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unaided resources, from the first moment of its existence, this has been more the result of accident than of choice. It was because the emigrants were exiles and neglected. But, in the case of South Australia, the principle has been adopted with a full consciousness of its value and importance.
The principle which has been adopted for the disposal of land, is one of still greater originality, and of far greater importance, inasmuch, as when properly carried into effect, it involves also the principle of self-support. We have already observed, that the proper method to follow in establishing a colony is, not to people it with a single class of settlers, such as mechanics and farmers, but to transport a little state or community, perfect and properly proportioned in all its parts, and destined to be highly civilized from the very commencement. To retain this young society in this desirable condition, it is necessary that the relations between capital, land, and labour, should be in due proportion; or, in other words, as the capital and labour of the young colony are not great, some means might be devised to restrict the quantity of land, and thus to prevent the population from being dissipated over a vast surface. The proper and obvious method to accomplish this object is, by selling land at a uniform price, which must be sufficiently high to ensure the purchasers being capitalists, and able to improve the land which they have acquired. Nothing can be more pernicious than disposing of vast blocks of land, either by favouritism in grants, or at a small price, inducing individuals to retain extensive and uncultivated estates, till they acquire a high degree of value from the industry of those around, whose prosperity they have obstructed. On the other hand, if this accumulation of land be prevented, the means adopted to accomplish it may be either ineffectual, or absolutely mischievous, and the history of Upper Canada will illustrate this, where every objectionable plan was had recourse to, till at length, by a process of exhaustion, the proper plan was adopted, merely because no other remained for trial. Thus, at first, land was granted unconditionally; and as such land was applied for without forethought, by people who did not possess any of the steadiness or perseverance necessary for the laborious life of a Canadian farmer, the farm was soon disposed of, often for a quantity VOL. XIV.
of rum. Subsequently, the title to the land was withheld until the occupant had fulfilled certain stipulated improvements on the property, such as clearing so many acres, building a log-house, and constructing a portion of road in front of his grant. In this case, the emigrant often got into debt, and, after struggling for a few years, betook himself to the United States, while the creditor obtained the property, often at a price far below the value of the labour expended on it. From this and other mismanagements, it has resulted, that in Upper Canada, with its scanty population, but a comparatively small portion of land remains at the disposal of the state.
In South Australia, the only method has been adopted, which is in any respect capable of meeting every difficulty. As the land is disposed of, in every case, at a fixed price, all idea of favouritism is completely excluded, and every one may become the proprietor of as much land as he can afford to purchase, and in any locality which his sagacity and knowledge may prefer. In every case, also, the price of the land must be paid for in ready money, and in no case are any remote and contingent conditions annexed to the purchase, and it is justly considered that the immediate outlay of the purchase money will do more to ensure prudence on the part of the colonist than any other plan, and also render it probable that he has reserved some of his capital to expend on the cultivation of his property.
The supply of labour, in accordance with the plan on which the new colony is founded, is as nearly as possible proportioned to the amount of land purchased, as the price of such land is always laid out on importing free labourers from England, the price of land, in some degree, regulates the rate of wages. In accordance with the views of its founders, South Australia is, under no circumstances, to become a penal colony. No convicts are permitted to be landed on its shores; and every colonist must at least maintain the character of an honest man. As convict and slave labour are both prohibited in South Australia, the only resource left was, either the plan which they have adopted, or that adopted in Western Australia, of engaging indentured servants. This latter plan, however, has, in every case where it has been tried, proved a failure, and the inducements to break the terms of the engagement with the
master, are too strong even for the best disposed men so that this plan could only be enforced by a system of legislation which would render it little better than a temporary slavery. The other method is of importing labourers free of all expense, and permitting them to seek employment where their interrests lead them; and in this manner, while free scope is given to competition, no one can become a landowner who has not some capital to enable him to obtain that distinction. It is true, that in colonies where labour is, under any conditions, an expensive commodity, its possessors are apt to acquire a certain independence, and even rudeness of manners, to which there is no alternative but to submit. Still the labourers of South Australia are far superior in civility and principle to those of Upper Canada. In the latter colony, nothing is more remarkable than the sudden change effected in the manners of the lower order of emigrants. The individual who, a few months before, during his passage out, would touch his hat most respectfully to the humblest inmate of the quarterdeck, soon learns to assume an air of equality when meeting with the first people in the country. In South Australia, the relations between employer and labourer are on as healthy a footing as can be desired under the circumstances, and the testimony of Mr. James, who is, in most cases, a severe critic on the new colony, is very satisfactory on the subject.
"It is pleasing," he says, "to see in Adelaide the importance and respectability of the labouring classes. In proportion as they were scarce, they were properly estimated, and the responsibility of their situations, particularly shepherds, stockkeepers, and such like, had a tendency very much to lessen the distinction between master and man. Of course this treatment, on the part of the employer, made the servant a more important personage in his own eyes, unveiled his selfrespect, and made him doubly careful of the property committed to his charge, and altogether seemed to take off the pains of servitude. The author has often dined with respectable residents, where the overseer, after washing his hands, drew in his chair among the company, and not only with perfect propriety, but entertaining his master's guests with accounts of his days' work, the sheep and cows, &c. Though such a practice cannot be said to obtain much in England, especially in towns, yet it is the practice in many;
but coming, as the author did, from New South Wales, where there are few besides convict servants, it struck him as equally strange and praiseworthy. There seemed, also, a quickness and gentility about the females of South Australia contrasting very favourably with the rubbish of Sidney; and a person coming from the eastern colonies would not fail to be struck with
the superior ruddiness, simplicity, and purity of the South Australian damsels, in strolling up to the tents and near the huts of the labouring people. They all seemed healthy and happy-the wife asking the gentleman to come out of the sun and rest himself, and, at the same time, offering all they had for his refreshment. It does not take long to see that there is a vast difference between the state of society-I mean, among the working classes here and the same classes in the other colonies.
But in South Australia labour is the best capital you can have, and the wages so high, that a commonly conducted man can maintain himself and family in greater plenty and abundance than a gentleman; and it follows, as a matter of course, that there is not much scope in the colony for the talents of educated men without some capital; and if persons have not got this capital either in their hands or their pockets, it is of little use having it in their heads."
In this respect the colony of South Australia deserves the highest praise, as it has succeeded so well in preserving not merely a class of labourers but a class of capitalists, and thus prevented the otherwise inevitable decline in civilization and also in morality, which takes place when scarcely any but labouring people are the founders of a colony. In Upper Canada, so often alluded to as affording a striking contrast with every thing that is sound in colonization, the effects of dispersion upon settlers, consisting almost entirely of the labouring classes, have been most prejudicial. They were described by an intelligent observer as consisting of refuse of mankind, recently emancipated a lawless and unprincipled rabble, the from the subordination that exists in an advanced state of society, and all equal in point of right and possession, composing, of course, a democracy of the most revolting kind. No individual possesses more influence than another; and were any one, whose qualifications and pretensions entitled him to take the lead, to assume a superiority or to make an attempt at improvement, he would be strenuously opposed by all the others. Thus the whole inhabitants of a new settlement march sluggishly
forward at the same pace; and if one advances in the least degree before the others, he is immediately pulled back to the ranks.
That this has hitherto been the case in most settlements, can be proved by a reference to facts. The farmers of the Niagara district, many of whom have been thirty or forty years in the country, and now possess fine unencumbered farms, are in no respect superior to the inhabitants of the Talbot settlement. They are equally ignorant and equally unpolished, and one would suppose, from their mode of life, that they were equally poor. Their minds have made no advance, and their ideas have not expanded in proportion to the increase of their money. Is it, then, to be supposed that the people who now fill the settlements of Upper Canada, and carry with them similar ideas and prejudices, will make greater progress in improvement than persons of the same description have done before
Few of the farms in the more improved parts of the province retain their original owners, who have generally been bought out by people of similar habits but greater wealth; and new settlements have almost invariably changed their inhabitants within ten or twelve years after their commencement.
Such is the result of colonization in Upper Canada as compared with South Australia; and although the former splendid province possesses a far superior soil and the most magnificent water communication, and has been settled for near a century, still it is behind the youngest of our settlements in the race of improvement; and for this no other reasons can be assigned than the more correct principles on which South Australia has been occupied, and that a higher grade of people emigrate at present, which sent few of its members abroad thirty or forty years ago.
In commencing a new colony, however sound the principles may be, a vast deal depends on the prudence and energy with which they are carried into operation. A few blunders or misfortunes at the outset will not fail to retard the progress of the settlement for many years. The Swan River colony is an example of this, where the preliminary difficulties, most of which might easily have been obviated, gave a shock to the settlement from
which it is only beginning to recover. Their example was not lost on the fathers of South Australia, who were careful to start their child fairly into life with a sufficient stock to enable him to commence his establishment on a safe and comfortable footing. To preclude the possibility of famine, or even of a scarcity of provisions, the commissioners took care that ample supplies should be forwarded from time to time, and while they had no inten tion of trading in articles of food, they adopted the judicious plan of keeping on hand a sufficient quantity of stores to prevent the market-price from rising to an unreasonable height. In consequence of these excellent arrangements, the settlers had no preliminary famines to contend with, although such an ordeal used to form the first event in the history of any young colony. No doubt many errors were committed, as was to have been expected in such an experiment; but many of them appear to have been rather the result of over anxiety to anticipate any possible contingency than from neglect to the comforts of the emigrants. The following quotation from Mr. James, an able but very censorious observer of the management of the new colony, and of the principles on which it was established, will prove that famine was not one of the evils to be apprehended:
"This is Port Adelaide! Port Misery would be a better name; for nothing in any other part of the world can surpass it in every thing that is wretched and inconvenient. Packages of goods and heaps of merchandise are lying about in every direction, as if they had cost nothing -stacks of what were once beautiful London bricks crumbling away like gingerbread, and evidently at each returning tide half covered by the flood-trusses of hay now rotten, and Norway pines scattered about as if they had no owneriron ploughs and rusty harrows-cases of door-frames and windows that had once been glazed heaps of the best slates, half tumbling down-winnowing machines broken to pieces-blocks of Roman cement now hard as stone-Sydney cedar and laths, and shingles from Van Dieman's Land, in every direction ;-whilst on the high ground are to be seen pigs eating through the flour sacks, and kegs of raisins, with not only the head out but half the contents onions and potatoes to be had for the picking up. The sight
There must be some exaggeration here, for a few pages farther on we are informed that the price of flour was 27s. per 100lbs., onions 6d. to 1s. per lb., potatoes 15s. per 112lbs., bricks £4 per 1000!!!
is disheartening. What with the sun and the rain-the sand and the floods-the thieves with four legs and the thieves with two-the passengers hug themselves at the recollection that they have brought no merchandise for sale, and glad enough to take care of themselves."
Passing over the rather ungenerous nature of these remarks, they afford, at all events, satisfactory evidence that the wants of the early settlers had been abundantly provided for. The colonists of Western Australia had unfortunately no such grounds for complaint. A little profusion of this kind was a far cheaper alternative than a scarcity of only a few weeks' duration.
The care which has been taken to keep the subject of South Australian colonization before the public was also an important element in its success. It has become the topic of discussion in almost every company, and its history is criticised in every newspaper; and although this has sometimes bordered on that vulgar trick called puffing, still the opponents of the colony have performed a valuable service by bringing every questionable matter under discussion. Meanwhile, emigrants are daily flocking to the country, and with their increase new land is rapidly disposed of, and that formerly purchased is becoming every day more valuable. Much of the land originally sold at 12s. per acre will bring £2, and town lots have, of course, increased in value far more rapidly, being raised £100 an
Concerning the state of society in South Australia, we have as yet but little information, nor could any social peculiarities have time to spring up in a society of three or four years' growth. As might have been expected, in a colony founded after a careful discussion of the first principles in political economy, we may expect to hear of abundance of projectors, and that economical and statistical speculations will occupy much of their attention. Massachusets still bears the marks of its puritan origin, and perhaps South Australia may for many ages supply reasoners to the southern hemisphere, and the vaticination of Gibbon may be nearly realised, and New Holland may boast of its Hume or its Locke. All, however, that we have positively learned on this subject is, that prodigious dissensions, attended by much anger, have taken place respecting the disposal of land; and from words they have had,
in some cases, recourse to most unphilosophic blows and knocks. In such a community, of course a printing press is an article of first necessity, and already they possess two newspapers of adverse politics, for a plentiful exhibition of party spirit appears to be an essential ingredient in colonial society. These discussions are merely stimulants to discussion, and no way interfere in the comfort or prosperity of the colony.
With these results of a high civilization, there are many curious devices which the infant state of the colony has suggested to the settlers. All placards and printed notices are nailed to the trees, which still occupy the embryo streets of Adelaide. It is here that the price of labour and provisions, or the apparition of a runaway convict may be learned; for the early laws of South Australia, like those of Solon, are fixed on wood in the public place. As jails are not yet sufficiently common in South Australia, a substitute was at hand, not a little efficacious; the prisoner was not suspended from a tree, but tied to it untill he found time to reflect on his conduct. This mode of punishment was, however, indispensable in the early history of the colony, where vigorous means were essential to preserve subordination. The first gover nor appeared to think that a party of marines was essential to his dignity. They turned out to be far more mischievous than useful; they did what they liked; got drunk when they could; and, like the New South Wales' corps of former days, would have assumed the command of the colony, if his late Excellency had not occasionally tied the ringleaders up to some adjoining trees for twenty-four hours, to sober them and cool their courage. The resources to devise substitutes for prisons and fetters is endless; for we find in another case where a murderer had been apprehended and sent on board a vessel, it was found that the most effectual way to keep the criminal was by enclosing him in a large cask, and feeding him through the bung-hole. It appears, therefore, that a prison and its concomitants are indispensable elements of civilization ; and that the shipwrecked philosopher exhibited great sagacity when he comforted his bewildered companions, by assuring them that they had been thrown on a civilized country, for he saw the gallows. It is to the honour of Adelaide that it as yet has no executioner, and only one individual has suffered capital
punishment; and in this respect to draw the contrast with Sydney or Hobart Town, would be an unnecessary insult to the younger and more virtuous city.
It appears that the success of the new colony has been all that its friends could desire, and that it has had to contend with fewer difficulties than any colony hitherto founded by Englishmen; and this is a true source of praise to its benevolent and enterprising projectors, as the result was entirely due to their prudence and forethought. Upon the success of their plan many important principles in the theory and practice of colonization were involved. They had the discouraging example of Swan River before them, and they were looked upon with little favour by
official eyes, and had to depend solely on their own resources, and to obviate the effects of unforseen difficulties, or of the blunders of their agents, and the result has been the establishment of the most respectable and flourishing of our new colonies. Founded only about five years ago, the population exceeds ten thousand; and besides the influx from the parent country, many respectable settlers from the convict colonies have removed to a region of purer morality. The number of vessels visiting the colony is on the increase; its resources are able to support its credit and defray all expenses either of administration or in liquidating debts; and the interests of religion have not been neglected, and no doubt now remains as to its future prospects.
CONFESSIONS OF HARRY LORREQUER.
CHAP. XXXVII.—A REMINISCENCE.
O'LEARY and Trevanion had scarcely left the room when the waiter entered with two letters-the one bore a German post-mark, and was in the wellknown hand of Lady Callonby-the other in a writing with which I was no less familiar-that of Emily Bingham. Let any one who has been patient enough to follow me through these "Confessions," conceive my agitation at this moment. There lay my fate before me, coupled, in all likelihood, with a view of what it might have been under happier auspices-at least so in anticipation did I read the two unopened epistles. My late interview with Miss Bingham left no doubt upon my mind that I had secured her affections; and acting in accordance with the counsel of Trevanion, no less than of my own sense of right, I resolved upon marrying her, with what prospect of happiness I dared not to think of!
Alas! and alas! there is no infatuation like the taste for flirtation-mere empty, valueless, heartless flirtation. You hide the dice-box and the billiard queue, lest your son become a gambler -you put aside the racing calendar, lest he imbibe a jockey predilectionbut you never tremble at his fondness for white muslin and a satin slipper, far more dangerous tastes though they be, and infinitely more perilons to a man's peace and prosperity than all the queens of trumps" that ever figured, whether on pasteboard or the Don
caster. "Woman's my wakeness, yer honor," said an honest Patlander, on being charged before the lord mayor with having four wives living; and without any such Algerine act upon my conscience, I must, I fear, enter asomewhat similar plea for my downfallings, and avow, in humble gratitude, that I have scarcely had a misfortune through life unattributable to them in one way or another. And this I say without any reference to country, class, or complexion, "black, brown, or fair," from my first step forth into life, a raw sub. in the gallant 4-th, to this same hour, I have no other avowal, no other confession to make. "Be always ready with the pistol," was the dying advice of an Irish statesman to his sons: mine, in a similar circumstance, would rather be," Gardez vous des femmes," and more especially if they be Irish.
There is something almost treacherous in the facility with which an Irish girl receives your early attentions and appears to like them, that invariably turns a young fellow's head very long before he has any prospect of touching her heart. She thinks it so natural to be made love to, that there is neither any affected coyness nor any agitated surprise. She listens to your declaration of love as quietly as the chief justice would to one of law, and refers the decision to a packed jury of her relatives, who rarely recommend you to mercy. Love and