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the refuge-city. He did not allow any circumstances to check his speed: he did not venture to turn aside to any other town, in hopes that he might there be overlooked. Surely we should learn a lesson from his conduct; and we should not delay to take refuge with that kind Saviour, who gathers lovingly beneath his wing those that truly resort to him. There we may be safe.

3. The rev. C. Benson in his Hulsean Lectures of 1820, No. xi. pp. 264-266, points out in connexion with this passage, that St. Peter's name was "by interpretation a stone” (John i. 42), and that the present passage appears to be a prophetical promise of his high privilege in so taking the lead in preaching the gospel as to found the Christian church by converts from among both the Jews and Gentiles.* And he directs attention to the fact that no mention is made in scripture of the "church" until after the conversion of the three thousand, on the memorable day of Pentecost, through the medium of Peter's preaching; for that, in Acts i. 15, we read that "Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples," and the three thousand who were converted by his preach(Acts ii. 41); but immediately after, when these three thousand had been added to the number of the disciples through Peter's preaching, we read that "the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved" (Acts ii. 47). So that Peter was thus the favoured instrument of founding a Christian "church" of the Jewish converts, who embraced the faith of Christ. And that he subsequently enjoyed the same privilege with respect to the church formed of Gentile converts is evident from Acts xi. 3, 4, 18, xv. 7.

He repays richly to his people. They deserve nothing from him. But he has given them a claim which he will answer. "Good," everlasting "good" will he bestow upon them, even that crown of glory which his blood has purchased, and which fadeth not away. Let every one listen obediently to his loving voice of invitation. "Godliness hath the promise of the life that now is, as well as of that which is to come." Muching are said to have been "added unto them" more consolation, much more real joy does the Christian experience, than the man who seeks the mere pleasures of sense. The portion of the one is solid; that of the other most unstable. The blessing of the one is an increasing blessing, more precious the nearer he approaches to his heavenly home: the gratifications of the other are continually slipping from his grasp, however anxious he may be to hold them. Which then is the "good part"? Surely that which shall not be taken from us.

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THE meaning of this promise has been the subject of considerable discussion; but admitting the well-known canon of Hooker," in expositions of sacred scripture, that, where a literal construction will stand, the farthest from the letter is commonly the worst" (B. V. c. 59), to be just, the interpretation of the present passage presents no insuperable difficulty to a candid mind.

The whole subject has been most fully and ably discussed in No. xiii. of the volume of Bishop Horsley's published sermons, and in the rev. Christopher Benson's "Discourses upon the Powers of the Clergy" &c. published in 1841, to which any reader is referred who may be desirous of seeing the arguments in detail, by which the present interpretation is supported; to facilitate which, references to their pages will be appended to each statement in these remarks.*

1. It is evident from the language of the promise and from its immediate context, that St. Peter alone was addressed by our Lord in this passage. See Horsley, pp. 155, 156, and Benson, pp. 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10.

2. "The kingdom of heaven upon earth is the true church of God. It is now, therefore, the Christian church; formerly the Jewish church was that kingdom" (Horsley, p. 159). See Matt. xxi. 43.

"Our Saviour first speaking of the church", observes Bishop Pearson, "mentions it as that which then was not, but afterwards was to be; as when he spake unto the great apostle, 'Thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my church' (Matt. xvi. 18); but, when he ascended into heaven, and the Holy Ghost came down, when Peter had converted three thousand souls' (Acts ii. 41), which were added to the hundred and twenty disciples (Acts i. 15), then was there a church (and that built upon Peter, according to our Saviour's promise); for after that we read, the Lord added to the church daily such as should be saved' (Acts ii. 47). A church then our Saviour promised should be built, and by a promise made before his death: after his ascension, and upon the preaching of St. Peter, we find a church built or constituted, and that of a nature capable of daily increase" (Exposition of the Creed, article ix. p. 503).

4. The promise that "the gates of hell," that's Hades (adov) the place of the dead, "shall not prevail against it," appears to mean that death shall never sweep Christ's true church entirely from the earth; "the time shall never be when a true church shall not be somewhere subsisting on the earth" (Horsley, p. 164); and, "promising that these gates shall not prevail against his church, our Lord promises not only perpetuity to the church, to the last moment of the world's existence, notwithstanding the successive mor tality of all its members in all ages, but, what is much more, a final triumph over the power of the grave. Firmly as the gates of Hades may barred, they shall have no power to confine his de parted saints, when the last trump shall sound, and the voice of the archangel shall thunder through the deep" (Horsley, p. 163).

5. As to the promise of the power of “the *"And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and *See also Bishop Burnet on the 39 articles, article xix. pp. prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone 259-262 of Page's edition.

(Eph. ii. 20).


keys," St. Peter "first opened the kingdom of heaven to all manner of believers. He it was, also, who prescribed to them the conditions upon which they might enter in " (Benson's Discourses, p. 15). St. Peter admitted three thousand Jewish converts into the kingdom of heaven, binding upon them the ordinance of baptism; St. Peter also unlocked the doors of the kingdom of heaven to the Gentiles, loosing them from the law of circumcision. And, when a dispute arose about the lawfulness of the latter act, St. Peter spoke in favour of it, and his decision was adopted and confirmed by St. James, as president of the assembled council, convened on purpose to discuss and decide the question; who also proposed and carried a decree in entire conformity with Peter's views (see Acts xv. 6-21). And this decree was ratified and bound in heaven by the Holy Ghost (ver. 28). See Benson, pp. 15, 16, and Horsley, pp. 159, 160. Thus was St. Peter entrusted with the keys both of the Jewish and of the Gentile church; thus, by virtue of a special commis sion, he applied the key, and threw open the gates of the kingdom of heaven for the admission of both Jews and Gentiles to form one body under Christ. "And so, in a manner which belongs to no other apostle or minister of Christ, did he bind the ordinance of baptism and the obligations it entails upon those Israelites who turned to the Lord, whilst he loosed the rite of circumcision and its attendant consequences from every other race" (Benson, p. 16).

6. No authority over the rest of the apostles was given to St. Peter by this promise; nor any special right or authority which could descend from him to his successors in any see (see Horsley, pp. 160, 161); still less to the popes of the see of Rome, since it is very doubtful whether St. Peter ever was at Rome at all, and certainly he was never bishop of that see.

Such then, is a simple and easy interpretation of this much disputed passage.† C. H. D.

THE RAGGED SCHOOL AT LEWIN'S MEAD. THREE years ago a small number of persons, strongly moved to make an attempt to do something for the crowded population, whose children infested Lewin's Mead and its neighbourhood, determined to make the attempt, as yet unheard of in Bristol, to begin a ragged school. They had but a vague idea of what such a thing was to be; but, as groups of ten or twenty might constantly be seen playing about in the streets, they thought that it would be best to open a little day-school for them. A room was taken in one of the most respectable houses. An individual was found who had received no training as a schoolmaster, and but a defective education, but who was possessed of untiring kindness and strong desire to benefit his fellow-creatures, and to fulfil *This is evident from Acts xv. 13, 14, 19, 2 Cor. xi. 5, and Gal. ii. 11-14.

+ The Rev. C. Benson adduces the testimony of Irenæus, Tertullian, Cyprian, and Origen, in favour of his interpretation (Discourses pp. 17, 149-157).

From Extracts from the Reports of her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools." London: Longman and Co. We have before noticed this work.-ED.

his duty to God; and who, from his having been frequently engaged as a temperance agent, was well acquainted with the habits of this class, and with the means of exciting their attention and influencing them. To realize, in some degree, the difficulties to be overcome, it is necessary to be aware that the district selected is surpassed in degradation only by the very worst parts of the metropo lis. The population principally consists of the lowest Irish, whose adherence to the [Roman] catholic religion makes them look with suspicion on every attempt to serve them; and, as it is to be expected where there is great poverty, drunkenness prevails there to an extent inconceivable to those removed from near acquaintance with those localities. The children were often in rags, because their clothes were pawned by their parents for drink, and they came starving to school, or staid away, because the mother was in the public-house. It was not then at first attempted to form any regular plan, but to learn the nature of the materials that the master had to work with, and to observe the effects of the different experiments which might be tried with the children preparatory to a more organized effort if this should succeed. Success was doubtful, for the attempt was quite a novel one then, and it was quite uncertain whether, if it succeeded, funds could be raised to carry it on.

"Our little day-school continued up to Christmas withn umbers varying from 20 to 40, and in this short time a sensible effect was produced in the neighbourhood, which was remarkable for its disorderly character. The neighbours perceived the streets quieter, and were astonished to see these wild beings so much under control that he could march them two and two through the adjoining district. At first, when they followed their master to the temperance-hall, they were turned out, as likely to create a riot, so wild and disorderly was their appearance; but, after a few months, they might be seen making their way there in a regular body, three and three, and their ragged dress and bare feet were no longer hindrances to their admission. A still more gratifying testimony to the good effects of the school was afforded by the police, who remarked that Lewin's Mead was quieter, though they were not aware of the cause of it. Those who were in the habit of frequently visiting the school were greatly struck with the improved appearance and demeanour of the children. On Sunday, at least, there was an effort to be as clean as possible; and they were able to listen with some interest and self-application to a scripture story. They all showed great attachment to their master, who treated them as beings possessed of minds and affections, and who made them feel that there were those that cared for them. When a lady brought them, one Sunday morning, a basket of flowers, which they viewed with great delight, and asked them who should have the most beautiful one, Master!' was the universal cry; and he gained this love by the love he showed them."


The experiment having thus far succeeded, it was determined to try it on a more extended scale, and to add to it an evening school for those whose occupation prevented them from attending in the day. A large airy room was obtained in a neighbouring street, which it was proposed to open both by day and in the evening.

"No public means had been taken to make

known the evening school, which it was intended,
at once to commence. We had not the slightest
idea whether it would be known or sought after;
it was, therefore, no wonder if, as afterwards
proved to be the case, we went to work before we
were prepared. On the second night there was a
scene of the greatest uproar. With 50 or 60 boys,
about 30 girls and young women had forced them-
selves into the room, notwithstanding the an-
nouncement that girls would not be admitted.
Some evidently came with the intention of creating
a disturbance, while others seemed desirous of
learning. They were very disorderly, and nothing
but force could induce them to withdraw. The
number of boys continued increasing, many quite
young men; and on Sunday the scene was ex-
traordinary and painful: the master was in dismay,
and, though at last he got them into some degree
of order by talking to them, when they went out
the fighting and screaming was terrible. It was
quite necessary to obtain the aid of a policeman,
which was cheerfully and gratuitously given by
the superintendent of police, who seemed quite to
feel the importance of the efforts which were being
made. The neighbours were all very indignant
at the increase of noise and disorder created in the
street, and even insulted the friends of the school
on their way to it."

unable to impart it to others: he found the office too arduous a one to continue, and resigned. It was then determined to seek for a master who had had full experience in the art of school. keeping, and who united with this that devotion to the cause of his fellow-beings which alone can strengthen any one to carry on such a work. The managers of the school now felt able to lay down, with some certainty of their correctness, the general principles on which they would conduct the school: they saw from past experience that they might safely rely on the power of moral force and the spirit of love in the conduct of the school. "I will not deny," their first master had said, "that, while in our little room in Lewin's Mead, I was sometimes induced to use the cane; but I never did so without regretting it, and I am resolved never to employ it again." They also felt convinced of what they had from the commence ment believed, that anything of the nature of bribery was most undesirable: they had seen that children would come without their attendance being purchased, and they felt that they should be doing an injury in many ways if they substituted a low motive for the high one of which it was found that these children were susceptible-a love of knowledge. Yet, while strictly abstaining from alluring the children to school, or even securing Gratuitous assistance was afforded to the master their regular attendance when there, by any proby many working men, who cheerfully did all mise of reward or other inducement than the hope they could. But willingness to aid and a desire to of the pleasure and benefit to be derived from do good were not sufficient to give power to con- education, they gladly availed themselves of any trol these discordant elements, and it was some opportunity which presented itself, and which time before anything like order could be intro- their improved conduct rendered available, of duced. The novelty of the undertaking, a well-giving them innocent and instructive amusement, lighted room, and a good fire, proved attractions and thus showing them the kindly feeling of to many who came solely to create disorder. The their friends in a way which they could undernumbers increased to 200, and those present on stand. one Sunday evening in February will not forget the distressing spectacle of a multitude of children and young persons, of the most vicious appearance, from whom the attempt to conclude the school with prayer, called forth only mockery and disorder, and who appeared quite uncontrollable. It was found necessary to restrict the numbers. The master persevered in his determination to use no force but that of love and of moral influence in a short time the control he obtained was complete; the word of command was instantly attended to, and the classes were all steadily working under their teachers. The office of the policeman was quite a sinecure, and he was one day reported to the magistrate for neglect of duty, in having been "two hours in the ragged school setting copies to the boys."

But summer came, and with it the greater part of the scholars left; some went into the country, others preferred the out-door attractions which the long evenings offered them; yet the school was kept open for the few who still desired to learn. In the meantime the day-school did not proportionally increase girls were admitted with the boys, and were taught to sew, while the boys received instruction in tailoring; but there was not the improvement evident in them which had been hoped. The master, who had shown so much power of gaining the affections of the children, and of interesting them to a certain point, had not been trained as a schoolmaster, nor himself received much education, and was therefore



"Rule 3. The business of the school shall in. clude the most common branches of useful knowledge, instruction in some industrial occupation, and the inculcation of cleanly and orderly habits. The routine shall be left to the discretion of the master, subject to the approval of the committee.

"4. No corporal punishment, or holding up to public shame or ridicule, shall be made use of; but discipline must be maintained by the master's own firmness, order, and kindness.

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"7. The master shall make himself ac quainted, as much as he is able, with the parents and homes of the scholars, both as a means of greater influence and usefulness, and as a check upon the admission of those who might be otherwise taught.

"8. No books or other publications shall be introduced into the school, or distributed to the scholars, which have not received the sanction of the committee.

"9. No gifts shall be made to the scholars, at the school, unless under peculiar circumstances, and when sanctioned by the committee."

A master and mistress were fortunately found who united great skill and experience in education, with an earnest desire to carry out effectually the principles already stated, and to sow some good seed in this neglected garden of the Lord. They determined to employ in the day-school the plan of instruction which they had found efficacious in the higher schools to which they had been

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accustomed; to introduce at once a kind but firm system of restraint and discipline; and to create, as it were, a public opinion among these children in favour of cleanliness and order. They had a well-founded faith in human nature, and the power of the good and it was astonishing to those who were familiar with the ordinary appearance and deportment of these children, to observe the change which a few weeks even produced in their habits and conduct, from the good management and excellent influence exercised over them. The children, in many cases, carried home this influence to the parents, so that many who before had been indifferent to their true welfare began to make an effort to send their little ones neatly to school. Teaching the scholars, both boys and girls, to make articles of clothing, had been, from the commencement of the school, felt to be an im1portant object; and, though these were not given to them until they had earned them by their work, or paid the cost of the materials from their small savings, yet the system pursued with them soon produced so great an effect on the general appearance of the scholars, that inexperienced visitors generally imagined these could not be of the same -class with the neglected little ones whom they had just seen in the neighbouring streets, and have been surprised, after being struck with the clean face and well-regulated deportment of some boy on glancing at his feet, to perceive that they were shoeless.


No effort was made to increase the number of the scholars, nor was it thought desirable that they should be more numerous until they were brought a completely under discipline. Yet, since the dayschool has been thoroughly established, it has been continually increasing; and, what is of more importance, the regularity of attendance has been more satisfactory; indeed it may now be considered equal to that of the ordinary schools. This regularity is much stimulated by a complete system of registration, which is carried on in every department of the school, and which not only is a valuable document, affording much important information, but produces an evident effect on the scholars... The boys who were the earliest scholars in the little room still continued attached to the school; and, though still requiring most patient and watchful management, manifest progress far greater than could have been anticipated, and which excites the strong desire that they could be entirely removed for a time to some place of freedom from temptation. One boy, who seemed the wildest and most uncontrollable, is now in a respectable shop, and so subdued as hardly to be recognized; and C., formerly so disorderly and rough, has been able to receive so satisfactory a character from his teacher, as to obtain a good situation.

"Of the moral improvement produced upon the objects of their solicitude, the committee desire to speak with hesitation and diffidence, but not without hope. To the greater Searcher of hearts alone can be known the depths to which any seeds of holiness and virtue they have attempted to sow may have taken root; but, when from one to two hundred of the most destitute and most neglected children of this large city are seen coming voluntarily and with considerable regularity to school, exhibiting a great change for the better in the

cleanliness of their persons, acquiring habits of neatness and industry by learning to make and repair their clothes, improving rapidly in reading, writing, figures, and general knowledge, manifesting increasing familiarity with the scriptures, and interest in them, and exercising, in general, sufficient self-control to behave in an orderly manner, unawed by the fear of punishment-those who have watched this process trust they may discard the fear that their labours and their prayers will be unblest in those higher aims to which all education, whether secular or religious, should tend-the training of immortal beings for a future existence."

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BISHOP Hall was the pious and eloquent author of "Contemplations on Scripture," and other works. Driven out of his palace at Norwich without being allowed sufficient time to look out for another residence, he retired with his family to a small estate which he rented at Heigham, a hamlet in the western suburbs of Norwich, where he terminated his earthly pilgrimage, after all the outrages, persecutions, and hardships he endured in those turbulent times, and entered into that rest which remaineth for the people of God, where the wicked cease from troubling and where the weary are at rest. During his retirement at Heigham our good bishop spent the remainder of his days in doing all the good he could. He was ready on all occasions to preach in any of the churches in Norwich, as appears from several sermons still extant, "till he was first forbidden by men, and at last disabled by God." And when he could not preach as often and as long as he was able, he was as diligent a hearer as he had been a preacher. "How oft have we seen him," says Whitefoot, "walking alone, like old Jacob with his staff, to Bethel, the house of God."

When he was in the eightieth year of his age, he preached in Heigham church the forty-second sermon in the fifth volume of his works, entitled, "Life, a sojourning," from 1 Pet. i. 17: "If ye

From "Last Hours of Christian Men; or an Account of the Deaths of some eminent Members of the Church of England;" by the rev. H. Clissold, M.A. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

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