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good sense will preserve him; but we are bound to state that we have noticed some symptoms of the disease in his
volume, among which the following sonnet is perhaps the most alarming.(p. 216.)
"Let Fancy make her journey as she wills;
Green grass, and spiry hedge-rows, and quick rills,
In mood as wild, the other morning I
Traversed with comrades twain the Charnwood hills.
Looked into mine, a balmy look of bliss
Who does the reader imagine?
"The angel Michael that, the Patriarch Joseph this."
Whether any profound meaning be hidden in this singular piece of extravagance, we are unable to say; but if "the solemnity which surrounds every phase of a human soul" is to be admitted as an excuse for the publication of every grotesque absurdity into which our runaway fancy may lead us, we know not where the matter is to end. We are quite sure that the droll combinations which occur to us every night in dreams may assert an equal claim with Mr. Burbidge's oddlymatched pair of companions; indeed we think that in point of "solemnity," night-dreams have decidedly the advantage over day-dreams. With regard to language, Mr. Burbidge has shown a judicious preference for words of Saxon origin. He has also gone back to Spenser and Shakspere-those "wells of English undefiled"-for some very useful and musical words which had fallen into disuse. We think, however, that rathe (the positive of rather,) pight for pitched, pleach (interweave,) and frose for frozen, are,
perhaps, a little too antiquated; nor do we consider it desirable to increase the number of Latin words with which Johnson deluged the language, by reviving the use of such words as antre, amenity, and umbrage, in the sense of shade.
But it is time to close our notice of these poems, which we have endea voured to view with the indulgence claimed by the first publication of a young and talented writer. have found in them some matter for censure, we also find much to praise ; especially in the freshness and originality of thought which so favourably distinguishes them from the common run of new poetry. The extracts we have selected will convey to our readers a fair notion of the contents of the volume; and if these, as is not unfrequently the case, have proved the most interesting parts of our article, let the public remember to whom they are indebted for the pleasure afforded by them, and act accordingly.
DR. BURTON'S JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM.*
EMPIRES have fallen, and nations have perished, as century has followed century in weary progress, amidst the drunken revelry, the sensual enjoy
ments, the tears, and sufferings of a world groaning because it loves the revolt in which it has joined of a mighty, though mean and degraded
* Narrative of a Voyage from Liverpool to Alexandria, touching at the Island of Malta, and from thence to Beirout in Syria; with a Journey to Jerusalem, Voyage from Jaffa to Cyprus and Constantinople, and a Pedestrian Journey from Constantinople, through Turkey, Wallachia, Hungary, and Prussia, to the Town of Hamburg, in the years 1836-37. By the Rev. Nathaniel Burton, L.L.D., late Assistant Chaplain to the Garrison of Dublin, and to the Royal Artillery. Dublin: John Yates, Grafton-street; Curry and Co., Upper Sackville-street.
spirit against his Creator; yet one nation," peeled and scattered" hitherto, still survives. The blood of the faithful patriarch, who went forth at the summons which called him from the ties of kindred and of home to wander in reliance on promises which were to leave him on the earth a weary pilgrim, has swelled into a mighty tide, and told the world the faithfulness of the blessing which appealed to the myriad fires of the midnight sky, and the countless sands which girdle the ocean, as its everlasting witnesses. That blood is still pure, and distinct from the tribes amidst which the descendants of the father of the faithful have been driven in their mysterious dispersion: for though there have been ages, and climes in which they have pined beneath pangs as bitter as wrung the bosom of the first murderer, and pangs, too, like his, retributive of a brother's blood-yet have they borne up, and continued a distinct race, refusing to seek a shelter from their woes by blending with the Gentiles. Vengeance has been upon them; and a fearful proof have they given to every rebel within God's mighty realms that the lapse of time alone does not bring the decay of the fires of His wrath. "Blood is upon them and upon their children."
Audiit adventum Domini quem solis Hiberi
On the Jew, however, the spectacle has made no impression; and, with a heart steeled against Christianity, yet thrilling to the hope of the restoration of his tribes, he stands before the generation that now lives and breathes, a wonder and a warning. Yet there has been a change in the feeling of the Christian world towards the Jew-all unchanged as he is in his infidelity. Many within the Church have begun to feel deeply that no peculiar depravity has been the lot of the Hebrew nation, and that every crime against their God -even the last dreadful crime against the sacred person of His incarnate Son-might have been, if the perverseness and rebellion of their own hearts had been visited as they deserved by the withdrawal of the softening influences of the divine grace, the crime of their own souls. Christians have begun to think and feel, that if Judah justified her gentile sisters, typified by the guilty cities which the black flood of the Dead Sea covers, her gentile sisters, cleansed though they have been by the holy waters of baptism, have gone far in a career which may, perhaps, justify the "treacherous Judah." Has Christendom no idol shrine ? Have living temples been undefiled within her pale? Has "no covering cherub "within the church, like the prototype archangel in heaven, stained his beauty and his brightness, and sought to scale the throne which can only be filled by the Son of the Most High. Christians feel more vividly than for many an age they have felt, the words of the Apostle-" Beloved for the fathers' sakes," and "the gifts and calling of God are without repentance." Their minds dwell on the mysterious words, "for if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the recovery of them be but life from the dead ?"
The land which "the rivers have
spoiled" seems to wait for the descen
dauts of him to whom the awful oath of God promised it. The crusades have poured their hosts into Syria
Vesper habet roseus, et quem novus excipit the noblest blood of Europe has crim
soned the soil of Palestine-the heart of Christian chivalry never trembled before the infidel; Rome, which loves to treasure every relic, would delight to possess the sepulchre of Christ. Mahometanism is feeble; yet there the Christian, as if on the soil of the Holy Land Christ must be in bondage while its people are in vassalage, must wait the pleasure of the rude Moslem
soldier to approach the tomb of our Saviour; and on the holy mountain still stands the fane of the Eastern Antichrist.
We have been led into these observations because the feeling towards the people of Israel, which we have mentioned, is one which breathes through almost every page of Dr. Burton's singular and interesting narrative. He never beholds a Jew but he remembers that of his people according to the flesh, He came, who is, over all, God-blessed for ever! Palestine is to him a sacramental land-the type and symbol of a state of everlasting blessedness-yet the spot whence that blessedness shall flow forth to the children of men, for there shall stand the feet of the Lord of Hosts incarnate there shall letter and spirit blend, and the Sion of our earth be united with that heavenly Sion which can never be separated from its King.
Dr. Burton sailed from Liverpool on the 16th of October, 1836, for Alexandria. The vessel touched at Malta, and reached Alexandria on the 23d of November. Malta and Alexandria have been so often de
scribed, and are so thoroughly known, that with respect to them we shall only say that Dr. Burton has given his own lively impressions in a lively and entertaining manner. We hasten to Palestine, whither be went in the true spirit of a Christian pilgrim, and of one ever remembering that he is a graft on the olive tree of Israel. From Alexandria our traveller sailed to Beirout, in Syria, (the ancient Berytus), where he arrived on the 10th of December. Here he was doomed to the misery of a lazaretto; and our readers who may meditate a journey to the East may prepare themselves for enduring the lot which
At Beirout Dr. Burton resolved to proceed to Jerusalem, making the whole journey by land; and for that purpose he contracted with a proprietor of mules for two of those useful animals- -one for himself, and one to carry his luggage. He was to be conveyed to Jerusalem for 250 piastres (about £2 10s. of our money.) The old Arab muleteer is described as a "hale old man, near seventy years of age, middle sized, strong-built, with an Irish old man's face, cunning eyes, and a gurgling voice, ready to justify himself or complain-still not a bad disposition."
The land of Israel, as the traveller
enters it from the borders of Tyre, is thus described :
"Jan. 19.-We descended from the eminence on which the fortalice was built, into a plain, and now perceived the hills of the land of Israel. These hills are, for the most part, of an equal height, and can be rendered serviceable even to their summits. The whole country consisted of amphitheatres of round hills, sheltering rich plains, some of which were extensive, some small. The hills were lime-stone rock, and reminded me in many respects of the county of Clare; but those in the Holy Land were not of such continuous rock, for they could be cultivated in the interstices. Many of them had been terraced with earth and stones, and had olive and fig-trees growing even on their summits, but from the negligence of the present tenants of the soil were covered with loose round stones. Nevertheless, olive orchard succeeded fig orchard, and fig, olive.”
Dr. Burton passed through Nazareth, and was hospitably entertained by the friars of the Latin convent.
While he had been at Beirout, an
earthquake which was there slightly felt, had at Saphet and Tiberias been most fatal, and many had perishedmany had been reduced to poverty. At Nazareth, he says—
"The monks, who seemed not to have quite recovered from the shock of the recent earthquake, showed me several great fissures which divided the walls from top to bottom. Four persons were dashed to pieces, who had taken refuge on the roof of the building; they informed me those who fled to the sancacking at night since my departure from tuary escaped unhurt. After my bivouBeirout, it was a comfort to me to find myself at Nazareth, in a wholesome apartment, in which was a good bed and snow-white sheets. The monks had already dined, but I was served with a collation in my own room. It happened to be Friday, and they brought me the head
of a fish that had been taken in the Lake
of Tiberias, some fine Italian maccaroni, of a very broad shape, grated cheese, poached eggs, bread, and a pewter flagon of wine, with another of water."
About four o'clock on the evening of Tuesday, the 24th of January, 1837, Dr. Burton entered Jerusalem by the Damascus gate, and repaired to the Latin Convent, where he was lodged
and kindly received for thirty days, the period allotted to pilgrims. With "due feet" he first visited the church of the Holy Sepulchre, beneath the roof of which are the tomb of our Saviour and Mount Calvary. Here, on this sacred spot, Latins, Armenians, and Copts have their oratories. Divided as they are by the lamentable schisms which have afflicted the church, here they meet; and here Faith keeps her vigil by the tomb of her risen Lord
seeking the living among the dead," as some carping spirits, misapplying the angel's words, have been disposed to say, but strengthening herself by the sight of that spot which must needs have a tendency to bring more vividly before the eye of the mind the great events of our salvation, and to impress them on the heart. In the communities from various and remote quarters of the Christian world, which watch this holy place-in the succession of pilgrims, which from the first have visited it, the infidel is warned that the sufferings, the death, the resurrection of our blessed Lord are cunningly-devised fable."
We were reminded of Mary's box of precious ointment of spikenard by the following passage :
"Under the principal altar, which is tabular, is a hole into which, it is said, the cross was inserted. It is surrounded by a plate of ornamented gold or silver gilt. I put my hand into this aperture, and felt the natural rock; some pious person seemed to have perfumed it with
otto of roses." 99
"The yard in front of the Church of the Sepulchre, which appears to have been formerly roofed from the bases of broken columns which are still in the ground, reminded me in some respects of what Christ's church-yard in the city of Dublin formerly was-a mart for all sorts of commodities, but especially beads, various articles of mother-of-pearl, crosses, medals, &c.; the entrance also is similar, through a narrow covered passage from the street. A number of persons wait every day at the gate of the church, which they frequently kiss, signing themselves with the cross, till the Turks open it, when they rush in to visit and kiss with reverence the holy places."
During his stay at Jerusalem, Dr. Burton visited Bethlehem, accompa
nied by an English gentleman whom he met in Jerusalem. As the convent and the sacred place which it contains have been so often described by preceding travellers, we forbear to extract Dr. Burton's description, though our readers who wish to refresh their remembrance will find it and the sacred scenes at Jerusalem well described in Dr. Burton's pages. We must, however, extract the following passages: they are illustrative of the spirit in which our pilgrim journeyed through Palestine :
"The Latin Christians of Palestine have long breasted an ocean of persecu tion, and amidst the ruins of their sanctuaries have preserved their fidelity: in many places impoverished, and nearly extinguished, they yet clung to their hallowed walls, and, in the patience of Jesus Christ, await the triumph of his empire over every hostile power; they have now some relaxation, and participate in the fruits of that liberality which is diffusing itself through Syria; the highway' is opening by the ordinance of just heaven, and the rolling waters of mighty Euphrat are in the process of exsiccation, that the way for the kings of the East may be
"Scarcely a quarter of a mile to the east of Bethlehem is the cave where Joseph concealed the Holy Family, whilst he arranged matters for their flight into Egypt. It is more in its natural state thau other honoured places, and is used little farther in the same direction is the as a chapel by the Greek Christians. A village of the Shepherds to whom the Angels announced the joyful tidings of the nativity; it crowns a small craggy hill lower than those which surround it, and in the glen below is some good arable and pasture land. My friend and I sat for some time in this vicinity, and endeavoured to rally our thoughts to reach the grandeur of the events-a spot predestined in the councils of the Eternal-patriarchal Boaz, the stripling rustic David, and a host of astonished angels, wise men from afar, and the infant God-man; and if, in the consideration angels are lost in amazement, the intellects of an initiatory existence must wait and adore in silence. I
repeated aloud the anthem, Behold I bring you glad tidings,' endeavouring to reconcile the adoration of the Christian world with the scene around, which, alas I has now a contracted, dreary, and desolate appearance.
An interesting boy kept close to us all the time, kissing my hands to show me he was a Christian. There was an innocent subdued manner about him, a kind of silent expression that
a covenant of peace existed between us; this, in some degree, was a redemption for the spiritless state of this important place. Christianity, after all, justifies its heaven-born original, however degrading the circumstances may be in which it is placed."
The following account of a pilgrim's fare in Jerusalem may interest our readers. We beg them, however, to admire the stoutness of the heart which could contemplate a state of exchequer such as that here described, on the eve of such a journey as awaited Dr.
"As I before mentioned, whilst in Jerusalem I catered for myself. Two or three green-turbaned Arabs (the descendants of Mahomet) sold warm milk in the bazaar, at four or five paras the bowl, according to the size. This they ladled out with sufficient dignity, and with some Arab bread, hot from the hearth, I contrived to make a wholesome
breakfast. Sometimes I boiled a little coffee in my own apartment. The coffee is very good-it is ground between two large stones; eggs also, are very reasonable. But I chiefly depended for my dinner on the kabobs, which are small bits of mutton chopped up with its fat and some herbs, and roasted on a small iron skewer over a fire of charcoal. They are sold at three or four paras each; so that for twenty paras (a penny or three halfpence of our money), a moderate man may have dinner. There is also a good supply of large radishes. In the oriental towns they have walking auctioneers, who go up and down the bazaar with an article slung across their shoulder; this they propose for sale with a loud voice for so much, walking along at a smart pace. When that is sold, which may be a coat or embroidered Turkish jacket, it may be perhaps succeeded by a large copper brazier for charcoal, which is disposed of in the same way.
Having now fully determined on my departure, though possessed of not more than five sovereigns in cash, I disposed, at a loss, of some of my effects, making pre
sents of others, in order to reduce them
to such a size that I might carry them on my back in my projected peregrination to England. How I tried my pack on my back, and strutted about my cell in Jerusalem, to try what weight I could carry! My prospect of reaching home was not of the most lively description; yet God had so providentially led me, that I felt an assurance in committing myself into his gracious hand. Most of the books and manuscripts I had I gave
to the American missionaries, and wrote a Latin letter to the monks of the convent where I resided, presenting them with a curious Latin Bible, printed in 1525, together with a small Turkish gold coin. The Bible they kept, but sent me back the coin, saying that they took no money in the Holy Land."
From Jerusalem, on the 24th of February, 1837, Dr. Burton set out for Jaffa, which he reached the day after. We would willingly, did our space permit, pause at Jaffa; but we must proceed, and can only say that the
reader will find our traveller alive to fitted to awaken. the many associations which Jaffa is There a certain hakim, or wandering physician, was Dr. Burton's fellow-lodger in the khan, and a very finished and amusing portrait of this worthy has been the consequence.
From Jaffa Dr. Burton sailed to Scala di Lanarka, in Cyprus. Here he was detained for eleven days, and in very trying circumstances-anxious to reach Europe, and there commence his arduous and toilsome journey on foot-the only mode suited to his scanty finances. He was unexpectedly and providentially enabled to reach Constantinople with as little pressure on his purse as might be, and generously treated on his passage by a young Venetian captain, in whose ship he went. Constantinople has been so often and so recently described, that we cannot afford room from our rapidly diminishing space for Dr. Burton's sketch of that imperial city. Here we behold him, with less than four sovereigns in his purse, setting out on his perilous enterprise-a solitary journey through Turkey, Wallachia, and Hungary, to Vienna, and thence to Hanburgh-Hamus to be scaled, the flood of the Danube to be passed, the Mahometan bigot, the rude Wallachian, the jealous Austrian to be encountered. With no frame steeled by early hardtoil and difficulty. Right gallantly, ships, he was suddenly to be tried with however, was the feat performed; and perhaps a more dashing tramp there has never been since the days of Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penny less. We must give Dr. Burton's picture of himself and of his appliances at his departure from Constantinople :
"But now, my dear readers, behold me, after having been brought up tenderly, a mother's care, her youngest