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cause he has found out that he can take liberties with his rider. A man of discretion will know when a horse should be whipped up to an object of which there is a pretence of fear, but the horse must never be struck after he has passed on.

I do not like a horse that has low action, for he must trip, and he is likely, sooner or later, to come down. A horse stumbles when, through weakness, weariness, or stiffness from age and work, he is not able to recover himself from a trip. He usually bears the evidence of his accident on his knees.

A horse that stumbles from weakness is not fit for saddle use. If the rider is unfortunate enough to find himself mounted upon a horse that gives indications of being insecure upon his feet, he should demand free and lively action, with rein and legs. The horse should not be allowed to become indolent, nor be permitted to hang upon the bit. On descending a hill the horse must have liberty of action, for if he steps too short he is liable to come down ; and a horse that is checked has not sufficient freedom for his safety. It is after a long day's work that a weary horse may for the first time stumble, and it is a mistaken idea of kindness that induces the rider to let a horse take his head upon such an occasion. The horse misses the encouragement of the rein and the support of the leg, and is invited to fall. Besides, it is much more fatiguing for him to bear his burden, deprived of his usual aids, and in drooping spirits. Finally, in case of a fall, either of a stumbling horse, or under any other circumstances, the rider should hold on to the rein until he is assured that his feet are free of the stirrups.




In order that he may never chafe against restraint, the horse should never know perfect freedom. From the hour he is foaled he should be accustomed to the sight of man, and belief in man's power should increase with his knowledge. He must be treated with kindness; but indulgence will spoil his temper, and he

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acquires a contempt for the authority that is tardily enforced.

At six months of age the colt should be broken to follow with the halter, and be made to submit at a time when his resistance cannot have such success as to encourage him in rebellion. At two years of age he should be made to bear the saddle without repugnance, and to know the effects of the bit. If he is intended for riding purposes he should never be put in a bitting-machine, as all contrivances of that kind teach him to bear upon the hand, a habit that is incompatible with perfect manners. But, from the time he is two years old, he should be lunged, at intervals that will insure his retaining that which is taught him, with the cavesson.

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