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to the constitution of this state, to exercise the office to which I have been elected (or appointed), and will, to the best of my abilities, discharge the duties thereof, and preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of this state and of the United States."
12. Every person shall be disqualified from serving as gover. nor, senator, representative, or from holding any other office of honor or profit in this state, for the term for which he shall have been elected, who shall have been convicted of having given or offered any bribe to procure his election.
13. Laws shall be made by the general assembly, to exclude from office and from suffrage those who shall have been, or may thereafter be, convicted of bribery, perjury, forgery, or other high crime or misdemeanor; and the privilege of suffrage shall be supported by laws regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence thereon from power, bribery, tumult, or other improper practices.
14. All civil officers of the state at large shall reside within the state, and all district or county officers within their respective districts or counties, and shall keep their respective offices at such places therein as may be required by law.
15. It shall be the duty of the general assembly to regulate by law in what cases and what deduction from the salaries of public officers shall be made for neglect of duty in their official capacity.
16. Returns of elections for members of congress and the general assembly shall be made to the secretary of state, in manner to be prescribed by law.
17. In all elections by the general assembly, the vote shall be vivâ voce ; and in all elections by the people, the vote shall be by ballot.
18. No member of congress, or person holding or exercising any office of profit under the United States, or under any foreign power, shall be eligible as a member of the general assembly of this state, or hold or exercise any office of profit under the state ; and no person in this state shall ever hold two offices of profit at the same time, except the office of justice of the peace, notary public, constable, and militia offices.
19. The general assembly shall by law provide for the appointment or election and the removal from office, of all officers, civil and military, in this state, not provided for in this constitution.
20. The power of impeachment shall be vested in the house of representatives.
21. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate; and, when sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be upon oath or affirma. tion; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.
22. The governor, and all civil officers, shall be liable to impeachment for any misdemeanor in office : but judgment, in such
2 cases, shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust, or profit, under this state : but the parties shall nevertheless be liable to indictment, trial, and punishment, according to law.
1. All militia officers shall be elected by the persons subject to military duty within the bounds of their several companies, battalions, regiments, brigades, and divisions, under such rules and regulations as the general assembly may, from time to time, direct and establish.
2. The governor shall appoint all the officers of the executive staff, except the adjutant.general and paymaster-general, who shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate. The majors-general and brigadiers-general, and commanding officers of regiments, shall appoint such staff officers as may be prescribed by law : provided, no person shall be eligible to any staff-appointment unless he hold a commission in the line.
Taxation and Revenue. 1. The general assembly shall devise and adopt a system of revenue, having regard to an equal and uniform mode of taxation, to be general throughout the state.
2. No other or greater amount of tax or revenue shall at any time be levied than may be required for the necessary expenses of government.
3. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of an appropriation by law; and a regular statement of the receipts and the expenditures of all public moneys shall be published and promulgated annually with the laws of the general assembly.
4. The general assembly shall have power to authorize the several counties and incorporated towns in this state to impose taxes for county and corporation purposes, respectively; and all property shall be taxed upon the principles established in regard to state taxation.
Census and Apportionment of Representation. 1. The general assembly shall, in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty-five, and every tenth year thereafter, cause an enumeration to be made of all the inhabitants of the state, and to the whole number of free white inhabitants shall be added threefifths of the number of slaves; and they shall then proceed to apportion the representation equally among the different counties, according to such enumeration; giving, however, one representative to every county, and increasing the number of representatives, on a uniform ratio of population, according to the foregoing basis ; and which ratio shall not be changed until a new census shall have been taken.
2. The general assembly shall, also, after every such enumeration, proceed to fix by law the number of senators which shall constitute the senate of the State of Florida, and which shall never be less than one-fourth nor more than one-half of the whole number of the house of representatives; and they shall lay off the state into the same number of senatorial districts, as nearly equal in the number of inhabitants as may be, according to the ratio of representation established in the preceding section; each of which districts shall be entitled to one senator.
3. When any senatorial district shall be composed of two or more counties, the counties of which such district consists shall not be entirely separated by any county belonging to another district, and no county shall be divided in forming a district.
4. No new county shall be entitled to separate representation until its population equal the ratio of representation then existing ; nor shall any county be reduced in population, by division, below the existing ratio.
5. Until the apportionment of representation by the general assembly, as directed in the foregoing section, the several counties shall be entitled to the following representatives, viz. : Escambia three ; Walton one; Washington one; Jackson three ; Franklin two; Calhoun two; Gadsden four; Leon six ; Jefferson three ; Madison one; Hamilton one ; Columbia two; Alachua two; Duval two; Nassau one; St. John's three; Mosquito one ; Dade one ;
Monroe one; Hillsborough one. And until the apportionment of senators under the census as aforesaid, there shall be sixteen senatorial districts in this state, which shall be as follows:
The county of Escambia shall compose the first district.
The counties of Walton and Washington shall compose the second district.
The county of Jackson shall compose the third district.
The counties of St. John's and Mosquito shall compose the fifteenth district.
The counties of Dade, Monroe, and Hillsborough, shall compose the sixteenth district.
And each senatorial district shall elect one senator, and the seventh district shall be entitled to two.
Education. 1. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or may hereafter be, granted by the United States for the use of schools and a seminary or seminaries of learning, shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which, together with all moneys derived from any other source, applicable to the same object, shall be inviolably appropriated to the use of schools and seminaries of learning, respectively, and to no other purpose.
2. The general assembly shall take such measures as may be necessary to preserve from waste or damage all lands so granted and appropriated to the purposes of education.
Public Domain and Internal Improvements. 1. It shall be the duty of the general assembly to provide for the prevention of waste and damage of the public lands now possessed, or that may hereafter be ceded to the Territory or State of Florida ; and it may pass laws for the sale of any part or portion thereof, and, in such case, provide for the safety, security, and appropriation of the proceeds.
2. A liberal system of internal improvements being essential to the development of the resources of the country, shall be encouraged by the government of this state ; and it shall be the duty of the general assembly, as soon as practicable, to ascertain, by law, proper objects of improvement in relation to roads, canals, and navigable streams, and to provide for a suitable application of such funds as may be appropriated for such improvements.
Boundaries. 1. The jurisdiction of the State of Florida shall extend over the territories of East and West Florida, which, by the treaty of