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gallop, he will be aligned upon the path he follows by means of the hand and legs. The trained horse under the skilled rider will take the gallop upon the right or upon the left leg without bending perceptibly; for so perfect will be the equilibrium and the control, that the measured use of the aids will inaugurate a movement that will not require correction.
The pupil should first practise the standing leap, and upon a well-trained horse. The horse standing at the bar will be induced to rise, by transferring the forces of the fore-hand back, and by
the pressure of the legs he will be made to spring forwards.
As the horse rises the rider will bend slightly forward, giving the horse the reins. When the horse leaves the ground the rider should lean back, so that he may preserve his centre of gravity, and by bringing his buttocks well in under him receive the shock in the strongest possible seat. As the hindlegs of the horse reach the ground, the rider will resume his erect position. Any bearing upon the stirrups will disturb the seat, and may cause the rider to fall.
There must be no attempt on the part of the rider to lift the horse ; and when the hand has played its part of conveying back the forces of the fore-quarters, it
must ease the tension of the reins until the fore - feet of the horse touch the ground, when he will feel the mouth to give the horse such support as he may need to recover the equilibrium.
In taking the flying leap the seat will be nearly the same as that for the gallop; the rider will not lean forward as in the standing leap, for the action of the horse will not require it, and if he swerves or refuses the rider should be sitting well back to avoid a fall. As the horse makes the exertion for the jump the rider will bring his breech well under, lean back as far as the effort the horse is about to make shall demand, and resume the position for the gallop when the horse alights, at the same moment collecting him for the same speed with which he approached the leap, but taking care not to check him or harass his movements.
When the horse takes the flying leap he must have the fullest liberty of his head; the bit being used only to direct him to the obstacle, and its tension released before the horse rises in the leap. The legs will be carried in close to the sides of the horse to support him, but he should be neither spurred nor whipped at the jump, as it distracts his attention at a critical moment. If he requires it, the horse should be roused before he comes upon the ground where he is to decide upon his place for taking off, and from that time he should be left to himself until he receives the support of the bridle as his fore-feet touch the ground. The trick of throwing up one arm, or of giving a cry of encouragement to the horse as he rises, may work mischief by causing him to swerve, but it is then too late to offer him aid in gathering for the leap.
The horse should not be ridden to a high leap at a speed that extends him too much. He should not be so flurried as he approaches a wide leap that he cannot use his instincts for safety. If a horse jumps in a slovenly manner he should be remanded to the school.
VICES, TRICKS, AND FAULTS.
The severity with which a horse has been punished for a fault is, usually, the