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measure of the violence with which he will repeat it. It is this violence that makes the horse so dangerous in his rebellion, for until he loses his reason he will take care not to injure himself, and so in a measure protects his rider. Few young horses are dangerous in their resistances until they have met with cruel treatment. It is seldom that a colt in brea
ill bolt with his rider; it is usually the old offender who is guilty of this most dangerous of vices. Although nearly every young horse will rear at the pressure of the bit, he will seldom rise to a dangerous height, and he soon ceases to offend in that way. A horse must be corrected and put right, but it is never necessary to resort to severe punishments. Fortunately the horse is an animal of one idea, and when he has determined upon his line of opposition he is easily circumvented and humbled. If he refuses to turn to the right, he will be so intent upon opposing the right rein that he may be turned around to the left until he is confused, when he will very gladly go in any direction. If he declines to go forward, he is not prepared to resist a demand for a backward movement, and he will soon tire of that unusual mode and start forward at the first hint from his rider. But a horse properly broken and trained will not be guilty of such contumacy, and will not be apt to show the vices of which I am about to speak, but for which the rider must be prepared.
upon the mouth. Leaning back, with the breech well under him, and bearing no weight in the stirrups, the rider should take a succession of pulls upon the bit, one following the other sufficiently near to obtain cumulative effect. When the horse appears to yield to the bit, advantage should be taken of the moment, to prevent his again extending himself, by increased exertions upon the part of the rider, whose power should be reserved, as far as possible, to seize this opportunity. I know of no way to prevent a horse bolting; by keeping his head up with the snaffle-rein the rider will have greater command of the horse, but the use of severe bits will not deter a confirmed bolter from indulging his vicious propensity.
If a horse rears the reins should be loosened, and if the rider require support he should seize the mane, without, however, letting the reins drop from his hands. The spurs should not be applied while the horse is rising, but as he comes down the legs of the rider should be closed to induce the horse to go forward. If the horse refuses to go forward, the rider will find the side of the mouth with which the horse is not prepared to resist, by drawing the reins from right to left, and holding the rein of that side low he will pull the horse around, aiding the hand by the application of the spur on that side. If when the horse rears he sinks upon his hind-quarters, the rider should endeavour to leave the horse by seizing the mane and throwing himself aside,
and although he may not be able to clear himself of the horse, he will, at least, avoid coming down under the saddle.
If a horse is shy at passing an object, he can generally be made to proceed by turning his head away, and passing him along with the spur that is opposite to the object, as in traversing. If he is a young horse, and has not been maltreated, he will usually face that which has caused his alarm if he is allowed to take as much room as the way offers. The rider should avoid taking notice of the horse's fright, as any nervousness on the part of the rider will confirm the horse in the opinion that there is danger. If a horse takes alarm on the road at things with which he is familiar, it is either through defective eyesight, or be