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CHEMISTRY. Examiner—MR. S. A. HILL, B. Sc. 1. How would you show that hydrogen is an element and marsh gas a compound, and how would you distinguish a mixture of hydro. gen and nitrogen from a compound formed by the union of the same elements ?
2. A piece of phosphorus is burnt in a closed vessel of oxygen. State whether the weight of the vessel and its contents will be affected by the combustion, and whether there will be as much oxygen in the vessel at the end of the experiment as at the begin. ning.
3. If a litre of steam has all its oxygen removed, what will be the volume of the remaining gas ? How much will the litre of the steam weigh if its temperature is 100° C. and pressure 760 mm. ?
4. How would you prove that diamond and charcoal are differ. ent forms of the same element ?
5. What is an acid ? How many acids containing sulphur are known, and how is the most useful one of them manufactured ?
6. Ordinary glass contains silicon; how would you extract this element from it? What other elements resemble silicon in their properties ?
7. A white crystalline substanco has the following composition : Mg. 9.75 ; S, 13:01; 0, 26'02 ; water 51.22 per cent. What is its formula ? (Mg. = 24.)
8. What products are formed when phosphorus is boiled with slaked lime ?
9. When common well-water is boiled for a few minutes a white deposit is formed. How do you explain this, and how would you test your explanation by experiment?
10. What is meant by latent heat ? How much ice at 0° C. could be melted by a gramme of steam at 100° C. if the heat from the steam were given up only to the ice ?
LOGIC. Examiner-MR. A. E. Gouge, B. A. 1. “Logic is the science of the laws and products of pure or formal thinking.”. Explain this definition, word by word, and compare it with Fowler's. Note any differences of view.
2. The connotation of the common term is in language what the comprehension of the concept is in thought. The denotation of the common term is in language what the extension of the concept is in thought. Explain this, indicating the relation that thought bears to language. Define the words printed in italics. Show that some terms are connotative only, others denotative only, and others both connotative and denotative. How are the several common terms of a series in the line of subordination related to one another in regard to their intensive and extensive capacities?
3, State the ordinary classification of predicates in relation to their subjects. Point out (after Fowler) the relation borne by the predicate to the subject in each of the following propositions :
Chloride of sodium is common salt.
Some historians are philosophers. 4. Lay down the laws for a logical division. Exemplify the division and subdivision of a common term. State the logical vames given to terms to mark their several positions in divisious and subdivisions.
“ The Schoolmen held that genera and species are fixed by nature.” Explain this. Define a class in accordance with modern logical doctrine. Show that the class attributes, though nameable, are not imaginable, apart from individuals of the class.
5. Define mood and figure. Given the two premises, determino the possible moods and figures. Strike your pen through the illegi. timate moods, and of the legitimate moods, show which are valid in each figure.
Define ostensive reduction and reductio per impossibile. There are two moods that can only be reduced by the aid of permutation. Name them, and exemplify their reduction ostensively and per impossibile.
6. Prove the following rules :
If one premiss of a syllogism be particular, the conclusion must be particular.
In the first figure the major premiss must be universal.
(a.) All material things gravitate. Air gravitates. Air is, therefore, material.
(6.) Philosophers are apt to undervalue common sense. Reid is a philosopher. Therefore, Reid is apt to undervalue common
(c.) Skilful labour is highly paid. The work of the metaphysi. cian is skilful labour. It will, therefore, be highly paid.
(2.) If you work hard you will get a prize. You will get a prize, therefore, you will have worked hard.
(e.) My opinions must be true, for none but a prejudiced and uncandid person, like yourself, would wish to gainsay them.
(5.) The soul always thinks, inasmuch as to think is its nature as a cogitative substance.
(9.) This dialogue is not the work of Plato. It differs in thought and expression from the dialogues which I already admit to be his.
(h.) I can afford to buy these books. I can afford to buy these pictures. I can afford to buy these statuettes. The books, the pictures, and the statuettes are ali that I at present wish to purchase. I can, therefore, buy everything that I want to buy.
B. A. Examination.
Examiner-Rev. W. C. FYFE. F1. Sketch briefly tbe origin and growth of the English drama to the appearance of Shakespeare. State some of the grammatical peculiarities which are to be found in the dramas and other works of Shakespeare's time.
2. Describe the plot and action of “King Henry the Fifth,” and quote any striking passages out of the play that you may remember.
3. Explain : “The offending Adam.” “ To fine his title." "A nimble galliard." Vasty Tartar.”
“ Christom child.” “ Buxom valour.” “ A heart of gold.” With what peculiar meanings do the following words occur in “Coriolanus :" • Condition,'' demerits,' progeny,''cunning,' 'arrive,' 'favour.'
4. Give concisely the plot of “Coriolanus.” Discuss the dramatic fitness of the death of “ Coriolanus” by the hand of “ Aufidius.”
5. Explain the following passages, noticing varieties of read. ing: (a.) “It follows then the cat must stay at home,
Yet that is but a crush'd necessity.
And pretty traps to catch the petty thieves.” (6.) “ But tell the Dauphin, I will keep my state,
Be like a king, and show my sail of greatness,
When I do rouse me in my throne of France." (c)
" I shall tell you
To stale't a little more."
With moderate warrant." 6. Name the authors of the following lines, and state, if you can, the particular poem from which each passage is taken. Give the purport of each passage :(a.) “Let observation, with extensive view,
Survey mankind from China to Peru." (6.) The many rend the skies with loud applause ;
So Love was crown'd, but Musique won the cause." (c.) All humane things are subject to decay,
And when Fate summons, monarchs must obey." (d.) “ But when to mischief mortals bend their will.
How soon they find fit instruments of ill."
(e.) “ And some yet live, treading the thorny road,
Which leads, through toil and hate, to Fame's sereno
abode." (f.) “An orphan's curse would drag to hell
A spirit from on high.” (9.) "By expectation every day beguild,
Dape of to-morrow even from a child.” (h.) “What joy the raptured youth can del,
To hear her love the loved one tell.” 7. What are the leading ideas in Wordsworth's ode on Intima. tions of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood”? Describe fully the metrical structure of this ode.
8. Give concisely the substance of the story toid in Byron's poem “ The Prisoner of Chillon.” Review the style and composition
of the poem.
9. Characterise succinctly the genius and poetic style of Gray. Give the argument of “ The Progress of Poesy.”
Examiner-MR. W. H. Paulson. 1. Give the original of the name Gibraltar'; describe the peculiar position of the Rock, and state very briefly how it came into the possession of the English, and the circumstances which led to its memorable siege.
2. Make any remarks that may seem to you to be called for ona. “ This intelligence very sensibly affected us." b.“ Before the ships weighed, their good friends the gun-boats gave them a parting salute, and did some damage.” c. “He was fascinated on the spot.” d. “The casuals on our side Were few." What do you mean by the amenities of warfare ? Give one or two instances which occurred during the siege of Gibraltar.
3. Explain fully the following terms: A forlorn party; running the gauntlet; a prisoner on parole; to abandon one's colours ; to unmask a battery; a fascine ; a park of artillery ; a sortie. Describe briefly the most remarkable sortie which took place during the siege of Gibraltar.
4. Explain, with reference to the context, and to the words in italics :
a. Imagination, if it be subject to reason, is its slave of the lamp. 6. Do not suffer yourself to be carried away by the current sayings
about men's character and conduct. If you do, you are help.
ing to form a mob. c. This remedy cannot neutralize the evil. d. His former certainties are among the strangest things which
a man looks back upon in the vista of the past. e. An interview may be considered not a battle but a siege. f. Councils are the fly.wheel and safety valve of the machinery
of business. 9. Hope, an architect above rules, can build in reverse a pyramid
upon a point.
5. Define an epigram. Distinguish between fluency and verbosity in writing. Explain : a political bigot, party spirit, a crochetty man, a morbid craving, a galley slave, relevant to the subject, captious.
6. Estimate and account for the success which attended the efforts of Joan of Arc. Discuss briefly the respective culpability of the French and English in her subsequent treatment and fate.
7. What do you mean by the dimorphism of words ? Give some examples.
Mention the most obvious causes which tend to produce the ex. tinction of words in a living language.
8. Explain : “ The German language, half-sister as it is now, would have been our whole sister, but for that famous field of Hastings."
“The English language is a conglomerate of Latin words bound together in a Saxon cement."
Illustrate : “ The process of throwing the accent of a word as far back as it will go, is one that has been constantly proceeding
9. Write short notes on the following words : baffle, antic, rather, solecism, villain, its, saunter, nostril.
Give some examples of the spelling of a word being influenced by a mistaken etymology.
HYDROSTATICS. Examiner- MR. A. M. Nash, M.A. 1. State and explain the relation between the units involved in the equation W gp V. In the equations W = 92 V, W = $V, if the standards be the same, and all the units the same, the unit of velocity being a velocity of 4 feet per second, find the units of space and time.
2. Each of three liquids is mixed with an equal weight of water and also equal weights of all three liquids are mixed : the densities of the four mixtures so formed are in the ratios 20: 15: 12: 10. Find the densities of the liquids.
3. A lamina in the form of an equilateral triangle is immersed in a liquid with its plane vertical and vertex downwards, the base being horizontal, and at a given depth : find the centre of pressure.
4. Explain clearly the difference between the whole and resultant pressures of a fluid upon a surface, and show how to determine the resultant pressure.
5. A square lamiva ABCD floats in water with the angle A in the surface, and the angles C and D below the surface; prove that, the density of the lamina: the density of water :: 3: 4.
6. A vessel in the form of a square pyramid, whose base is horizontal, and vertex downwards, contains equal volumes of two fluiils of densities p and 2p, which do not mix: find the whole pressure on one of the triangular faces.
7. State Boyle's Law, and describe the method of proving it. If a cubic foot of air at 20° C. weigh 078 lb. when the height