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amounts to the creation of a new taste in the university; we mean the establishment of a third class of honors for distinguished answering in the metaphysical and moral sciences. In the former system of study these pursuits had been almost lost in the superior importance attached to the mathematical and physical sciences with which they were united in the examinations for undergraduate honors. Requiring as these studies do, tastes and talents so dissimilar, the union was ill assorted, and could only result in the injury of either or of both. Accordingly, the habits of students and examiners began silently to dissolve the connexion. The mathematics -the hardier party of the two-gradually usurped the rights of its weaker companion, and its well-known influence in the ultimate determination of success operated as a practical discouragement of a species of study eminently calculated as an introduction to the labours of the divine and the statesman, and, as some think, eminently adapted to the peculiar genius of our country. By the establishment of the Moderatorship in Philosophy, which gives motive and dignity to these neglected pursuits, this evil has been, in a great measure, neutralized, and the number of candidates (almost always exceeding that of the competitors for either of the other degree honors) proves how general is the interest excited. This important improvement may be said to have laid the foundation of a new school in the university-the School of Mental Philosophy and the later endow ment, under the same auspices, of a Professorship of that science, was intended to increase the interest felt in its cultivation.
In the details of more special improvements, such as those connect ed with the department of medicine in any of its various branches, we cannot now afford time to enter; nor could we expect to interest, in such matters, the general mass of readers. The improvements, however, were nnmerous and solid. The abridgment of the period necessary for obtaining the degree of Bachelor of Medicine has been found a very general convenience to students; and by removing the annoyance of a useless delay, it has already restored many candidates for medical degrees to our university, who otherwise would have sought elsewhere for instruction and graduation upon easier terms sometimes
indeed upon terms so easy in point of general qualifications, as to have the unfortunate effect of separating the medical altogether from the learned professions. The increase in the number of Anatomical Lectures is also considered highly advantageous; and the supply of preparations, plants, &c., with which the lectures of the professors of Chemistry and Botany have been enriched, contributes to make them at once more interesting and more instructive. We ought not to omit, in connexion with this subject, the purchase of the late Mr. Knox's valuable collection of minerals, which are now deposited in the museum. Nor, as a general corollary to the labours of Dr. Lloyd in behalf of every species of knowledge in the university, and of the exaltation of its character, ought we to neglect the exertion which he expended in consolidating the connexion with the British Scientific Association, which, mainly under his auspices, was so prosperously formed at perhaps the most brilliant session yet recorded in the history of the "Parliament of Science."
We have now enabled our readers to judge of the value and comprehensiveness of some of the changes accomplished by the late Provost, during the short six years of his administration of the University. We have given a very inadequate account of them; yet, such as we have described, when considered in the full extent of their probable results upon the institution and the country, exceed, it is likely, the collegiate improvements of the preceding fifty years-we had almost said, of the preceding century. But these things, in their entire extent, cannot be detailed. The influence of institutions cannot be numbered and catalogued their operation is too indirect-too gradual-too diversified for precise distribution under heads and chapters. Like the Light itself, to which knowledge is so constantly compared, they spread, and with a power that searches every corner and crevice of society-yet so as to elude observation except at considerable intervals; the haze of morning brightens into the grand and glowing noon, yet no man can say at what instant the change became decided!
Among the many particulars to which we cannot afford more than transient reference, the architectural improvements of the College must not be forgotten. On this subject, which is now attracting considerable
public notice, the Provost's interest was intense and untiring. The opinions held by some of his assessors at the Board were for a long period not very favourable to his own; difficulties however had been gradually disappearing; and on Saturday, Nov. 25, we understand that the matter was to have been brought under a final consideration in which, (from a previous review of the state of the college finances) general agreement was anticipated. But to the Provost that Saturday never came ! On the very day preceding it he was summoned from the scene of his labours.
There was something indeed peculiar and striking in the crisis. On the very last Board Day before his death, he had laid before the Senior Fellows, as we have been informed, a project for the advancement of the science of
Natural History in the University, by the establishment of a museum with curators in its three principal departnents, Zoology, Botany and Mineralogy. The plan itself was admirable, and would have secured to the University, at a comparatively small expense, two valuable collections, and the serviges of individuals of eminence in their departments. On the same Saturday to which we have before referred, this measure was also to have been discussed; and, it was probable, would have received under the auspices of the Provost, the final sanction of the Board. But, as we have seen, on that day that Body was destined to be occupied by a more melancholy subject!
Almost the last act of a permanent
nature in which the Provost was engaged, was the erection of the Magnetical Observatory which is now in progress. The cordial sympathy with the progress of science manifested in this Imeasure, has attracted universal attention, not only in England, but on the continent; and we do not know any single act of the University which has so eminently tended to "take away our reproach" of indifference to the scientific movements of the civilized world. Of how incalculably a greater value is such an elevation of the character of the institution, (even apart from the direct scientific utility of the building in question,) than the sum it may cost, were it twice as great! We have been favoured with a perusal of the memorial addressed to the board on the subject by the present Professor of Natural Philosophy; and have taken the liberty of making from it the following ex
tract, which will explain the scientific importance of these observatories :—
"It is now admitted by all who have considered the question, that, (although much and valuable information on the subject of terrestrial magnetism, has been acquired in the various expeditions sent out by the English, French, Danish, and Russian governments,) the indispensable data requisite to a theory can only be obtained by fixed establishments, in which observations are conducted according to an uniform plan; and at stated periods. Nor is it in reference to theory alone, that such establishments are of importance. They mustalso be of essential service in the construction
and correction of magnetic charts; and thus, in its relation to navigation, the magnetic observatory will probably hold mical. a place second only to the astrono
"The truth of these views has been
freely acknowledged on the continent, both by governments and scientific bodies; and magnetic observatories are now actually established, and in operation, at Paris, Berlin, Freyberg, Gottingen, Copenhagen, St. Petersburgh, Kasan, Moscow, Nicolajeff (Crimea), Barnoul (Siberia), Nertschinsk (Siberia), and even at Pekin, and in Iceland. These observatories are under the direction of Humboldt, Encke, Arago, Gauss, Hansteen, &c. &c.; and at most of them observations are made, not only at stated hours of the day, but also at fixed epochs, when simultaneous observations are taken from hour to hour, over this immense chain of stations.
"Britain alone, of the scientific na
tions of Europe, has hitherto taken no part in this great undertaking. Lately, however, Baron Humboldt has addressed a letter on the subject to the Duke of Sussex, as president of the Royal Society,
which he strongly urges the cooperation of that body. This letter has been referred to a committee of the society, consisting of the Astronomer Royal and Professor Christie; and this committee made a report to the society, in which they strongly urge the adoption of M. Humboldt's suggestions.
"It would be easy to combine meteorological observations with magnetic; and such a combination is recommended in the report already alluded to. In fact, the connection of magnetic phenomena with meteorological clianges is such, that the one class of phenomena would be imperfectly studied apart from the other.”
There is another subject, on which we cannot enter at any satisfactory length; and yet, without considering which, the value of the late Provost's services to the University would be very inadequately understood.
refer to his vigilant guardianship of the interests of the institution from its external and political assailants. We have reason to know that mainly or wholly to the Provost's efforts was owing the extension of the elective franchise to the Masters of Arts; which has made the University what it ought to be the representative of the education of all Ireland. We have reason to know that attacks (more or less disguised) upon the perty of the College were again and again defeated by the same vigilance. Bat these are matters upon which for
obvious reasons we do not feel ourselves at liberty to enlarge. The institution of a separate Theological College, a plan which attracted much attention some time since, was discountenanced by the Provost; and, whatever respect the public may entertain for the intentions of the projectors, we believe that they now pretty generally coincide in his opinion of their project.
But the spirit which was infused into the whole frame of the university, by the influence of these principles of regeneration, is that which cannot be described. We have sketched the body of reform; we cannot depict its soul. The English universities are beginuing at length to welcome loudly their Irish sister to the generous strife of scientific advancement; and, even in the cabinet itself (we speak from authentic sources) projects of rude inquiry have, within the last few years, been checked by the remark from the highest authority that " Dublin College is reforming itself!" .. The feelings which were entertained by the heads of the different departments of collegiate instruction, towards their superior, were those of unmingled affection and respect; nor can we do better than close this article by citing one or two of the testimonials of these feelings with which they have prefaced their public lectures since his lamented death.
The Regius Professor of the Practice of Physic, (Dr. Lendrick,) after some very touching and impressive remarks, continued thus
"The pulpit and the press have already commenced the arduous duty of delineating the character of the late Provost of Dublin University. To them I willingly relinquish the task, although not only the pupil of Dr. Lloyd, but a member of his earliest public class, when in the capacity of Professor, he commenced that brilliant career, which has raised the
University to the first rank as a scientific institution, and the first place as a seminary for instruction. It is almost needless to say, that his mild, temperate, yet searching reform, and his mild, yet firm correction of abuse, were not spared in our School of Physic. To him you are indebted that a concise and well
selected system of education, indispensable for the due qualification of the medical practitioner, is substituted for a formal, useless, and vexatious probation of time. longer finishes his medical education in The candidate for a medical degree, no plete a septennial period of (perhaps) a single year, nor is he compelled to comidleness, before being permitted to practise his profession.
"At the present and other stages of our course of lectures, we have to consider an awful and mysterious subjectthe presentiment whereby the spiritual part of our compound existence becomes, in some instances, aware of a near separation from its bodily and temporary attendant. This feeling of the firm and religious mind, whereby it is enabled to predict not only the approach, but the precise period of death, is quite different from ordinary nervous apprehension. A strict attention to even the most minute detail of worldly duty, and a cheerful and even playful demeanour, were, in the late Provost, rendered compatible with a fixed conviction that his time was at hand. Probably the habitual contemplation of death as a ready, though unseen visitor at all periods of youth and manhood, may little formidable to him, who exemplified have rendered the perceptible approach who the language of the funeral text, as one
Watched, lest coming suddenly, his master might find him sleeping.'
I submit this solemn lesson to your It is, I believe, deliberate consideration. nearly forty years since a similar occurrence has taken place in our University; and although sudden death is far from un usual among passing events, it is, after all, rare to witness such an abrupt termination of human life, in connection with so illustrious a public, and so virtuous a private character."
The Professor of Chemistry (Dr. Barker) joined in a similar attestation:
"The Professor of Chemistry, in Trinity College,'( Dr. Barker,)"(we quote from the Dublin Record of Thursday, Nov. 30,) "also, at the conclusion of his lecture yesterday, bore testimony to the zeal evinced by our late excellent Provost, in his unceasing endeavours to extend knowledge in every department connected with the University, and to his ready adoption of such changes as might at the same time
reasonably facilitate the student's progress toward the attainment of the highest honours in medicine, and improve the general system of medical education without lowering its standard. The lecturer confirmed, from his own knowledge, the encouragement afforded to the attainment of chemical science, by stating the fact, that a large, and the most valuable part of the apparatus by which the lectures on chemistry in Trinity College are illustrated, was obtained during the presidency of our late Provost, either at his suggestion or with his concurrence-thus confirming the eulogy already passed on his memory, that together with a faithful discharge of the duties he had undertaken, the interests of general science lay nearest to his heart."
At his first lecture of last term, the Professor of Political Economy, (Mr. Butt,) after commencing by announcing to the class the regulations of the premiums recently offered for proficiency in that science, continued
"I cannot pass from the mention of the institution of these premiums, without alluding for an instant to the melancholy reflections which the subject excites. The offering of this encouragement to the study of a neglected science, was among the last perhaps, I might say, the last of those academical improvements, which have imperishably associated the memory of our late Provost with the truest interests of education."
From the eloquent tribute to his which followed, we extract the memory
"It was impossible for any one to be brought, however incidentally, into contact with him upon subjects connected with the University, without being convinced that his whole heart and feelings were absorbed in concern for its interests. His nervous anxiety for its welfare almost amounted to a weakness: it would have been altogether one if it had not been under the direction of an enlightened and philosophic mind. Of him we may say with truth, that while Irish literature has lost a patron, and the Irish church an ornament, the University mourns a parent
and a friend."
And the lately appointed Professor of Moral Philosophy, (Rev. W. Archer Butler,) commenced his lecture with the following tribute, which we ourselves attest was received, by a very large audience of students and others, with a sympathy which marked their perfect conviction of its truth :Gentlemen-Meeting as we do, after one melancholy week's vacation, I can scarcely resume my labours without a moment's sad recurrence to the cause
That we can
which suspended them.
"The leading members of the Univer-
In confirmation of these expressions
singular testimonies; but they are warranted by high and singular deserts. We must bring this hasty sketch to a close. It has occupied a space somewhat greater than we had originally intended; yet we trust that no reader will require any apology for its length. We heartily trust that among our readers, we can number none who are wholly incapable of feeling interest in
a subject so obviously of importance to every enlightened lover of his country's welfare; or who would covet for real topics more transient and perishable, the pages which are here allotted to the feeble but faithful commemoration of learning, zeal, and practical wisdom, united to form one of the most valuable public servants it has ever been our fortune to know and to lament!
INSURRECTIONARY STATE OF THE COUNTY OF LONGFORD.
To the Editor of the Dublin University Magazine.
SIR-Your exertions in the cause of the persecuted and loyal portion of the Irish Protestant population, through whose unflinching bravery, and determination, Ireland has hitherto been preserved to the British crown, have induced me to lay before you the present frightful and insurrectionary state of the county Longford, as an example of what is now systematically going forward in almost every other county in Ireland, where the mass of the population is Roman Catholic.
Previously to the memorable year 1829, and till after the passing of the Emancipation bill, no county in Ireland enjoyed more uninterrupted tranquil lity.
Indeed it was most remarkable for the peace and industry of its peasantry, mostly Roman Catholic.
The disturber of his country surveyed this peaceful county, and in its then happy state, he beheld no prospect of adding to his political power. Two loyal and constitutional members were, and had been its representatives for many years-one of them the late lamented Lord Forbes, (a supporter of the Emancipation bill,) who, like other mistaken but honorable men, when too late, resisted the further encroachment of Popery.
What was the consequence? The demon of Ireland, aided and abetted by the low agitators and Romish priests of the county, declared that neither he nor his respected colleague should any longer be returned.
Two gentlemen were accordingly sought for, and brought forward, by names, Rourke and Luke White-the former a gentleman of very limited means, and altogether unknown to the county; the latter the son of a respectable gentleman, who had amassed a large fortune in business, and had re
Dublin, Nov. 20th, 1837.
cently purchased two or three thousand per annum in the county.
These were the men selected to accomplish the work of agitation and disunion in Longford, and to sow the seeds of discord between the Protestant landlord and his Roman Catholic tenant-and sadly was the work accomplished.
In the year 1832 these two candidates came forward to contest the county, and by means of unheard-of intimidation and violence were returned on the poll, but subsequently unseated by petition.
From that period till the year 1835, when a general election again took place, an unremitting system of perse-. cution and outrage was carried on against every respectable Roman Catholic and Protestant elector who voted against the nominees of O'Connell.
Night after night, robberies of arms, inhuman assaults, Rockite notices, and in some instances the horrible murder of Protestants, were perpetrated.
The election of 1835 took placeMr. Luke White, and Henry White his brother, opposed the Conservative candidates, Lord Forbes and Mr. Anthony Lefroy, and were defeated on the poll.
This overthrow served but to encrease the more the rage of O'Connell and his priests. Forthwith, every Romish altar in the county was polluted with inflammatory and seditious harangues by the Reverend Incendiaries. The unfortunate èlectors who voted for the Conservatives were mercilessly persecuted, and a murder of the most atrocious nature in the annals of Irish ferocity, was committed on the 24th June, 1835, at six o'clock in the afternoon, on a respectable Protestant farmer, a tenant of Lord Lorton's, named Brock.