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These are equavalent to the בָלְכָל and כִּלְכֵּל כול from ; גלגל גִלְגָּל

חָצוֹעֶר Once we have a Peocl form ; e.g.in .רגל from ,תרגל חָרָה from

" (3) Pilpel active, and Polpal passive, formed out of verbs y and y, by repeating the first and last radicals ; e. g. from 552 comes Saba, ; , forms, from the same verbs, described in $ 176. a. b. “(4) A form Tiphel seems to have been in existence; e. g. 7000

, , a ;. Note. Some others are made by some grammarians; but they are disputed ones, and it is of little or no importance to the student to insert them here, as his Lexicon will give him the requisite information.”

There is also found (1) a form Iphal—a Syriac one-nkan (Isia. Ixiii. 3.); (2) a form Ethpael—a Chaldean one-5 Sien (Ps. lxxvi. 6.); (3) Ethpaal—also Chaldean-720) (2 Chro. xx. 35.) and (4) a Hithpaal, 770mm (Prov. xxv. 6.)

"$ 181. (a) Kall is generally active ; but it may be either transitive or intransitive."

This rule does not agree with Kal in 727? (Levit. xiii. 20.) used in the same passive sense as the Niphal 797) (Levit. xiii. 25.) neither with the Kal 1879 (Gen. xix. 11.) which has the same meaning as Niphal 1859 (Exod. vii. 18.) nor with Kalau (1 Sam. xvi. 11.) which is as passive as the Niphal 78 (Exod. xiv. 28.) also not with Kal 7227 (Lam. ii. 11.) which is the same as the Niphal 'na72 (Ps. cix. 23.) It is, therefore probable, that Kal in intransitive verbs is sometimes used in the same sense as Niphal.

(Note 2.) Some verbs in Kal, have a passive meaning; e. g. jaw, to inhabit and to be inhabited ; n5y to elevate, and to be elevated.

piovim (Isa. xiii. 20.) as well (Jerm. xxxiii. 16, xlvi. 20, and 1. 39.) has the meaning of rest, and is therefore an intransitive Kal; and on the contrary '91507(Jud. viii. 11.) has a passive form, and is yet used actively. by has in most phrases the meaning of arising, amounting, and is consequently intransitive; but when used as transitive, we find it always in the regular formations with accusative, ning nyn? (Exod. xxv. 37.) O'U '9y071 (Ezcch. xxvi. 3.) and in many other places.

“ § 182. Niphal is formed by prefixing Nun to the ground-form of the verb, and dropping the first vowel of the same ; e. g. Sop; Sopas," &c.

although they are in Niphal ,מקריב מגיש passices of Hiphil

.and m נִשְׁקְסְתִּי נִכְנָע נזהַר נִשְׁעַן נִלְחַם נִשְׁבַּע stitutes Kal as


(6) Significations of Niphal. (1) It is passive of Kal, when Kal is transitive. (2) Passive of Piel, or of Hiphil, when they are transitive and Kal is intransitive." &c.

By the last remark, the author, we presume, alludes to t* (Gen. xxxiii. 7.) 7 (Exod. xxii. 7.) which seems to be the passives , form; as well as to JIJ: (Exod, xxii. 11.) which is the same as 23.3 (Exod. xxii. 6.) the passive of Piel, or to 998. (Levit. iv. 12.) which appear to be the same as 7(Levit. x. 16.) the passive of Piel.

Almost all the Lexicographers consider ''NI (Gen. xxxiii. 7.) as the Niphal form. We think, it is a real Piel, the Dughesh does not supply the wanting Nun, but is the mark of the conjugation; so we find in the same phrase int used in Kul. 3723 belongs to those verbs where Niphal sub

, , , , , . As for me and I we find them both in Kal and Piel, and coosequently there ought to be a distinction between their passives.

“Ş 183 (a) Piel is characterised by its doubling the middle radical; Soop," &c.

Note (6) Significations of Piel. (1) It is causative of Kal; e. g. 738 to perish, 7X to cause to perish. This is the predominant meaning.

“(2) To let any thing or person be or do thus so ; to regard or exhibit it or him, as being or doing thus and so; e. g. 711 to let one live ; P73, to shew or pronounce one to be just ; Nau, to pronounce one unclean. (3! It is intensive of Kal; e. g. Sxv to ask, 7ne to beg: one to break,

w to dash in pieces. (4) It has a privative sense; e. g. 79 to know, 23 to misapprehend ; Hiphi. LM277 to take root, Piel im to root out. (5. It often agrees, in signification, with Kal transitive ; seldom has it an intrunsitive meaning.”

Piel is also very often used intransitive where Kal is intransitive as išeis (Ps. Ixxxv. 11.) and ?? (Num. xiv. 30.); 17300 (Levit. vi. 5.) and 723 (2 Sam. xxi. 17.); 15 (Deut. xxix. 4.) and 7373 (Lam. iii. 4.); INI, (Joh. iii. 13.); and 173ml (Jud. xvii. 19.) and m v. Piel has also sometimes a different meaning than Kal, as 779777?? (Exod. xxi. 15.) to marry, and 17an


(Gen. xviii. 6.) to hasten ; vinz (Ps. cix. 24.) to become lean, and und! (Levit

. v. 21.) to deny; obwml (1 King, vii. 51.) to finish, and oben (Ps. Ixii. 13.) to reward.

"§ 185 (a) Hiphil prefixes He, and inserts Yodh, before the two last radicals; e. g. 52, Hiph. Soupon

. " (6) Significations of Hiphil. (1) It is causative of Kal; as ? to be holy, 1727 to make holy. This is the usual meaning.

" (2) Not unfrequently is Hiphil used in the same sense (transitive and intransitive) as Kal; e. g. me to corrupt, open to be quiet, to be white.

. (Note.) Seldom are Piel and Hiphil of the some verb, both used in a causative sense. When both are employed, it is generally with some shade of difference in their signification ; e. g. 729 to honour, 722n to render powerful."

יָצָא עָמד Kal_is often intransitive and Hiphil transitive as

, Hiph. TOM, din, in this case the Piel is wanting, but we find it, with not a shade of difference, but entirely in a different meaning, e. g. 21 (2 Chron. vi. 13.) to kneel as intransitive Kal, 773" (Gen. xxiv. 11.) and he made to kneel as transitive Hiphil, and from the same root in another meaning 7???? (1Сro. xxix. 10.) to bless as transitive Piel ; PM (Prov. v. 8.) to come nigh as intransitive Kal, I'7PM (Levit. iii. 14.) to offer as transitive Hiphil, and app??? (Ps. Ixv. 4.) to cause to approach, as transitive Piel. Some verbs only are found in Hiph. as Day! (Gen. xix. 27.) 7727 (Num. xxxv. 22) and m. v.

Hiphil is sometimes as intransitive as Kal, but signifies a comparative degree, or more than usually, and then we find Piel transitive, e. g. 957319 (Gen. xxv. 27.) to grow, as intransitive Kal, abrogan (Zephan. ii. 10.) to magnify (more than befitting) as intransitive Hiphil, and 157 (Hose. ix. 12.) to bring up as transitive Piel; na?? (Deut. xiv. 24.) to be long, as intransitive Kal, 727 (Deut. xvii. 17.) to multiply (too many) as intransitive Hiphil, and ????? (Lam. ii, 22.) to bring up, as transitive Piel.

“$ 187 (c) Significations of Hithpael. (1) It is reflexive of Piel; as wy to sanctify, WTT he sanctified himself. (2) It siguifies te

make one's self as being or doing, that which the verb in its groundform signifies ; e. g. Dennt to show one's self cunning, from an to

Sunn to behave one's self proudly, from 572 to be great, Abony to represent one's self as sick, from 5 to be sick. Also with some slight modifications, as Danny to think one's self wise, from ON to be wise ; ionn7 to make one's self to be sought, i. e. to conceal one's self, from won to seek; annt to ask a favour of one's self, properly to make one gracious, from yon to be gracious. These are the leading significations. (3) It is sometimes the passive of Piel ; as 729 to number, 2017 to be numbered. (4) It is also intransitive ; as Jant to be angry. (5) It is not unfrequently active and transitive; as Jento keep or observe, viz. laws, statutes, &c."

Hithpael has also the signification of a repeated use, habit and eustom of an action, as Tony (Gen. vi. 9.) he used to walk, from 727 to walk; 17oxni (Ps. xciv. 4.) to continue to boast, from Tax to praise ; 1799 (Esther, ii. 11.) frequently to walk.

“Ş 195. The Infi. construct (the ground-form of the Fut. and Imp. mood), has like the Praeter Kal (§ 181. b), three forms, viz. as win. the inf. in the derived conjugations, takes the vowels peculiar to such conjugations respectively." &c.

"§ 196. The Infin. absolute takes Qamets in the first syllable, and Hholem impure in the last, e. g. Sipop."

The infin. in Kal of the regular verbs has two forms siyo and biyn. Some grammarians are mistaken in maintaining that the construct Siyo is derived and formed of the absolute Siyo, for in the construct iyow (Nu.xxx.15.) 1938 (1 K.xiii.23.) and 12 (2 Kings, xxv. 27.) DZIY (Jer. ix, 12.) the gamets of the first radical can be, neither a long vowel, on account of the wanting Metheg below as a moveable Sheva succeeds it--that the Sheva is a moveable one is plain of the Rophe in nostaa after it-nor a short vowel on account of the moveable succeeding Sheva ; it is consequently in the place of a Sheva (a half or medial-vowel,) in order that two Shevas shall not stand together at the beginning of a word—the Sheva in the second radical, is in the place of Hholem on account of the shifted accent—and the word belongs of course to the form by which shows that this form is a ground one and no derivation.


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“ $ 200. The final vowel of the Fut. may be, (like that of the Praeter and Inf., either Hholem, Patcahh, or Tseri. E. g. With Hholem, (which is by far the most usual form); as 50j??. With Pattahh, (which is common in intransitive verbs, having a Praeter with Tseri, and also in verbs with a Guttural in the final syllable, and some others);

729?, , , =, c. ; ",

If we should establish forms for the future, according to its structures in the irregular verbs—as the author exbibits for the form with final Tseri, from the irregular verbs x5, 3 and 33– we ought then, also, to establish forms with final Shureq as found in verbs V, as well with final Seghol, as found in verbs 3!. In regular verbs two forms only exist for the Future, Ist with final Hholem, and 2d, with final Pattabh; all the other various shapes of the future in irregular verbs, are only to be considered as changes from these two forms according to the position of their silent and wanting letters, which shall be strictly shown in its proper place.

Ҥ 207. The Iinperative, like the Future, has both paragogic and apocopate forms, which give intensity to the meaning. E. g. Paragogic; as , ; ; , . (7), . ; , . .

. ”

; Apocopate סַפְרָה כַפֶר ; קוּמָה , קוּם שָׁמְרָה שְׁמר .apoc שְׁמַען ;מל .apoc ,מול ;גַל .apoc ,גלֶה so ;(היטל for) הקטל

".קְרֶאנָה apoc . of קְרְאֶן , שְׁמַעְנָה of


and וָדוֹף זָכוֹר שָׁמוֹר as ;פְעל and פְעוֹל

.of the Future


The imperative of Kal has two forms analogically to those

. ; , , 334, 337, 27?: If He be suffixed to the form with final Hholem, then the first radical takes a short Qamets; as 779 (Ps. xxv. 20), 77 (Nehem. xiii. 31.) To this rule there is only one exception found, viz. 779 (Gen. xxv.31.) When He is suffixed to the form with final Pattahh, then has the first radical a Hhireq; as 1990 (Gen. xxxix. 12), anyw (Gen. xliii. 8.)—it has also only one exception, viz. 773 (Nehem. xiii. 31.) The VOL. V.-NO. 9.


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