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child-having had my mules and muleteer from Beirout to Jerusalem, about to undertake a hazardous journey, on foot, through the heart of Europe, and some of the least civilized parts. There was no man, I am persuaded, who ever performed the same circuit which I have done but must have been better provided, in every respect, for such an expedition. Even those articles I had to coutain the few things I intended to carry with me were ill calculated for the purpose, and of an awkward description, viz. a purse basket which I had procured in Cyprus, and a carpet bag that I brought from England. It would appear as if I courted inconvenience and difficulty. Into these I put as many of my beloved trifles as I could cram; for my affections clung perhaps to a small plate, an egg-cup, or a pipe-head, which had accompanied me through my journey, and, above all, had been in Jerusalem. I had also a small stone, or some relic, from every place of note I visited in Palestine. Truly, I valued such things more than the actual necessaries of changes of raiment; a greater proportion of the former than of the latter constituted my baggage. could have borne the loss of a shirt or
pair of stockings with greater equanimity than that of one of these relics. I had, however, three or four shirts and pairs of socks, together with a few books, including my journal.
fountains or a green knoll by the way-
"On the 21st of April, just as the sun was sinking into the sea with gilded honours, I arrived at Bukechekmijee, a truly rural spot, looking well at a distance, like most Turkish scenes, assisted by minarets, wood, and water; but on a closer survey presenting the appearance of melancholy and decay. Here, in a caffé, amongst a number of persons, sat a handsome-looking, hazel-eyed derwish, discussing some hard-boiled eggs, young onions, and bread, and drinking water from an earthen pitcher, keeping up an animated conversation with those around, with any thing but heaven beaning in his eyes not but what I have seen a few of his order as respectable and merciful-looking as heart could wish, but it was in places where it behoved them to be on their good behaviour. After taking a cup of coffee, I inquired for the khan, and was directed to a place which had once been a caffé, but was now in a neglected state, the windows stuffed with rags, and the boards of the divan appropriated to rest full of large rat-holes. On the ground lay another derwish, apparently in a dying state; he pointed downwards, intimating to me that he was going the way of all flesh. Just as I had eased my shoulders of my baggage, and was considering how I should act, when a young green-turbaned Turk came to the door and signified that the unfortunate man had the plague buboes. My dear friends may imagine my consternation. I rushed out, and having taken some wine in the shop of a Christian, I hastened from the village by a long stone bridge, resolved to pursue my journey even through the night. About midnight I arrived at a black-looking ruinous hamlet close to the sea. The Roman road for a time appeared, but it soon merged in the deep sand, which was now my only path. The khan was shut up, and in vain I knocked for admittance; so, after performing my ablutions in the sea, and spreading my quilt on the ground, I struck a light and smoked my pipe, walking like a sentry before my baggage; soon Dr. Burton often halted by these after I descried a little old Turk advancing
"I tied the basket and carpet bag by their loops at top with a piece of rope I purchased in the bazaar at Jerusalem, so that I could suspend them across the back of the neck and over the shoulders, and, on Thursday, the 20th of April, 1837, at about half-past twelve at noon, took my departure from the Jewish inn where I lodged, accompanied by a Russian Israelite, a hanger-on in the family, to convey my baggage outside the gate called Tope Capi, my point of egress from Constantinople."
The carpet bag, however, and the basket were afterwards shifted so as to hang over the breast-the bag from one shoulder, and the basket from the other, and so carried till our traveller reached Hamburgh. Fountains of pure and delicious water are of frequent occurrence in Turkey. Their erection is considered an act of piety; and were Gregory the Great toiling on foot through Turkey, under a hot sun, he might be tempted to do for the charitable Moslem what he did for Trajan.
"Drink, weary pilgrim, drink and pray For the kind soul of Sybil Grey."
towards the water, where he performed an ablution. He discovered me, and seemed a good deal disturbed, but approached in the manner of a person who would wish to appear not afraid; and I, most anxious to remove his apprehensions, soon explained myself, so that I never saw a little fellow in greater delight than he was at the extraordinary rencontre.Though extremely talkative, I did not understand one word that he had been saying. We, however, jogged on together, and being most anxious to obtain some rest, I was happy at length to learn from him that one hour from that place there was a khan. The old man, having only a small bag on his back, moved lighter than I could; I allowed him, therefore, to go on before me. To my great joy I now perceived a friendly light; my little Turk was the first to light me into a comfortable well-lighted caffé, with painted panels, sweetmeats ranged in glasses, and coffee preparing. The whole was like the enchantment of Oriental fable, where at the midnight hour I looked for nought save the sandy beach or the tenantless moor, swept by the chill whistling wind, to find myself so agreeably housed when least expected. I took a glass of arcch and a cup of coffee; beside me sat a fat Turk of the better kind, smoking and drinking coffee; his horse was led out, and he soon took his departure. 1 ascended the divan, and am persuaded never slept so soundly in Turkey-the place was clean. The proprietor, a Christian, seemed much gratified at the commendations I could not withhold. I said his caffé was a la Fringi, which he several times repeated; and seeing me looking at my tablet, took care to impress on me that the name of the town was Plavatus, in order that I should make known the excellence of his establishment.
"On awaking in the morning, behold the caffé transformed into a barber's shop. The lather was already in different stages, on sundry bald round heads, which seemed as if stuck in a pillory, when I gazed around. This is a common case in Turkey, that a caffé is also a barber's shop. In decent ones at Constantinople I have seen the razors ranged round the walls of the apartment."
"On the 12th I passed through a country beautifully diversified with hill and dale, and perceived at a distance a number of figures in white, moving up and down in a body, as if engaged in some ceremonial-I conjectured either a marriage or a funeral-who did not stir from the same spot. When I drew nearer I discovered that they were Turkish workmen with white turbans, on the road designed for the Sultan, prostrating themselves and rising up again every moment, it being their hour of prayer. They were formed in two lines on the road, one man in front like a fugleman acted as chanter, singing hymns to Ullo, to which they responded. Strict Mahometans, let their employment be what it may, leave off at the hour of prayer, and betake themselves to their devotions. This was the first body of Turkish workmen I met employed on the road-the Christians are the principal operatives. The Turks would ail wish to be gentlemen, and as long as those under them pay them tribute and respect, and permit them to have their pipes and coffee, they (regardless of the volcano ready to explode under their feet) will allow them to do what they please, now that their empire in Europe is waxen old, and ready to decay. The road which was making for the Sultan was very superficial; in some places it consisted in merely removing the sod: along the way-side posts were erected, having small flags at the top, I suppose to honour his progress through the country.”
Dr. Burton, five days after, met the Sultan himself :
"On the 17th of May, while traversing a large plain, within five hours of Rutuke, an immense motley crowd loped past; small carts came next with appeared at a distance. Outriders galofficers of the court; in a green drosky, closely covered, sat Sultan Mahomet; I could barely see that an individual or two were in it. Such variety of rude vehicles followed as baffles description: besides Mahomet's there were two or three European carriages, rather the worse of
A number of horsemen hovered round the Sultan, and a body of lancers riding at ease brought up the rere; the whole concourse was more mob-like than orderly. I took off my hat as he passed, and I thought the attendants seemed gratified at seeing a European pay respect to their sovereign."
Dr. Burton, unfortunately for himself, appears to have sought but little information respecting his route at Constan
tinople, and an unhappy imagination about a bridge over the mighty Danube, between Bulgaria and Wallachia, appears to have sorely haunted him, and to have been the cause of many a painful wandering. In fact, the only information which he received at Constantinople was a list of places taken down by him from the lips of a Jew merchant who had often journeyed from Constantinople to Vienna, and a repetition of the sounds according to his recollection appears to have been his mode of inquiring for places on his march. The whole period between his reaching Rutuke and his arrival at Silistria, was spent in search of the unlucky bridge, that seems to have converted the space between these two towns into an enchanted maze, from which, for a long time, there was no escape.
After leaving Rutuke he seems to have fancied himself already at the other side of the Danube, by a bridge, we apprehend in fact, crossing a river which at Rutuke flows into the Danube, and, lo! found himself, after all, again in the town which the Turks imagine is to be the gate by which the Russians are to enter to overthrow their empire. During these weary wanderings two scenes were encountered which we must present to our readers:
"On the 22nd of May, in order to make up for my loss of time, and the wrong course I had pursued, I seldom halted, and made good progress. The country was level, and in some parts well wooded. As night approached, I passed a village, but did not remain-resolved to make the most of my time, and expecting to meet with other places where I might rest for the night. This was, however, the last habitation I saw; and, to add to my discomfort, the thunder began to mutter, and the leaden-coloured clouds to gather, and that where no shelter was nigh. Night and rain came on together, with vivid flashes of lightning. I was soon wet to the skin, and found myself walking on the long grass, having lost the imperfect track. To complete my misfortune, I fell at almost every step, frequently dropping a pipe-tube, purchased in Jerusalein, that I carried in my hand; to secure which, I forgot my forlorn condition, and groped diligently till I found it, notwithstanding the torrents of rain and the thunder's roar.
"I now resolved to follow where I heard any barking of dogs (for which one needs not wait long in Turkey.) This opportunely occurred, und, soon after, I
came to a sheep-pen, the fence of which was composed of large reeds. Two shepherds appeared, who drew off their dogs, that had already seized me by the cloak. The younger had the broad-leaved, lowcrowned hat worn by the peasantry of Wallachia, his raven hair falling at each side on his shoulders, with such an apostolical appearance that I supposed him The elder shepherd incapable of deceit. wore the black sheep-skin cap. Their hut, also constructed of reeds, and of conical form, stood close by; yet, frail as this reedy habitation was, with large apertures towards the top, it nevertheless had a good wooden door, furnished with lock and key. Whilst they were kindling a fire, I spread my quilt and cloak-my travels having taught me to make myself at home wherever I came. The shepherds looked upon me as a person who had dropped from the clouds, for it certainly must have been an unexpected visit to them. They, however, began to prepare their supper by putting coarse flour into a pot with water, boiling it to a consistence, and then turning it out upon a low table, in a state half pudding, half bread; after which, they cut it into quarters by placing a string under the mass and drawing it up through it. This, with the shepherds' homely curds,' constituted our repast.
"The covetous eyes of the younger fellow observed a gold ring on my finger, which certainly was inconsistent with the pilgrim character I had assumed; he asked to see it, and, unsuspicious of his intent, I handed it to him. Never before did I find such difficulty in drawing it off my finger-thus warning me, as it were, of the disastrous consequences. At first he wished merely to exchange his clumsy silver ring for it, which I, of course, declined, and at length became so charmed with his acquisition that I could neither get my own nor his. I regret to say, this fellow was a Christian; and I was thus wounded in the house of my friends. Such treatment I never experienced from a Turk, or even an Arab. To excuse his conduct, he would not allow me to be a Christian; and, pointing to my Bedouin cloak, said,None but a Turk would wear such a garment.' He also objected to my ignorance of Turkish, Romanistic, and Hungarian ;-in short, seemed to consider me fair game for his predatory spirit. Had I not shown some determination, he would have opened my baggage, (in which were some silver spoons,) and plundered me to the utmost. No redress was near; and I was compelled to leave my valuable ring. He very kindly pointed out my route in the morning, and set the dogs after me. In
The other was at a wretched village not far from Silistria.
"A miserable wine-house received me the only khan in the place, which was kept by two bachelor-brothers; one of whom was a fat man, that remained at home and dealt out arech to his peasant customers, whilst his brother attended to the extern affairs of this establishment.
"I spread my quilt on the clay floor of an apartment where the fowl had the same access as myself, and through the roof of which the rain gently descended. The room adjoining was open for company, where, amongst the dignitaries of the place, sat the village popas, crossing himself, playing cards, and drinking arech from morn to dewy eve, both reverenced and laughed at by those around. Had it not been for his cap (which was much dinged) I should not have distinguished him from the peasantry. Like many of them, he wore a white woollen tunic, girded with a black leather belt, short drawers of the same, but neither shoes nor stockings. The brothers permitted him to do as he pleased, and thus he had the arech bottle at his entire disposal. In the evening they closed the doors, and even these unnurtured persons seemed happy at the exclusion of the noisy, vacant throng which frequented their house during the day. When thus left to themselves, they appeared to advantage. The fat brother was a devotee, but far from unreasonable, and represented to the other that the essence of Christianity was the same amongst all its professors. Thus extending the cords of the tabernacle, that I might also be received in its kindly embrace, we sat down to a supper of Russian sauce, made of fish, in which to dip our bread, together with boiled eggs, on a table five inches from the ground: after which, a door opened which I had not observed before, and in this wretched cottage appeared a neat apartment furnished as a sanctuary, where the fat brother performed an evening service, whilst the other went through the house with a small box of incense, repeating the word Christian when he presented it to my nose. The one who officiated as priest was such a character as in Ireland would be designated a man that understands his religion.' I confess I was by no means displeased with what I saw in these two amiable persons; who, though proprietors of an arech-house, yet kept its frequenters within bounds, and,
in the closing of their doors at night, shut out the publican character, whilst a higher tone of feeling triumphed over its disguise."
Dr. Burton does not seem to admire Wallachia much-and is inclined to give the preference to Turkey, which does not, either, occupy any very high place in his esteem:
« Wallachia is at present a nominally independent principality, much under Russian influence; its inhabitants are Christians of the Greek church; except for the groups of seven clumsy, wooden crosses which we every now and then passed on the way, I saw no difference between Wallachia and Turkey; in truth, the preference might, without injustice, be given to the latter country, the landscape of which is so much its superior; exerting herself to rank with European powers would make the traveller expect more, and yet not even a road, the primary evidence of civil association, facili tates his progress.
"The inhabitants have a thievish, black look, with large, low-crowned hats; perhaps the occurrence of the loss of my ring may have prejudiced me against this costume, but I am informed they are not over exact as to how they treat the property of others. Besides this broad hat of puritanical form, they wear the tunic reaching to the knees, with a girdle, to which is attached in front their tobacco pouch, pricker, and implements for striking light: they have short drawers and sandals, the thongs of which tie round the leg and fasten on a kind of woollen leggings, they have also long hair and mustachios, but the beard has gone entirely out of use, except with the popas, or some very old persons in remote parts of the country; a few of the inhabitants wear a dress of dark-brown cloth, con sisting of a loose jacket, wide breeches, and a sheep-skin cap; you may also see some with the Turkish jacket, ornamented on the back, and the Turkish slippers these, with the large hat, have an incongruous appearance; they, however, combine the costumes of Europe and Asia. One would almost suppose the Wallachian was puzzled what habit to assume, and thus you see Europe and Asia maintain in him a constant conflict. On advancing into the interior, however, the broad hat, tunic, belt, drawers, and sandals, most of which he inherits from his Dacian ancestors, seem to obtain the ascendancy. A Wallachian peasant sometimes appears in a shaggy, sheep-skin cloak, from which you see him, like a bear, shake the heavy drops after a
shower; and united with this, let my readers imagine the aforesaid broad hat, knowing, low, round crown, and long black hair. I regret much that I was in no mood for sketching, otherwise my friends should have had a rich variety of Wallachian costume; but my spirits were sunk; I had a journey before me that I was uncertain how I should accomplish; and now trust that the description will satisfy my indulgent readers.
"These people speak a very corrupt Latin, called Romanisti, which I think in many respects approaches the Italian. This circumstance I was not at the time prepared for, and was not a little surprised when I first heard their language, and the sentinel in the lazaretto at night, calling out every half hour, asculta,' (hear,) evidently the Latin word ausculta. The Wallachians affirm, (and I believe with some truth,) that their race has been blended with the Roman legions who were encamped amongst the ancient Dacians, to subdue them. The language is, however, now mixed up with a number of Turkish and
"Wine-houses flourish much in this country; their recurrence by the wayside is much more frequent than the huge, logwood-coloured crosses; a bunch of shavings, a bottle, or a small hoop, are the signs by which they may be distinguished; some of these houses were wicker roofs over an excavation in the ground.
I consider Wallachia more objectionable than Turkey, since it affects to rank itself with European polity, and professes Christianity; yet how lamentably is the traveller disappointed at finding the same backwardness, the same indolence, and the same filth, in most cases even worse than in Turkey; they seem a selfish and boorish race-in short, things had only changed their name, but not their nature."
We would willingly extract Dr. Burton's description of the Wallachian capital, Bucharest, emerging from Ottoman sway, and attempting to take its place among the cities of Christendom; pause with him at the last lazaretto, that of Kinneen, which, for a lazaretto appears really to have been comfortable; have caught a sketch from Transylvania; a picture from Hungary. But we must draw to a conclusion. We can well conceive the home associations which crowded on our traveller's mind when at Hermanstadt in Transylvania, on what was once and recently the border of Christendom. For the first time since leaving home he "beheld with delight the spires of
churches, and heard the solemn pealing of their bells." Dr. Burton says→
"As I viewed this city at a distance, it reminded me strongly of Shrewsbury. The inhabitants of Hermanstadt, and a widely extended district, are a colony of Saxons, and profess the Lutheran faith: they still adhere to the language and manners of their forefathers. Sometimes you hear the Romanisti, and sometimes German, from the same individual; but there is a neatness and order in their habitations and farms that evince a superiority to those around. In the villages where they dwell, their church spires vie with those of the parochial fane-the latter being only distinguishable by the cross that crowns its summit."
Our traveller still footed it through Pesth to Vienna, thence through Prague, Dresden, Berlin, and to Hamburgh. At Hamburgh he embarked for London, and reached the Tower stairs on Monday the 16th day of October, 1837, in the same month, and he had sailed from Liverpool in the on the same day of the month in which preceding year. Before we have done we must make two observations; one is, that we fear Dr. Burton's mode of
addressing the Jews may have (though, we are sure, quite unintentionally on his part) a tendency to lead them to think, that to be of the Hebrew blood is every thing, and to lead them to forget, that though a national restoration should await them, to participate in it, an humbled and penitent heart, a delivery from blood-guiltiness, through the acknowledgment of a crucified Saviour, and the cross which all must bear, ere peace and the deliverance from every enemy can be our lot, are necessary for each individual. other observation is, that no where are there any traces, in Dr. Burton's book, of a disposition, which we think sometimes appears in our Protestant missionaries in the east, to treat the Oriental churches as destitute of all light -to undervalue their apostolical succession-and as, in one instance which we remember to have read of an English clergyman reproving a Greek prelate for calling the blessed Virgin the mother of God, to incur the peril of leading the Greek Christians to imagine that the Church of England is infected with the Nestorian heresy. But the mode of dealing with the Oriental church would be an extensive subject; our time is come, and, like other shadows, we must depart.