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17. Excessive bail shall not be required. Excessive fines shall not be imposed; and cruel and unusual punishments shall not be inflicted.

18. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.

19. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action on mesne or final process, unless in cases of fraud; and no person shall be imprisoned for a militia fine in time of peace.

20. The people have the right freely to assemble together to consult for the common good, to make known their opinions to their representatives, and to petition for redress of grievances.

21. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be passed.

22. Foreigners who are, or who may hereafter become, residents of this state, shall enjoy the same rights, in respect to the possession, enjoyment, and descent of property, as native born citizens.

23. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crimes, shall ever be tolerated in this state.

24. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others, retained by the people.



Right of Suffrage. 1. Every white male citizen of the United States, of the

age twenty-one years, who shall have been a resident of the state six months next preceding the election, and the county in which he claims his vote twenty days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now or hereafter may be authorized by law.

2. Electors shall, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest on the days of election, during their attendance at such election, going to and returning therefrom.

3. No elector shall be obliged to perform militia duty on the day of election, except in time of war or public danger.

4. No person in the military, naval, or marine service of the United States, shall be considered a resident of this state by being stationed in any garrison, barrack, or military or naval place or station within this state. 5. No idiot, or insane person, or persons convicted of any

infamous crime, shall be entitled to the privileges of an elector.

6. All elections by the people shall be by ballot.


Of the Distribution of Powers.

. 1. The powers of the government of Iowa shall be divided into three separate departments; the legislative, the executive, and judicial; and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of these departments, shall exercise any function appertaining to either of the others, except in the cases hereinafter expressly directed or permitted.

Legislative Department. 1. The legislative authority of this state shall be vested in a senate and house of representatives, which shall be designated the General Assembly of the State of Iowa, and the style of their laws shall commence in the following manner: “ Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Iowa.”

2. The sessions of the general assembly shall be biennial, and shall commence on the first Monday of December next ensuing the election of its members; unless the governor of the state shall, in the interim, convene the general assembly by proclamation.

3. The members of the house of representatives shall be chosen every second year, by the qualified electors of their respective districts, on the first Monday in August, whose term of office shall continue two years from the day of the general election.

4. No person shall be a member of the house of representatives who shall not have attained the age of twenty-one years; be a free white male citizen of the United States, and have been an inhabitant of this state or territory one year next preceding his election ; and at the time of his election, have an actual residence of thirty days in the county or district he may be chosen to represent, 5. Senators shall be chosen for the term of four years, at the

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same time and place as representatives, they shall be twenty-five years of age, and possess the qualifications of representatives as to residence and citizenship.

6. The number of senators shall not be less than one-third nor more than one-half the representative body, and at the first session of the general assembly after this constitution takes effect, the senators shall be divided by lot, as equally as may be, into two classes ; the seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, so that one half shall be chosen every two years.

7. When the number of senators is increased they shall be annexed by lot to one of the two classes, so as to keep them as nearly equal in number as practicable.

8. Each house shall choose its own officers and judge of the qualification, election, and return of its own members. tested election shall be determined in such manner as shall be directed by law.

9. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide.

10. Each house shall sit upon its own adjournments, keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same; determine its rules of proceedings, punish members for disorderly behavior, and with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same offence, and shall have all other powers ne. cessary for a branch of the general assembly of a free and inde. pendent state.

11. Every member of the general assembly shall have the liberty to dissent from or protest against any act or resolution which he may think injurious to the public or an individual, and have the reasons for his dissent entered on the journals; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house, on any question, shall, at the desire of any two members present, be entered on the journals.

12. Senators and representatives, in all cases except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, shall be privileged from arrest during the session of the general assembly, and in going to and returning from the same.

13. When vacancies occur in either house, the governor, or the person exercising the functions of the governor, shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

14. The doors of each house shall be open, except on such occasions as, in the opinion of the house, may require secresy.

15. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, ad. journ for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be sitting.

16. Bills may originate in either house, except bills for revenue, which shall always originate in the house of representatives, and may be amended, altered, or rejected by the other, and every bill having passed both houses, shall be signed by the speaker and president of their respective houses.

17. Every bill which shall have passed the general assembly shall, before it become a law, be presented to the governor. If he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it with his objections, to the house in which it originated, which shall enter the same upon the journal and proceed to reconsider it ; if, after such reconsideration, it again pass both houses, by yeas and nays, by a majority of two-thirds of the members of each house present, it shall become a law notwithstanding the governor's objections. If any bill shall not be returned within three days after it shall have been presented to him, Sunday excepted, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the general assembly by adjournment prevent such return.

18. An accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be attached to and published with the laws, at every regular session of the general assembly.

19. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment, and all impeachments shall be tried by the senate. When sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be upon affirmation ; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

20. The governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer, and judges of the supreme and district courts, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office; but judgment in such

oath or

cases shall extend only to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit under this state ; but the party convicted or acquitted shall nevertheless be liable to in. dictment, trial, and punishment, according to law. All other civil officers shall be tried for misdemeanors in office in such manner as the general assembly may provide.

21. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he shall have been elected, be appointed to any civil office of profit under this state, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during such term, except such offices as may be filled by elections by the people.

22. No person holding any lucrative office under the United States, or this state, or any other power, shall be eligible to the general assembly: Provided, That offices in the militia, to which there is attached no annual salary, or the office of justice of the peace, or postmasters whose compensation does not exceed one hundred dollars per annum, shall not be deemed lucrative.

23. No person who may hereafter be a collector or holder of public moneys, shall have a seat in either house of the general assembly, or be eligible to any office of trust or profit under this state, until he shall have accounted for and paid into the treasury, all sums for which he may be liable.

24. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law.

25. Each member of the general assembly shall receive a compensation to be fixed by law, for his services, to be paid out of the treasury of the state. Such compensation shall not exceed two dollars per day for the period of fifty days from the commencement of the session, and shall not exceed the sum of one dollar per day for the remainder of the session : when convened in extra session by the governor, they shall receive such sum as shall be fixed for the first fifty days of the ordinary session. They shall also receive two dollars for every twenty miles they shall travel, in going to and returning from their place of meeting, on the most usual route: provided, however, that the members of the first general assembly under this constitution shall

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