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derivation, distrust it. Every derivation ought to be supported, as far as possible, by historical evidence, by the known laws of phonetic change, and, in the case of words widely separated in form, by the intervening links by which the root and the derivative are connected. The tracing of the changes of meaning which words undergo should be similarly conducted. The study of words on these principles will not only lead the student to important conclusions in the science of language, but will bring him into contact with the sense-distinctions, the notions, the ideas, the thoughts, the feelings, the history, and the morality which are enshrined in words, and will prove a valuable discipline in the collection and investigation of evidence.

For the convenience of schools it is proposed to publish Parts I-IV. and Part V. separately: the former section under the title ‘English Accidence, Parsing, Analysis, and Syntax;' the latter under the title “The History and Derivation of the English Language.' These Parts will be complete in themselves, and independent one of the other.

The Author has had mainly in view the wants of young students, and more particularly of students in Training Colleges, the upper forms in Secondary and High Schools, and candidates for the University Local Examinations, for the Matriculation Examination of the London University, and for other public examinations. He desires to record his great obligations, in writing this Grammar, to the excellent grammars of Dr. Morris,

Dr. Adams, Dr. Abbott, and Mr. Mason, to Brachet's

Historical French Grammar,' to the philological works of Archbishop Trench, and to the dictionaries of Mr. Wedgwood and Professor Skeat. The scholarly dictionary of Professor Skeat he has found invaluable. He has made a large use of the Anglo-Saxon 'Gospels. Such Old English quotations as are not taken from Rask are drawn mainly from this source.

Teachers will render the Author a great service if they will kindly forward to him suggestions for the improvement of this Manual. He is well aware that a good text-book is the result of much elaboration ; and, although he has had the advantage of long experience in teaching English, he is sure that he might derive much valuable help from the suggestions of teachers whose work has been of a somewhat different character from his own.



March 3, 1881.

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1. All the facts with which a Grammar deals are to be found in the language to which the Grammar belongs; and it is in the language itself, not in books, that these facts are to be primarily sought. Granı marians do not impose rules on a language; they merely collect from the language rules already in existence, and set them forth in an orderly way.

2. If we take any paragraph of a book and examine it, we shall find that it is composed of a number of separate statements or utterances. These utterances are generally divided in print by a full stop, and are marked in speech by a falling of the voice when they come to an end. They are called Sentences.

In the following paragraph the sentences are marked off by vertical lines :— Trade is stagnant. | The crops are drying up. / The sky is like brass. The earth is like iron. | The peasants have commenced to eat the nauseous dogroot in lieu of bread.'

It is not always that sentences are so short as those in the foregoing paragraph. They may be enlarged in various ways, and extend to a considerable length.

3. A Sentence is a complete statement or utterance of thought, e.g. John walked home. Love thou thy parents. Did he wish to go ?

A sentence that contains an assertion is called an Assertive Sentence, e.g. He went to toun; one that contains a command or entreaty is called an Imperative Sen


tence, e.g. Be kind to the poor; one that asks a question is called an Interrogative Sentence, e.g. Were you there? one that expresses a wish is called an Optative Sentence (Lat. opto, I wish), e.g. May we be happy!

If we examine these sentences carefully, we shall find they each consist of two parts, viz. one relating primarily to some thing or person spoken of, or spoken to; the other, relating to what is said of, or to, that thing or person. The former part is called the Subject of the Sentence, the latter the Predicate.

(a) The Subject of an Assertive Sentence is the word or words denoting that about which the assertion is made; the Predicate is the assertion itself.

(1) Gold is heavy.
12) To err is human.
(3) He loves hunting.
(4) That he is wrong is clear.



Gold is heavy.
To err , is human.

He loves hunting.
That he is wrong is clear.


(6) The Subject of an Imperative Sentence is the word denoting that to which the command or entreaty is given; the Predicate is the command or entreaty itself. The Subject of an Imperative Sentence is often not expressed.

(1) Praise ye the Lord (Subj. expressed).
(2) Go away (Subj. unexpressed).
(3) Do thou likewise (Subj. expressed).

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