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the judges of the district courts, shall be tried by the senate: the chief justice of the supreme court, or the senior judge thereof, shall preside during the trial of such impeachment. Impeachments of the judges of the supreme court shall be tried by the senate. When sitting as a court of impeachment, the senators shall be upon oath or affirmation, and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators present.
Art. 86. Judgments in cases of impeachment shall extend only to removal from office and disqualification from holding any office of honor, trust or profit under this state; but the parties convicted shall, nevertheless, be subject to indictment, trial, and punishment according to law.
ART. 87. All officers against whom articles of impeachment may be preferred, shall be suspended from the exercise of their functions during the pendency of such impeachment; the appointing power may make a provisional appointment to replace any suspended officer until the decision on the impeachment.
Art. 88. The legislature shall provide by law for the trial, punishment, and removal from office of all other officers of the state, by indictment or otherwise.
Art. 89. Members of the general assembly, and all officers, before they enter upon the duties of their offices, shall take the following oath or affirmation :
'I (A. B.) do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent on
according to the best of my abilities and understanding, agreeably to the constitution and laws of the United States, and of this state ; and I do further solemnly swear (or affirm) that, since the adoption of the present constitution, I, being a citizen of this state, bave not fought a duel with deadly weapons within this state, nor out of it, with a citizen of this state, nor have I sent or accepted a challenge to fight a duel with deadly weapons with a citizen of this state, nor have I acted as second in carrying a challenge, or aided, advised, or assisted any person thus offending, so help me God."
ART. 90. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or his own confession in open court.
Art. 91. Every person shall be disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit in this state, who shall have been convicted of having given or offered a bribe to procure his election or appointment.
ART. 92. Laws shall be made to exclude from office, and from the right of suffrage, those who shall hereafter be convicted of bribery, perjury, forgery, or other high crimes or misdemeanors. The privilege of free suffrage shall be supported by laws regulating elections, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence thereon, from power, bribery, tumult, or other improper practice.
ART. 93. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in pursuance of specific appropriations made by law, nor shall any appropriation of money be made for a longer term than two years A regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published annually, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.
Art. 94. It shall be the duty of the general assembly to pass such laws as may be proper and necessary to decide differences by arbitration.
ART. 95. All civil officers for the state at large shall reside within the state, and all district or parish officers within their districts or parishes, and shall keep their offices at such places therein as may be required by law. And no person shall be elected or appointed to any parish office who shall not have resided in such parish long enough before such election or appointment to have acquired the right of voting in such parish; and no person shall be elected or appointed to any district office, who shall not have resided in such district, or an adjoining district, long enough before such appointment or election, to have acquired the right of voting for the same.
Art. 96. The duration of all offices not fixed by this constitution shall never exceed four years.
Art. 97. All civil officers, except the governor and judges of the supreme and district courts, shall be removable by an address of a majority of the members of both Houses, except those the removal of whom has been otherwise provided for by this constitution.
Art. 98. Absence on the business of this state or of the United States, shall not forfeit a residence once obtained, so as to deprive any one of the right of suffrage, or of being elected or appointed to any office under the exceptions contained in this constitution.
Art. 99. It shall be the duty of the legislature to provide by law for deductions from the salaries of public officers who may be guilty of a neglect of duty.
Art. 100. The legislature shall point out the manner in which a person coming into the state shall declare his residence.
Art. 101. In all elections by the people the vote shall be by ballot, and in all elections by the senate and house of represen. tatives, jointly or separately, the vote shall be given vivâ voce.
Art. 102. No member of Congress, nor person holding or exercising any office of trust or profit under the United States, or either of them, or under any foreign power, shall be eligible as a member of the general assembly, or hold or exercise any office of trust or profit under the state.
Art. 103. The laws, public records, and the judicial and legislative written proceedings of the state shall be promulgated, preserved and conducted in the language in which the constitution of the United States is written.
Art. 104. The secretary of the senate, and clerk of the house of representatives, shall be conversant with the French and English languages, and members may address either House in the French or English language.
ART. 105. The general assembly shall direct by law how persons who are now, or may hereafter become sureties for public officers, may be discharged from such suretyship.
Art. 106. No power of suspending the laws of this state shall be exercised, unless by the legislature or by its authority.
ART. 107. Prosecutions shall be by indictment, or information. The accused shall have a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage : he shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself: he shall have the right of being heard by himself or counsel : he shall have the right, unless he shall have fled from justice, of meeting the witnesses face to face, and shall have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor.
Art. 108. All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, unless for capital offences, where the proof is evident, or presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in case of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.
Art. 109. No ex post facto law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall be passed, nor vested rights be divested, unless for purposes of public utility, and for adequate compensation previously made.
ART. 110. The press shall be free. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects; being responsible for an abuse of this liberty.
Art. 111. Emigration from the state shall not be prohibited.
Art. 112. The general assembly which shall meet after the first election of representatives under this constitution, shall, within the first month after the commencement of the session, designate and fix the seat of government at some place not less than sixty miles from the city of New Orleans, by the nearest travelling route, and if on the Mississippi river, by the meanders of the same; and when so fixed, it shall not be removed without the consent of four-fifths of the members of both houses of the general assembly. The sessions shall be held in New Orleans until the end of the
1848. Art. 113. The legislature shall not pledge the faith of the state for the payment of any bonds, bills, or other contracts or obligations for the benefit or use of any person or persons, corporation, or body politic whatever. But the state shall have the right to issue new bonds in payment of its outstanding obligations or liabilities, whether due or not : the said new bonds, however, are not to be issued for a larger amount, or at a higher rate of
interest, than the original obligations they are intended to replace.
Art. 114. The aggregate amount of debts hereafter contracted by the legislature, shall never exceed the sum of one hundred thousand dollars, except in the case of war, to repel invasions or suppress insurrections, unless the same be authorized by some law, for some single object or work, to be distinctly specified therein ; which law shall provide ways and means, by taxation, for the payment of running interest during the whole time for which said debt shall be contracted, and for the full and punctual discharge at maturity of the capital borrowed ; and said law shall be irrepealable until principal and interest are fully paid and discharged, and shall not be put into execution until after its enactment by the first legislature returned by a general election after its passage.
Art. 115. The legislature shall provide hy law for a change of venue in civil and criminal cases.
Art. 116. No lottery shall be authorized by this state, and the buying or selling of lottery tickets within the state is prohibited.
ART. 117. No divorce shall be granted by the legislature.
Art. 118. Every law enacted by the legislature shall embrace but one object, and that shall be expressed in the title.
Art. 119. No law shall be revised or amended by reference to its title; but in such case, the act revised, or section amended, shall be re-enacted and published at length.
ART. 120. The legislature shall never adopt any system or code of laws by general *reference to such system or code of laws, but in all cases shall specify the several provisions of the laws it may enact.
Art. 121. The state shall not become subscriber to the stock of any corporation or joint stock company.
Art. 122. No corporate body shall be hereafter created, renewed or extended, with banking or discounting privileges.
Art. 123. Corporations shall not be created in this state by special laws, except for political or municipal purposes, but the legislature shall provide, by general laws, for the organization of all other corporations, except corporations with banking or discounting privileges, the creation of which is prohibited.