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privileges was obtained, which has been considered the birthright of every Englishman, and the foundation of all our liberties.
nothing spiritually, it is esteemed as no other than a delight in a sedentary sluggish life, or as no better than a melancholy, discontented humour. But, my 28. Required, the name of a British admiral, soul, thou art above these misapprehensions. Go inthe son of an admiral of distinguished abilities, shall I say into this room, or rather into this other celebrated, if not for his bravery, which yet, how-world-into thy world. For, when thou art abroad, ever, at one time was undisputed, at least for his thou art abroad; thou art in a common world, wherein misfortunes and the tragical event which termi- within the enclosure of these walls, thou art in a parevery person hath an inter-right with thee. But here, nated his career. Sent out with a fleet to the reticular world of thine own. It is something for a man lief of an island then in the possession of the to be his own inmate, to dwell with himself; and no English, but besieged by a French force, and small happiness in that cohabitation to live quietly. failing to prevent the place from falling into the There is a physical virtue in quietness. Some diseases bands of the enemy, he was accused of neglect of in the body, and most distempers in the mind, are duty and other faults, placed under arrest, subse- cured by it. I may add, further, there is a heavenquently tried by court-martial, and sentenced to liness in it. Those regions that are highest are be shot. The execution took place in a ship of quietest; and God himself, who is higher than the war; and, such was the extraordinary quickness highest, is, in the fruition of himself, the most with which the mournful business was despatched, quiescent. Thus sequestered from the vexatious that his body was laid in his coffin within three vanities of the world, I may enjoy a free conversation minutes after he had quitted his cabin. Histo- strength, and this rest a prelibation of my eternal with thee in heaven; so shall my quietness be my rians have concurred in lamenting the fate of this rest. But yet, my soul, take heed unto thyself in unfortunate man; while some have even doubted this solitude. It is possible for thee to be in ill comthe justice of the sentence under which he suf-pany when thou art alone. Evil thoughts have an fered, considering his offence to have been rather evil communication in them. an error of judgment than a criminal want of cou
29. Required, the name of a lady of rank, the story of whose career forms a melancholy page in the annals of England. Having the misfortune to be a remote descendant of one of our greatest kings, and on this account an object of jealousy to two other sovereigns in succession, she became at length the subject of a conspiracy of which she was entirely ignorant, the design of the conspirators being to place her on a throne she had no ambition to fill. Having afterward unwittingly offended the king by forming a matrimonial engagement, both she and her husband were thrown into prison, from which, however, he succeeded in escaping; while his less fortunate wife, who had also secretly set out to join him, was retaken and brought back-this renewal of her captivity depriving her of reason, which she never afterwards recovered.
30. It is related of a celebrated public character, who rose from a comparatively low station in life to a post of supreme power and dignity, that, in order to underprop the authority he had assumed, and which is said to have exceeded that of the most arbitrary princes, he summoned an assembly for the purposes of legislation from the lowest and most ignorant classes. This assembly, however, enacted measures so utterly absurd that its proceedings could only be tolerated for a short period, and justly merited the contemptuous name it afterwards went by-a name as singular as itself, and as characteristic of the members who composed it as it was expressive of the feelings with which it was regarded by the people at large. What name did this strange assembly obtain? and what was the name and true character of the individual by whom it was summoned?
RETIREMENT IN MY STUDY.-How little doth the world know of the happiness of a study! But it is no wonder, for this happiness is not of the world; and, therefore, by those who can discern
Bar them out as much as thou canst. Be sure to give them no lodging. But, O my Lord, all my sufficiency is of thee. Perfect thy strength in my weakness; and I, even when I am weak, shall be made strong. By these retirements may I gain more light to my knowledge, more warmth to my affections, and more acquaintance with my God; and, from a right estimate of the temporal things which are seen, come to have a sweet fruition of those eternal things which are not seen. In order to this, O thou God of my prayers and praises, teach me how to pray that I may meditate, and teach me how to meditate that I may pray; so shall the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart be acceptable in thy sight, and thou shalt have the praise of thine own work in me.-Hon. C. How.
(For the Church of England Magazine).
While on his cross in faith we rest,
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in their first efforts, but repeating them with indomitable perseverance. Their object is to reach the gravelly beds in the shallow pools of the streams, which they ascend in order to deposit their spawn there.
"The fish having at length gained (says Mr. Yarrell) the upper and shallow pools of the river, preparatory to the important operation of depositing the spawn in the gravelly beds, its colour will be found to have undergone considerable alteration during the residence in fresh water. The male becomes marked in the cheeks with orangecoloured stripes: the lower jaw elongates, and a cartilaginous projection turns upwards from the point, which, when the jaws are closed, occupies a deep cavity between the intermaxillary bones of the upper jaw: the body partakes of the golden orange tinge, and the salmon in this state is called a Red-Fish. The females are dark in colour, and are as commonly called Black-Fish."
In order to the process of spawning, both the male and female, as they work against the stream, plough up furrows in the gravel with their snouts, and in these furrows the spawn is deposited. They are afterwards out of condition and unfit for food,
but soon recover in the salt-water.
There are different modes used of taking salmon. The following is one frequently used in Sweden: "By rocks or artificial embankments a portion of the river is divided into several small channels. On each of these two sluices are constructed, one at each end, capable of being opened or closed at pleasure. The fish, having once entered these traps, are prevented from returning, and, the water being allowed to run off, they are taken out even by hand, without the least difficulty, Five hundred, and even eight hundred salmon are thus taken in a single day; though at the same locality, notwithstanding their abundance, they invariably refuse a bait."
The London markets are supplied for the most part from the friths and rivers of Scotland. It is stated that the rivers on the coast of Sutherland yielded in 1835, 258,291 pounds of salmon, and that the whole quantity brought that year by sea from Scotland and Ireland to London was 20,000 hundred-weight.
ingredients which now are poured into that river from gas-works and other sources, there are at present none found there.
MISSIONS AT HOME. No. XIX.
"O, may it not one day be your awful recollection, that, while millions, and the generations of millions, were passing forward in the same world as if they concerned you not, through this world, and falling into eternity, you were going were not children of one common pareut, creatures of one common God" (Rev. J. H. Singer, D.D.). THE SABBATH AND THE WORKING CLASSES. "The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath": it was given to man in order to remind him, by its periodical returns, of the supreme claim of God to his love and obedience, and of the correlative duties of benevolence and compassion which he owes to his fallen creatures. One of the great objects of its institution would be defeated if the letter of fere with the general plan, and the practical exemthe law were so construed as in any way to interplification of those sympathies which bind man to man. "Therefore,' it is added in the concluding verse of the context, the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.' And has not he, who instiits Lord, an indisputable right to explain the imtuted the sabbath, and who announces himself as port and extent of its obligations? One of the great objects of Christ's mission on earth was to the Jewish law, and to introduce a new and spisupersede the ceremonial rites and observances of ritual ceremony to make shadows and types give place to the substance and the antitype. But, as the reasons which led to the beneficent institution of the sabbath are not less prevailing and impera tive under the Christian dispensation than under the Jewish, so the necessity which existed when the law was given on Sinai (not to go back, as we might, to a much earlier period), that a certain portion of time should be set apart for the specia honour and service of God, is a necessity for al men and all times, and we may feel the utmost mora certainty that the religious observance of th Lord's-day-the Christian sabbath-is of per petual obligation. The early Christian churches as recorded in Acts xx. 7, were in the habit meeting to break bread on the first day of th week; and, even if the observance had no diret scriptural sanction, it is so evidently designed an calculated to promote the best interests of man that every Christian patriot is bound to put fort his best efforts to maintain it inviolate.
Scott describes what he calls "salmonhunting," which is in some degree peculiar to North Britain. "This chase, in which the fish is pursued and struck with barbed spears, or a sort of long-shaped trident, called a waster, is much practised at the mouth of the Esk, and in the other salmon rivers in Scotland. The sport is followed by day and night, but most commonly in the latter, when the fish are discovered by means of torches or fire-grates, filled with blazing frag-working classes have a more special interesti ments of tar-barrels, which shed a strong though upholding the reverential observance of the Lord's partial light upon the water." There are usually day; for it is their only season of respite from car some of the party in a boat, while others run along and toil, and, it may be added, their chief season the banks. The salmon in vain strive to conceal for acquainting themselves with their duties and themselves under rocks, the roots of trees, &c. privileges as intelligent and immortal beings. I The slightest indications, the twinkling of a fin, is now somewhat more than half a century sine the rising of an air-bell, are sufficient to betray the popular representatives of a great natiou con them to the sportsmen, who are by practice most summated their folly and wickedness by formally adroit in spearing them; and those of the largest renouncing their allegiance to the Lord of heave size are thus captured. and earth, and by substituting for him a bas creature of their own-'the goddess of reason. These new interpreters of the rights of man
Formerly there were many salmon in the Thames; but, in all probability by the poisonous
had previously abolished the Christian sabbath; a fitting introduction to their infatuated attempt to dethrone the Lord of the sabbath. It is worthy of remark that the French convention, by the new mode of measuring time which they decreed, not only set at nought the claims of God, but made a direct encroachment upon the privileges of the people. Under the system of the decades', every tenth day was declared to be a public holiday; and, as such, it superseded the observance of the seventh portion of our time as a season of rest. The practical effect of this arrangement, therefore, was to give the labouring classes thirtysix days only out of the year as a respite from the cares of life, instead of fifty-two. So much for the tender mercies of those who would be wiser than their Maker. If, therefore, the working classes of this country are disposed to promote their own best interests and those of their children, it is incumbent upon them not only to observe the sabbath with due reverence, but to resist every encroachment upon its sanctities; for they may rest assured that, by robbing God of his rightful claims, they will at the same time be depriving themselves of one of the greatest blessings that has been allotted to them while sojourning in a world of sin and sorrow" (From "The Trials and Rewards of Labour”).
MAYNOOTH COLLEGE.-It has been observed, and justly observed, in the recent address of the Committee of the National Club: "In that college, supported by public funds, scorn, hatred, and contempt are inculcated day by day against all who are not Romanists: there are banded together, to be subsequently dispersed over the land, those who are taught, at our expense, that it is their duty to ruin and destroy us." This would be harsh and unjustifiable language to use, were it not true; but, being true, and to the letter, the committee has performed an imperative duty, both to Ireland as well as Great Britain, in aking the charge. Let us now see how far it is borne out by the actual teaching at Maynooth, from the class-books used in the lecture-room of which I select a few passages, showing the light in which the future Romish pastors of Ireland are taught to regard their protestant fellow-subjects. "All beretics," says Bailly, the grand text-book of the students, of which each of them is obliged to procure himself a copy, "are bound by the ecclesiastical laws (of Rome), because by baptism they are made subjects of the church; nor are they more delivered from her laws than subjects who rebel against their princes." Again: what does another college authority, Cornelius a Lapide, say of protestants? "They are in the church as slaves are in a family, and imprisoned criminals in a city." And, lastly, a third MayLooth text-book, Delahogue's Treatise, affirms: "The church retains her jurisdiction over all apostates, heretics, and schismatics, though they to not belong to her body; as the leader of an my has a right to punish a deserter, although dis name has been struck off the roll." So that, in pite of Dr. Wiseman's assurances, we protestant Britons are, in the eyes of his church, as much under Le canon law of Rome as if we were papists! We wil now inquire what the students of Maynooth are tanght to hold as their duty towards their schismatic fellow-countrymen, both in Ireland
and England; and, if they are faithful and sincere men, they must be but the more anxious to discharge this duty. Both Antoine and Collet, two other Maynooth standards, especially the latter, inculcate that, if a Christian be imbued with the errors of the English, his fate is, that he is most certainly punishable by the church." And he explains the punishment to be, "confiscation of goods, infamy, incapacity for honours, and all offices proceeding therefrom, exile, imprisonment, and death itself," This is equally laid down, under the title of heretics, in the canon, or ecclesiastical law of Rome. In fact, as Dens, another favourite writer, studied at Maynooth, says, "It is certain that baptized infidels"—such as we protestants--" may be compelled to return to the faith." And, lastly, Thomas Aquinas, a favourite referee at the college, declares that, "As the forgers of money, and other malefactors, are immediately delivered over by secular princes to death, much more heretics, from the time they are convicted of heresy, can not only be excommunicated, but justly slain"; for, as Menachius, another spiritual guide of the Maynooth candidates for Romish orders, says, "Heretics are much more pernicious than thieves and murderers; it being a greater crime to steal and slay the souls of men than their bodies: they are quickly to be plucked up; they are quickly to be burned": to which Bellarmine adds, "the only remedy is to send them to their proper place," i. e., to hell. Yet, to uphold such a seminary as this, where " war to the knife and the faggot" is proclaimed as the bounden duty of the priesthood towards their protestant brethren, there is contributed of public money upwards of thirty thousand pounds a year!
JEWESSES.-Mrs. Hiscock, who has undertaken the laborious but noble toil of labouring among her sisters of the Abrahamitic persuasion in the metropolis, states to the Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews, that a great change is going on in the minds of Jewish females generally, not only as to the removal of their prejudices against Christianity, but in many cases shewing itself by the conviction that it is the truth of God. She is generally received with kindness, and often with affection by those whom she visits, as they give her credit for being a sincere friend and well-wisher. During the past year several have come to her for instruction; and it is with great pleasure she has watched the gradual progress of their minds in the reception of the truth, and the deep attention they pay to the reading of the New Testament, at the same time comparing it with the prophecies of old. She observes: I cannot help mentioning the great effect the papal aggression (as it has been called) has had upon my intercourse with Jewesses. Í believe nothing has convinced them so much of the truth of the New Testament as that subject. When I open that sacred book, and show them that the leading doctrines and characteristics of the Roman apostacy were all plainly predicted at the time when Rome was notoriously a pagan city, they cannot account for it, or even attempt doing so, and are anxions to hear what is said respecting it." She speaks of the character of the Jewish female converts, with whom she is acquainted, as having been very satisfactory during the past year; and she adds that several have,
under severe bodily suffering, found comfort and joy in resting on Jesus.
to say, that John Wesley at least did not leave the church because there was no occupation for his energies found within it."
RELIGIOUS LITERATURE.-"As an immortal being, with aspirations unquenched and irrepressi- IRELAND.-The March of Intellect.-The ble, I want a portion to meet every one of my de- rev. A. Wilkinson, being on a visit to the stations sires; and no literature under heaven, no learning, of some of the protestant missions, took occasion no skill, no eloquence, no poetry or power, can to visit the school of Pallas Green, where, he meet these things short of the literature of the writes, "we found a room filled with chil sanctuary of God. .... What we want is dren and adults. I examined the children not symbolic literature, nor symbolic theology: and found them accurately acquainted with the what we want is not German mysticism: we great doctrines of scripture, and able to give rea have too much of that already: I do not believe sons for their faith from the bible, which they s it has ever carried one soul to heaven, or ever will quoted, naming chapter and verse. carry one: its wings are too gossamer to support asking the class what argument they would us an eternal, imperishable soul: the whole thing is with a Romanist against the doctrine of purgatory t too aerial and too mystic ever to bear a spirit to a lad answered, Purgatory means cleansing, and heaven. Nor do we want pantheism, springing purgatory is a place for purging and cleansing from China or America: we want not that specu- the souls of the sins that are not cleansed on lation amidst which God is reduced into nothing, earth; and, if the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth and nothing or everything is made God. What from all sin, what need can there be for purga we want is robust, downright, transparent, spi-tory?"" Another party writes from Limerick: ritual, practical truth; in other words, what we "The priest at English-town discovered that Mwant is this a literature cheap, and which in | -read the bible and tracts; so there was no abso every case shall bring us to Christ, and that solution for him ill he went to the bishop. B. clearly and distinctly that it will captivate the M-- (a schoolmaster) says, 'Father S--ser great bulk of those into whose hands it comes" me to the bishop; but, when I went, I went ou And next to this, or rather as its handmaid side the town, and stood and considered. I sai to the popular heart, "we want," as an- Must I go to the bishop as punishment for readin other keen observer remarks, "a literature which, the bible, while I may read the most profal while it is not directly given to the discussion books without notice? No, I shall not go. So of the dogmas of Christianity, is throughout per- did not, and will not. God's word shall not r vaded by its spirit, and which, instead of avowedly turn empty. He knows his own, and where shunning religion as forbidden ground, is based find them. On the 7th of this month I got sot upon a full and manly recognition of the divine wounds on the head: one was rather dangerou authority, its paramount claims, and its absolute but all is well now, thank God! We leave necessity, as the means of man's highest improve-reader to infer how this staunch bible-readi ment and happiness, in relation both to this world and the next; a literature which shall be perfectly free from all sectarian peculiarities (?), both in religion and politics; the literature not of a party, but of humanity. A greater amount of sanctified interest must be devoted to the service of the million, and a spirit of bolder enterprise be displayed by the Christian church, in the employment of a cheap literature enlisted on the side of virtue and social regeneration" ("The Operative Classes," a prize essay).
JOHN WESLEY.-The following mention of this celebrated divire occurs in the annual report of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts: "It may surprise many to learn that the celebrated John Wesley received an appointment and allowance from the society in 1735, as first missionary to Georgia; and, though he remained in America only two years, no one ever exhibited more zeal or more devotion to his duties. His manner of life was remarkably plain and frugal. He was indefatigable in his ministrations; and, as there were scattered settlements of French, Italians, and Germans within his mission, he officiated to these several congregations in their own tongue. No soldier of Christ was ever more ready to endure hardness than John Wesley; for he frequently slept on the ground, sometimes waded through swamps, and then travelled till his clothes were dry. Who shall say what might have been the happy results, had such a man stood stedfastly by the church which he had proved himself so well able to serve? Alas! it is vain to indulge in such conjectures; but it is due to truth
Romanist came by his wounds. Near Ardane
EDUCATION.-The committee of the Ladie Female Hibernian School Society have lat circulated an earnest appeal for pecuniary a "After twenty-eight years," they observe, "A anxious and persevering effort, they appear to brought almost to a standstill, as it regards necessary means for proceeding with their intere ing work. The system adopted at the formati