul,

alike and to think alike. We mix and mingle, The living light that from her broke,

until there is no strangeness left. Those of It was tbe perfect wbole.

middle life yet remember Paris and London ia We saw it in ber floating liair,

the days of the diligence and the stage coach; We saw it in her laughing eye; For, every lock and feature there

many of them have seen it in the present year Wrought works tbat cannot die.

of grace, and such at least realize a change.For she to many spirits gave

As to Rome, she has come directly within the A reverence for the true, the pure,

influence of railroads only within the last six The perfect, -tbat has power to save,

vears. Did the world ever before witness a And make the doubting sore.

revolution so complete? The mushroom cities She passed-she went to other lands,

of America, in their very brick and mortar, She koew not of the work she did; The wondrous product of her hands,

in the architecture of their buildings and the

age of their walls, -are the same in appearance, From her is ever bid. Forever, did I say? 0, no !

and just as ancient, as modern London or Paris. The time must come when she will look

We dream of England as old; we dwell upon Upon her pilgrimage below,

the descriptions of English humorists, and pic. And find it in God's book.

ture to ourselves the quaint rambling ipps and That as she trod her path aright,

familiar streets of Dickens,—the haunts of Dr. Power from her very garments stole; Johnson and of Boswell,—the spots made faFor such is the mysterious might

miliar by Irving and his great progenitor, who God grants the upright soul. A deed, a word, our careless rest,

showed old Sir Roger the sights of the town; A simple thought, a common feeling,

we insensibly associate with modero London, in If He be present in the breast,

childish fancy, the familiar scenes of English Has from Him powers of healing.

literature, from Prince Hal and Jack Falstaff at

the Boar's Head Inn to Mr. Pickwick snuffing COMING PLEASURES.

the morning air in Goswell street. We still go Shadow-leaves of rugged elms,

to the city rather expecting to find the quaintThrowa on cool green meadow-plants: ness we imagine ; at any rate, we do not look Ligbt beyond, and fowered realms,

for what we left behind us in America. ProPassing bees' deep organ-chapt.

bably some of this quaintness did linger about Plumes of air that touch the cheek

London until within a few years. But though Like a rose, as soft and brief; Happy thoughts that need not speak,

1829 did not work all its changes at once, the Lapped in rest and love's belief.

old and quaint went out with the stage coaches. Rippling streams by sun and shade,

To day we might as well look for traces of the Golden-meshed, or amber deep;

Indians on Boston Common, or of the renowned Song of bird, and tinkling blade,

Wouter Van Twiller on Manhattan Island.Where the distant corn they reap.

London is, in all essentials but size, like BosSuch an hour is coming sweet,

top ; Paris, likė New York. Paris and London B:inishing the anxious frowoFanning ache and trouble's heat

have yielded to the new influence, and are givBringing beavenly angels down.

ing up their distinctive characteristics, to be

come the stereotyped railroad centres of the fuIt is a living ministry that begets a living ture. Rome, thanks tu the Papacy, has resistpeople; and by a living ministry, at first, we were end the revolution a little longer; and there reached and turned to the truth. It is a living travellers can yet taste some of the old novelty ministry that will still be acceptable to the and ästhetic enjoyment of travel. There one church, and serviceable to its members. It is can yet dwell a moment with the past, and enan excellent virtue in ministers, a seal and con.joy an instant's forgetfulness of the wearying firmation of their ministry, to be found in the march of progress. But even there the shrill practice of that which they preach to others; scream of the steam whistle breaks the silence such can in boldness say with the apostle, “Be of the Campagna, and the steam-engine has ye followers of us as we follow Christ.”—Ec- possession of the palace of the Cenci. All this, tract from the Testimony concerning John Banks. I too, is but the beginning. It is at most but the

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change of a siogle half-century. What, tben, German until so few years ago. Since 1830 the may not the same influence accomplish in the nations are woven together by the network of eternal course of the future? Judging from iron, and all thoughts and results of thought accomplished results, how can the whole world are in common. The same problems perplex avoid being cosmopolized ?

at once the whole world, and from every quarAt home, too, we notice similar change.- ter light floods in upon their solution. This Within the last twenty years, the old New Eog- very question of the relation between commu-. land country town and its inhabitants have nities and their railroad systems is now preequally disappeared. The revolutions of these senting itself to all the nations at once, and the few years have swept away the last vestiges of best solution will result from common expecolonial thoughts and persons. Who that has rience. The law of competition is brought to ever lived in a New England country town does bear on national thought. But increased comnot remember its old quiet and dulness, its in- muuication has not alone quickened and inten. dustry, and the slow, steady growth of its pros- sified thought—it has revolutionized its properity, the steadiness of its inbabitants? In the cess. The great feature of the future, if the village church and the village street you seemed present view of the influences of the agents at to see more gray heads than now, and more rev. work is correct, will be the rapid uprising of erence was paid them. In the country, you met numerous new communities. Of all such coma class of men now wholly gone, dull, solid, el. munities questioniug is a leading characteristic. derly men, men of some property and few ideas, They have neither faith in, por reverence for --the legitimate descendauts of the English that which is old. On the contrary, with them broad-acred equires. They were the country age is prima facie evidence of badness, and they gentry-the men who went up to the General love dovelty for novelty's sake. This mental Court, and bad been members of the Governor's inclination will ultimately apply the last test to Council; they were wen of formal manners and truth, for error has its full chance and is sure of formal dress,--men who remembered Gover- of a trial. The burden of proof seems likely to por Ilabcock, and had a certain trace of his be shifted from the innovator to the cousermanners. To-day this class is as extinct as the vator. In the rising passion for change, the dodo. Railroads have abolished them and their question seems likely to be, not, Is the proposed dress and their manners,—they have abolished innovation an inprovement? but, Is the existthe very houses they dwelt in. The race of ing condition certainly better than that prohereditary gentry has gone forever, and the posed ?- North American Review. race of' hereditary business-men has usurped its place. Shrewd, anxious, eager, over-worked,

FLOATING the wen of to-day will accomplish vast results, and immensely accelerate the development of The valleys of Greeuland are all filled with the race. They represent the railroad, as the glaciers, of which some have an enormous extent. earlier type did the stage-coach. Whether the They are always in motion, gliding downward existing type is as happy as the extinct, is a like rivers of nearly solid matter, which have question yet to be decided.

th

ORIGIN OF

THE

ICEBERGS IN
THE ATLANTIC.

fo

fr

SIT

their outlet in the sea, only their motion is ex. The same phenomena are witnessed in the 'ceedingly slow, not exceeding about 100 feet for regions of thought. It is bolder than of yore. the whole summer season. The lower extremiIt exerts its influence with a speed and force ties of these glaciers, reaching the ocean, are equally accelerated. The newspaper press is buoyed up by the deep water, and then are broken the great engine of modern education, and off from the rest of the mass, when they slowly that press, obeying the laws of gravitation, is drift away to the south. They sometimes have everywhere centralized, -the rays of light once an extent of several miles, and are really mounscattered are concentrated into one all-power- tains of ice-icebergs--of which about sevenful focus. Today's metropolitan newspaper, eighths is in the water and less than ope-eighth printed by a steam press, is whirled three hun- exposed above the surface. These floating icedred miles away by a steam engioe before the mountains often carry enormous blocks of rock, day's last evening edition is in the hands of the torn from the mountain side along which they carrier. The local press is day by day fighting have moved, and drop those rocks when and a losing cause with diminished courage, while where the iceberg is finally lost. In this way the metropolitan press drives it out of circula- geologists explain bow boulders and erratic rocks tion and draws from it its brain. Thought happen to be found where there are no similar draws to intellectual centres as trade draws to formations--namely, by icebergs, at a time before commercial centres, and all our railroad cen- the present surface of the continents were uptres. Thoughts are quickly exchanged, and act heaved from the depths of the ocean. It is upon each other.

Nations can no longer, knowo that this is one of Agassiz's favorite theoexcept willully, persist in national blunders. ries; he supposes that the whole earth was corLiteratures can no longer lie hid as did the 'ered with glaciers.

le ta les

31. hich

Site

husb

1865.
3.610
5.825
4,710
2 830
7-210
4.750
2.970
3.770
7.960
3.050
3.960
5.610

1866.
3:145
6.615
2.150
2.930
4.680
2.960
2 520
2.181
8.705
4,145
1.760
3.465

days.)

56 500

45 256

From Chambers's Journal.
GREEN TURTLE CAY.

For Friends' Intelligencer.

1864.

1867. January.. .1.705

1.702 THE RECENT RAINS. February..... •551

3 892 The facts en: bodied in the following state.

March.........5.170

5.465 April .........3 795

1.810 ment are so valuable for future reference that

May.. .......8.685

7.320 the compiler of the “ Reviews of the Weather," June ..2.345

11.025 &c., furnished monthly for the Intelligencer, July............3-770

2 387 herewith forwards it for publication in advance August........1.920

14.850 of his regular review, in order to avoid making September... 7.165

(le38 13

October ...... 1.820 a single article too lengtby : J. M. E.

November....3.930 8th mo. 23d, 1867.

December....5.145 “ The rain which fell on the 15th inst. was

Total ..... 46 001 the heaviest that bas visited this city for the

It will be observed that the next greatest last fifty years, the record kept at the Peonsylvania Hospital showing the unprecedented quantity to the present month, falling in any large amount of 6'680 inches. The next heavi.

one month, was last June, and the greatest est rain within the last half century was in quantity on any given day herein was on the September, 1838, when the gauge showed

17th of that month, the amount being 4.390 6.011 inches to have fallen, which has not

inches." been exceeded until the present visitation.

The pluriamater at the Hospital is kept accurately and regularly, and its records date Some thousands of miles across the Atlantic, back every day to the year 1821.

you come to several green islands, of different In addition to this they have the records for size and shape. They are not situated off the some twenty years preceding that date, kept stormy and inclement coasts of Newfoundland by a Mr. Lagrue, of Spring Mills, of Montgom.

or Labrador, but far away to the south, where ery county, who took an interest in meterologi- the cocoa-nut tree ripens its fruit, where the cal and thermometrical matters, and although most luscious pige-apples exhale their delicious his records are not vouched for as strictly au- fragrance, and where the humming-bird finds a thentic, get much confidence is placed in and congenial home, with a flower garden to ramble respect held for them.

through, and honey-dew to sip. These islands, The total amount of rain which fell during the smaller of which are called Cays, are situathe present mouth, up to Saturday night last, ted just off the coast of Florida. The one of was 14.850, exceeding anything on the record which I am about to speak lies off the north for a corresponding period of time.

coast of the large island of Abaco, which being Of the entire month thus far there were only almost uninhabited, is very sligbtly cultivated. five days clear of rain, viz :the 4th, 5th,

The smaller island of Green Turtle Cay has 11th, 12th and 13th insts. Some, in their de been settled for, I suppose, about fifty years, sire to exaggerate, charge the month of July and has a population of about a thousand. It with having been also unusually showery is five or six miles long, scarcely anywhere exand dampening to mortals ; but this is a mis- ceeds balf a mile in width; is covered nearly take, as, during that month there were only all over with dense bush ; bas a fine natural nine rainy days, averaging 2 387-quite a harbor, protected from all winds; and is itself moderate return as compared with this good defended to a considerable extent by reefs of Eighth month, 1867.

rock, which stem the heavy seas as they come Of the rainy days we have had this month rolling over the North Atlantic. In addition the record shows the amount to have fallen, to the harbor just mentioned, there are two conrespectively, as follows:

siderable inlets or sounds at each extremity of

the island, which run in a longitudinal direction, 1st..................1.964 | 9th......... •112 each of them from half a mile to a mile in length. 2d......... •403 10th....

115

Situated in nearly twenty-six of north lati3d........ .920 14th.

:

-326

tude, the island enjoys a very mild winter cli6th........ -400 15th..

..6.680

mate, while its summer is oppressively hot. 7th........ .1 910 16th.

•100

The means of support and occupation which .1.735 17th..

•185 the islanders in this obscure spot possess, are making, as we said, in all, 14 850.

Dot so limited as might be supposed; and, For the information of our readers, who take in fact, with a little fresh blood direct from an interest in such comparative matters, we Eogland or America, a good deal wight be will add that the amount of average rain which made of the place and neighborhood. There fell each month, and year, since January 1, is abundance of fish in the neighboring seas; 1861, according to ombrometrical register, was and the weather being almost always fine, and as follows:

the sea calm, the occupation of fishing can be

8th.........

pursued at all times of the year. There are they like, grow oranges for the New York mar. also lobsters, craw.fish, crabs, and occasionally ket. The laod is cheap, and there is no tax on most delicious turtle. There are no oysters.produce; besides which yovernment land is Prawns, which are caught in such plenty in lo often occupied and cultivared without having dia, and form the basis of that finest of all been bought at all, or any rent being paid. Ä dishes, prawocurry, are not found in the Baha- negro of my acquaintance told me that he ocmas. They appear, however, on the coast of cupied in this way a small plot of laod of about the Windward Islands.

an acre or two, on which last summer, with the Lobsters are caught in a peculiar manner. help of his son, he grew three thousand six They are found in plenty along the side of the hundred pipe-apples, for which he received inlets, which penetrate the Cays. A boat is thirty pouuds. This plot of ground is on the Towed along the mangrove bushes which line island of Abaco, which the people usually call the margin of the sounds, as they are called. the Main. It is separated from the Cay by One man is armed with a two.pronged spear; only two or three miles of delightfully calm & water-glass is used to examine the bottom of and clear water. My black friend, having acthe sea; and when a lobster is seen, he is sa. quired so much money for a few weeks' work, Juted with the propgs, and hauled on board. took, I believe, a long rest; in fact with the When the tide is low, numbers are easily help of fish and molluscs, of which there is great speared. Turtle is caught in a similar man. I plenty, he had no necessity to work any more der, but without the use of the water-glass. for that year.

Besides fishing, however, there is a far more Fruit is very cheap: one hundred limes were profitable occupation, in which nearly every offered me for sixpence, a few months ago. one on the island can take part. About fifty Pine-apples are abundant, and the finest in filamiles north-west, there is a splendid sponging-vor I ever tasted. The pine apples are plucked ground, and several times a year, boats proceed before they are quite ripe, and shipped for New to this spot, and return after a few weeks, eacb York, which port they reach in perhaps eight boat bringing perhaps from three hundred to or ten days. There they are immediately sold five hundred dozen of spooges. These are sent to a dealer, who soon finds purchasers for them. to Nassau, and sold to the merchants, so that a The oranges come later in the season ; they are considerable sum of money is periodically di- plucked green, and ripen during the voyage. vided among the islanders, from a source which There are two or three fruits on this island scarcely any other part of the world is in pos- which I have not seen in other parts of the session of. I have been informed that Nassau world; one of these is the alligator pear, wbich receives thirty thousand pounds a year from this is of the shape of an English one, and grows trade.

on a small tree. It is not much of a fruit, but The water-glass is absolutely neceesary is very nice for breakfast in hot weather, when in collecting sponges, which often grow at a it is eaten with pepper and salt. It is one of considerable depeb. A pole, from ten to twenty those fruits for which one acquires a likiog in or thirty feet long, with a double claw fastened a short time. It is only in season in the sumto the end of it, is let down to the root of the mer. The sapadello is another fruit which is sponge, which is torn from the rock. The na. not fouud in any part of India that I am actives pretend this is very bard work : proba quainted with. This is a very nice fruit, and bly, however, it would pot compare with plough- resembles bread-pudding, but is very sweet. ing or other of our agricultural operations. The There are so many reefs and ledges, sounds and sponges, when collected, are found to be ten- sandbanks, in this part of the world, that wrecks apted by the worm, as it is called, and must are considered a regular source of income, and therefore be placed in the sun, to allow the the most profitable of all. In fact, although I animal to die. Afterwards, they are well resided on the island scarcely six months, there washed in water, until all the animal matter is were not less than seven wrecks within reach got rid of, and the bad smell dissipated, when of our boats. The share for salvage which the they are brought to market. A bead of sponges natives obtain is about half the value of the of about a dozen or more may be bought for goods saved; moreover, these being sold by three shillings on the island of Green Turtle auction in the town, the inhabitants are able to Cay.

purchase at a cheap rate many of the neces. These two branches of trade, with what the saries and even luxuries of life. In incidentally soil itself can yield-pamely, bananas, sweet- alluding to the subject of wrecking, I approach potatoes, and perhaps Indian corn-migbt be a topic of great importance to the real and per. supposed to be quite sufficient for the support of manent welfare of the Bubama Islands. It is the inbabitants, who consist of men of Euro- a matter which bas engaged the serious atten. pean and Afrioan origin, with a few of a mixed tion of the present governor, who is most laudarace. In addition, however, to these sources of bly desirous of substituting some other occupalivelihood, the inbabitants can, all of them if Ition more in accordance with the true interests of the inhabitants, than the precarious and de- air, so still is be, whilst bis wings are working moralizing trade of wrecking; and the gains with tremendous rapidity. Suddenly, he will from which are at times so great as to deprive ; tumble two or three feet down, and instantly be the natives of the necessary stimulus to those suspended in mid air, his wings giving forth industrial pursuits which their social wants iQ-! their monotonous hum. Then approaching a culcate. The certainty of the occurrence of a flower, he inserts bis long bill, still standing in shipwreck sooner or later, naturally diverts the the air, and having extracted its sweets, darts miod from the subject of horticulture, which off in another direction. ought to engage their attention. The tempta. In the beginning of February, another pleastion also to theft is very great, and too often 'ing visitor makes bis appearance-the mockinggielded to. Numerous, however, as are the bird arrives. His song is something like that moral objections to the practice in question, not, of the thrush. The vatives of the Cay, howless so are the difficulties which stand in the ever, do not appear to pay any regard to such way of its reform.

visitants; all their interests centres in the sea; There are several light-houses scattered over and the cry of “A wreck!” will send every the Bahamas, and no doubt many more are re- man running to his boat. quired. Still it should be borne in inind that, But the ocean has here attractions of another to make them thoroughly efficient, the keepers kind. The Bahamas are celebrated for their should be placed beyond the temptation of a shells. Some very fine ones are occasionally bribe. A salary of eighty poundsa year, with found on this island, which entirely put to shame rations for one individual, is sadly insufficient anything of the kind which is found on the for such a purpose. When residing in that coasts of India or England. A week's sojourn part of the world, I accidentally heard of a on the Cay, if they could be suddenly transported keeper who, in spite of the severe ecosomy in there, would be an immense treat to the freevitable with such a salary, contrived both to quenters of Scarborough or Brighton. The vadrink champagne and amass a fortune of several riety of bushes (some in flower), ferns, &c., hundred pounds. One is reminded, in short, of would afford amusement to those of horticul the Frenchman's stone broth, which proved so tural tastes; while the gyrations of the humdelicious a repast.

ming-bird, of which there are several species, In spite of the advantages enjoyed by the would be a perpetual source of delight both to datives of the island, there is no accumulation old and young. What a never-ending source of wealtb, as a general rule, by the negro popu- of interest would be offered by that great treaslation. They are improvident, and very de- ure.store, the sea! What untiring pedestrians ficient in regard to the payment of their debts. I would circumambulate its shores! How perseI confess I have formed the opinion, that avering would be the idolaters of the little country inhabited by a negro peasantry. would shrines, with their doorways of pearl, and their bear a very unfavorable comparison with one sculptured ornaments, fabricated by the creapeopled by men of European race, unless, in-tures of these clear green waters. deed, a prolonged moral culture under civilized institutions should develop a much more ele- SPANISH HERMITS AND NUNS. vated character in future generations.

Lady Herbert, in her" Impressions of Spain," One of the greatest evils connected with gives an account of her visit to the hermitage Green Turtle Cay is the painful uncertainty of in the Sierra Morena. There are at present communication. European letters are received seventeen hermits, all gentlemen, and many of at Nassau once a month by the mail from New high birth and large fortune. “They never York, and there they will remain for ten or see each other but at mass and in choir, or twenty days, when at length, after patience is speak but once a month." The cabin of each worn out from repeated disappointment, a recluse is fitted with "a bed composed of three schooner is seen approaching the island, the boards, with a sheepskin and a pillow of straw ; letters arrive, but cannot be answered until the rest of the furniture consisted of a crucifix, a another mail has come from New York. The jug of water, a terrible discipline with iron natives of the place, however, care very littte points,” and an Essay on Christian Perfection. for this uncertain communication, as they have No linen is allowed, or stockings. Tbey are no friends in Europe, and are not given to not permitted to possess anything. They keep epistolary correspondence. They find amuse-a perpetual fas: on beads and lentils, only on ment in their boats and schooners, and their high days being allowed fish. They are not daily round of occupation.

allowed to write or receive letters, or to go into At Green Turtle Cay I made my first ac. one another's cells, or to go out of the enclosure, quaintance with the humming-bird. His power except once a month, when they may walk in of wing is wonderful. Yon are puzzled to de- the mountains round, which they generally do cide whether the marvellous little creature is together, reciting litanies. Seven hours of each perched on some small twig, or standing in the day must be given to prayer, and they take the

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