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early French constitutions to give the friends and patrons. Among the latter right of opposing by force the exercise of was captain" (afterwards lord) Keppel, unlawful power; but, from the constitu- whom he accompanied on a cruise in the tion of human society, it hardly seems pos- Mediterranean. He then proceeded to sible to avoid the occurrence of forcible Rome, in which capital and other parts of changes in political systems. Nothing in Italy he spent three years. On his returzi this world can last forever; institutions to London, he painted a full-length portrait established centuries ago, to answer the of captain Keppel, which was very much demands of a state of things which bas admired, and at once placed bim at the long ceased to exist, frequently become hcad of the English portrait-painters. Reextremely oppressive, from their incon- jecting the stiff, unvaried and unmeaning sistency with the new tendencies which attitudes of former artists, he gave to his have sprung up in society. Sometimes figures air and action adapted to their the evil may be remedied without blood- characters, and thereby displayed someshed; sometimes bappy accidents facili- thing of the dignity and invention of hisfate a change; at other times, however, tory. Although he never attained to perthe old order of things assumes a tone of fect correctness in the naked figure, he has decided hostility to the new tendencies; seldom been excelled in the ease and eleand this is what must be expected in á gance of his faces, and the beauty and large proportion of cases. Then it is that adaptation of his fancy draperies. His revolutions break out, and eventually es- coloring may be said to be at once his extablish a new order, from wbich new cellence and his defect. Combining, in a rights and laws emanate. While, there- high degree, the qualities of richness, brilfore, the philosopher and historian ac- liancy and freshness, he was often led to knowledge the necessity, and even obliga- try modes which, probably from want of tion, of insurrections, they will, neverthe- a due knowledge in chemistry and the less, not fail to‘utter a solemn admonition mechanism of colors, frequently failed, against resorting rashly to this extreme and left his pictures, after a while, in a remedy for violated right. There is a
faded state. He rapidly acquired opusolidity, an authority, a completeness, in a lence; and, being universally regarded as political system which has acquired ma- at the head of his profession, he kept a turity by slow degrees and long struggles, splendid table, which was frequented by that can never belong to any new system the best company in the kingdom, in resuddenly substituted in its stead. There spect to talents, learning and distinction. can be no security for permanent liberty On the institution of the royal academy, till the civic element has become devel- in 1769, he was unanimously elected presoped, and men have become attached to a ident; on which occasion the king confergiven system of social connexions. The red upon him the honor of knighthood. common principle, therefore, of weighing Although it was no prescribed part of his the evil to be risked against the good to duty to read lectures, yet his zeal for the be gained, by a political revolution,
needs advancement of the fine arts induced him to be strongly impressed upon every peo- before the academy on the principles and
to deliver annual or biennial discourses ple in a state of political excitement. RESOLUTIONARY TRIBUNAL. (See Ter- nounced fifteen, from 1769 to 1790, which
practice of painting. Of these he prororism.)
were published in two sets, and form a REYNARD THE Fox. (See Renard.)
standard work. In 1781 and 1783, he Retxolds, sir Joshua, an eminent Eng- made tours in Holland and Flanders, and lish painter, was born at Plympton, in wrote an account of his journey, which Devonshire, in 1723, being the tenth child consists only of short notes of the pictures of the master of the grammar-school of which he saw, with an elaborate characthat town. He early discovered a predi- ter of Rubens. He was a member of the lection for the art of drawing, which in- celebrated club which contained the names duced his father to place hiin, at the age of Johnson, Garrick, Burke, and others of seventeen, with Hudson, the most fa- of the first rank of literary eminence, and mous portrait-painter in London, with seems to have been universally beloved wbom he remained three years, and then, and respected by his associates. He is the upon some disagreement, returned into favorite character in Goldsmith's poem of Devonshire. He passed some time with- Retaliation ; and Johnson characterized out any determinate plan, and, from 1746 bim as one whom he should find the most to 1749, pursued his profession in Devon- difficulty how to abuse. In 1784, he sucshire and London, and acquired numerous ceeded Ramsay as portrait-painter to the king, and continued to follow his profes- of the body, often so great as to affect the sing of which he was enthusiastically thermometer, take place in certain perIrod, until he lost the sight of one of his sons when they are in the vicinity of subeyes He, bowever, retained his equable terranean bodies of water or ore, &c.; alfpirits until threatened, in 1791, with the so peculiar sensations of taste, spasmodic boss of his other eye, the apprehension of contractions of particular parts, convulwhich, added to his habitual deafness, ex- siods ofien equal to electric shocks, giddiCredingly depressed hin. He died in dess sickness, disquietude, solicitude, &c. 1792, in his sixtirth year, unmarried, and Rhabdomancy was known even to the anwax interred in St. Paui's cathedral. Sir cients. - From the most remote penods," Joshua Reynolds, although there was says Kieser, in his System of Tellurism scarcely a vear in which his pencil did not (in German, first volume)" indications are produce one work of the historical kind, found of an art of discovering veins of ore ranks chietly in the class of portrait- and water concealed in the bowels of the painters. His l'golino, and his Death of earth, by a direct perception of their exCardinal Beautor, are, however, deemned, istence. The story of Lynceus is connectin grandeur of composition and force of ed with this notion. Sporto Sturleson expression, arnong the first performances (Heimskringla, dler Snorro Sturleson's of the English school. But, on the whole, Vordlänske Konunga Sagor, Stockholm, his powers of invention were inadequate 1997, folio, p. 1, c. vii) relates that Odin to the bigher flights of historic paintin, knew where gold, silver and ore lay hidalthough inexhaustible in portrait
, to den under the surface of the earth. Del whirh be gave the most delightful varie- Rio (Martin del Rio, Disquisitionum Magity. His character as a colorist has been carum Libri ser-Six Books of Magical already mentioned ; and, though not a Disquisitions—Cologue, 163, quarto,) rethorough faster in drawing, he gave lates that there were some Spaniards, much grace to the turn of his figures, and called Zahuris, who saw things concealed dignity to the airs of his heads. As a under the surface of the earth, such as writer, be obtained reputation by his Dis- veins of water and ores, and also dead courses, which are elegant and agreeable bodies, &c. The instruments of rhabdocompositions, although sometimes vague maney are known under the names of the and inconsistent. He also added notes to sidereal pendulum, the bipolar cylinder, and Dufresboy's Art of Painting, and gave the dirining rod. The magnetic penduthree papers on painting to the Idler. The lum consists of a small ball, of almost any Literary Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds substance (for example, metal, sulphur, were edited by Mr. Malone, in two vol- wood, sealing-wax, glass, &c.), which is umes quarto, in 1797, with a life of the au- suspended from an untwisted string, such thor. Harington and Northcote have writ- as the human hair, unspun silk, &c. In ten Memoirs of his life.
using this, the string of the pendulum is RHABDONANCY is the power considered held fast between two fingers, and remains by some as existing in particular individu- suspended over the sidereal substance (as, alu, partly natural and partly acquired, of for example, a plate of metal, or a cup discovering things luid in the bowels of the filled with water and salt), without motion. earth, expecially metals, ores, and bodies If, now (say the advocates of rhabdomanof water, by a change in their perceptions; cy), the person who holds the pendulum and likewise the art of aiding the discov- possesses, in any degree, the magnetic ery of these substances by the use of cer- susceptibility (the rhabulomantic quality), tain instruments, for example, the divining the pendulum will move in a circular rod. That rhabdomancy, generally speak- orbit, with some differences, according to ing, is little more than self-delusion, or in- circumstances. These circumstances are tentional deception, is now the opinion of the substance of the pendulum and of nost natural philosophers and physiolo- the objects under it, the distance of the gists; still it has some champions. Ac- pendulum from these objects, and the nacording to Ritter and Amoretti's accounts ture of the person who holds the pendu(see Physical and Historical Inquiries into lum, and of those who come in contact Rhabdomancy, &c., in German, by Car- with him, &c. The principal difference lo Amoretti, from the Italian, with Sup- of the motion of the pendulum is, that it plementary Treatises by Ritter, Berlín, moves, in some cases, from left to right, 1x09), and Amoretti's Elementi di Elettro- that is, with the sun ; in others, from right metria Animale, Milan, 1816), an accelera- to left, or against the sun. That the mefion or retardation of the pulse, and a chanical motion of the fingers does not
mation of cold or heat in different parts produce the vibration of the pendulum, at least in many cases, appears from accurate Achilles, were the three judges, who observation of many experiments of this administered justice to the dead at the enkind; and this circumstance is, moreover, trance of the kingdom of spirits, near the remarkable, that the vibrations do not en- throne of Pluto, continuing the occupasue unless the hand of a living person tion in which they had spent their earthly comes in immediate contact with the existence; for it was then the common string. The bipolar cylinder consists of a opinion of the Greeks that the spirit, body having two poles, and easily moved, wbich arrived in the dark kingdom of as, for instance, a magnetic needle, or a Tartarus, strove to continue the business cylindrical bar, of two different metals; of life. The whole notion of Tartarus, any light cylindrical body, such as a quill however, in this view, was rather a philowith the feathers on, will serve. The di- sophical allegory than a true mythus. viner holds the cylinder in a perpendicu- Rhætia included the two countries of lar direction, between his thumb and fore- Rhælia Proper and Vindelicia, which finger, while with his other hand be were afterwards separated under the touches some magnetic body, as, for in- names of Rhætia Prima and Secunda (First stance, a metal.
Under these circum- and Second Rhætia). The former, or stances, a slow, revolving motion of the Rhætia Proper (Rhætia Propria)
, extended cylinder takes place between the fingers, from the Rhine to the Norican Alps, and which likewise, as in the case of the pen- from Italy to the borders of Vindelicia. dulum, sometimes moves in a forward and It contained the rivers Rhine (Rhenus), sometiines in a retrograde direction, ac- Ion (Alnus), Adige (Athesis), and many cording to circumstances. (For the di- smaller ones, and included the modern vining rod, see the article under that Vorarlberg and Tyrol, with a part of the head.) The two ends of this rod are country of the Grisons. At an earlier held in the band, so that its curvature is in- period, the Etrurians, under their leader clined outwards. If the person who holds Rhætus, took possession of this mounthe rod possesses the powers of rhabdo- tainous region ; but, being afterwards drivmancy, and touches the metallic or any
en out by the increasing power of the other magnetic substance, or comes near Gauls, they went to Italy, where they them, a slow, rotatory motion of the rod played a conspicuous part in its early civensues in different directions, according to ilization. Justin, Pliny and Stephen the particular circumstances; and, as in the Byzantine, therefore, called the Rhætians other cases, no motion takes place with- an Etrurian race. (See Etruria.) Among out a direct or indirect contact with a liv. the Gauls who subsequently occupied this ing person. In the south of France, and country, the Brenni are more distinguishin Switzerland, this art is frequently made ed by name than by importance. The ise of under the name of metalloscope Romans planted colonies here as in the (the art of feeling or discovering metals), other provinces ; among which Tridenand of hydroscope (the art of feeling or tum (Trent), Bellunum (Belluno), Bauzadiscovering water). In the practice of
num (Bolzano), Bilitio (Bellinzona), Clathis art, the direction, duration, and other venda (Chiavenna), and Curia (Coire), were circumstances, of the motion of the instru- the principal. Several of these cities, ments, determine the quality, quantity, however, were only indebted to the Rodistance and situation of the subterranean mans for their extension and embellishsubstances, or the different sensations of
The Rhætians repeatedly laid different rbabdomantists, are taken into waste the Roman territories, in conjuncaccount.
tion with the Gauls, and Augustus, thereRHADAMANTHUS was the brother of fore, sent his step-son Drusus against Minos, the first lawgiver of Crete and the them. The latter defeated them (16 B.C.) Grecian world. According to another near Trent; but as this victory was not tradition, Rhadamanthus himself laid the decisive, he undertook, with his brother foundation of the Cretan code of laws, Tiberius, a second campaign, in which which his brother Minos only completed. Tiberius attacked the Vindelici from lake Hle, probably, belonged to the family of Constance, while Drusus advanced against Dorus (a descendant of Deucalion), whose the Rhætians by land. In this expedition, on Tectamus, or Teutamus, went to the Romans were victorious, and both Crete with his son Asterius (who was, countries were made Roman provinces. jurobably, the father of Rhadamanthus and Rhætia Transdanubiana,the country on the Miuos), in that time of general emigra- left bank of the Danube, was well known tion in Greece. Rbadamanthus, and to the Romans, but never conquered by Minos and Æacus, the progenitors of them. After the fall of the Roman pow.
er, the Alemanni and Suevi occupied these ancient prophecy (see Saturn), had swalprovinces.
lowed his children at the moment of birth. Rhetian Alps. _(See Alps.)
She thus saves from destruction three RHAMAZAN, or Ramadan; the ninth sons and three daughters, Jupiter, Vesta, month in the Turkish year. As the Mo- Ceres, Juno, Neptune and Pluto, the new hammedans reckon by lunar time, it be- inhabitants of Olympus, and overthrows gins each year eleven days later than in her own power. She continued to retain the preceding year, so that in thirty-three the power of prophecy; and some traces years it occurs successively in all the sea- of her were preserved in the mysteries, in sons. In this month the Mohammedans which, however, she was confounded with have their great fast daily, from suprise to Cybele. As the preserver of the future sunset. This fast and ihe Bairam (q. v.) sovereign of gods and men, she was the feast, which immediately follows it, are symbol of the productive power of nature, the two principal Mohammedan festivals. the preserving and life-giving principle
Rhapsody (from the Greek) was origi- of the world. Her attributes, as the tamer nally a series of poetical effusions, which, of lions, which are harnessed to her charithough separate, yet had still a connexion ot, and as the companion of Bacchus, and with each other, as, for example, the po- her crown of turrets, point to the same ems of Homer. (q. v.) Those wandering symbol. Her worship was the rudest minstrels among the ancient Greeks, form of natural religion, and was attend. who sang the poems of Homer (these ed with the greatest excesses of licentiouswere also called Homerides), or their ness and cruelty. own composition, were called rhapso- Raea, Sylvia, lived about 800 B. C., dists. They derived their name, accord- and was the daughter of Numitor, king ing to some, from the staff which they of Alba, in Italy. Although a vestal vircarried in their hand; according to Pin- gin, from the embrace of Mars, she brought dar, however, they were thus named from forth twins, Romulus and Remus, the their connecting together many detached founders of Rome. pieces of poetry. At present, we under- Rheins, or Reims (Remi); a city of stand by rhapsody, a collection of poetical France, department of the Marne, ninety effusions, descriptions, &c., strung togeth- miles north-east of Paris; lat. 49° 14' north; er, without any necessary connexion. lon. 4° 2' east; population 38,000. Rheims
Rhea. The older deities of the Greek is a very old town: the streets are, in mythology are enveloped in such a mist, general, broad and regular, the houses that we often find the mythuses of differ- well built, and there are numerous large ent ages and people combined together, as gardens. It contains some remarkable is the case with the mythological accounts public buildings, among which are the of Rhea and Cybele. (q. v.) Rhea was a hôtel de ville, finished in 1825; a magnifiTitanide, and of Grecian origin, while cent cathedral of the twelfth century, one Cybele was of Phrygian derivation; they of the finest monuments of the kind in were first confounded, probably, in Crete, France, with a portal of great beauty ; on account of the similarity of their attri- and the church of St. Remy, in which was butes. Still the evidences of their inde- preserved the holy oil used in the consependent origin are visible; and, although cration of the kings. (See Ampulla.) The we are acquainted with the mythus of Cy- coronation of the French kings from the bele only through that of Rhea, yet the time of Philip Augustus (1179) to Charles latter was finally swallowed up by the X (1825), with the exception of Henry IV, former. Rhea, one of the most distin- crowned at Chartres, Napoleon, crownguished of the Titanides (see Tilan), was ed at Paris, and Louis XVIII, who was the sister and wife of Saturn, and with not crowned at all, took place in the cathehim a symbol of the first creation. Rhea, dral of Rheiins (see Coronation); but this the Flowing (from puer to flow), is the expensive ceremony was abolished in symbol of the struggle between chaos and 18:30. This town was the scene of some order. The former is yet superior; by the hard fighting between the French and side of Rhea is Saturn, jealous of the new Russians, in 1814. The latter took posforms, and annihilating them at the mo- session of Rheims, March 12, but were ment of their creation—the symbol of all- driven out by Napoleon, then on his march devouring time. But in the end, order from Laon, on the 13th, with the loss of must prevail; the decisive moment has ar- their general, St. Priest, and 2000 men. rived; by the advice of Gaia, ber mother, (See Châtillon, Congress of:) Rhea gives a stone, instead of her infant, RHEINGAU; a part of the duchy of Nasto her husband Saturn, who, terrified by sau, along the right bank of the Rhine,
about five leagues long. It is well peo- oric is the art of persuasive speaking, or pled, and produces some of the choicest the art of the orator, which teaches the Rhenish wines. (9. v.). Gau is a German composition and delivery of discourses word, signifying district.
intended to move the feelings or sway the RHENISH CONFEDERATION. (See Con- will of others. These productions of federation of the Rhine.)
the rhetorical art are designed to be proRHENISH or RAINLAND Foot; equal to nounced, in the presence of bearers, 1.023 English, or 24 Rhenish equal to 25 with appropriate gesture and declamation; English. (See Measures, vol. viii, page and they often, therefore, require a differ366)
ent style of composition and arrangement RHENISH WINES; the finest wines of from those works wbich are intended for Germany. The vines on the Rhine were readers, or simply to be read and not oraplanted in the third century, under the torically declaimed, and which are ememperor Probus. According to a still ex- braced in the jurisdiction of rhetoric in isting tradition, Charlemagne transplanted its widest sense. The Romans distinthe first vine in the Rheingau (q. v.) from guished three kinds of eloquence-the Orleans. The Rheingau is the true coup- demonstrative, occupied with praise or try of the Rhenish wipes. The best are blame, and addressed to the judgment; those of Assmannshausen (chiefly red), the deliberative, which acts upon the will Rüdesheim, Rottländer, Hinterhäuser, and the inclinations by persuasion or disGeissenheim, Johannisberg (q. v.), the best suasion; and the judicial or forensic, of all
, of which a bottle of the first quali- which is used in defending or attacking. ty, in ordinary seasons, costs, on the spot, The Greeks divided discourses according from four to five florins, and Hattenheim to their contents as relating to precepts (called Markebrunner). Besides the wines (doyous), manners (jon), and feelings (raon), of the Rheingau, the following are good and as, therefore, calculated to instruct, Rhenish wines : on the left bank, the to please, and to move—a division easily Nierensteiner, Liebfrauenmilch (translat- reconcilable with the former. The Roed, Our Lady's Milk), a mild wine grow- mans had, also, a corresponding division ing near Worins, Laubenheimer, Bacher- into the genus dicendi tenue, mediocre and acher; on the right bank, Hochheimer. sublime. Another division of eloquence, Among these wines, the Laubenheimer founded on the subject to which it relates, and Assmannshäuser are the most agreea, is into academical, sacred (pulpit eloble; the Hochheimer, Jobannisberger and quence) and political. The two latter Geissenheimer, the most aromatic; the only allow of the lofty flights of eloNierensteiner, Markebrunner, Bacheracber quence. In the wider sense, as above exand Rüdesheimer, the strongest and most plained, rhetoric treats of prose composifiery. Among the best vintages are those tion in general, whether in the form of of 1748, 1760, 1762, 1766, 1776, 1779, historical works, philosophical disserta1780, 1781, and more particularly those tions, practical precepts, dialogues, or letof 1783 and 1811; also that of 1822. ters, and, therefore, includes the considRhenish wines improve much with age, eration of all the qualities of prose comand continue improving longer than any position, purity of style, structure of senother wines. Some wine-cellars, as that tences, figures of speech, &c. ; in short, of the city of Bremen, have Rhenish wine of whatever relates to clearness, preciseabove 150 years old. (See also Hock, and ness, elegance and strength of expression. Moselle Wines.)
In the narrower sense of rhetoric, as the RHETORIC is the art of clothing the art of persuasive speaking, it treats of the thoughts in the most agreeable and suita. invention and disposition of the matter. ble form, to produce persuasion, to excite The latter includes the arrangement of the the feelings, to communicate pleasure, parts, which are the exordium or introSpeech is addressed to the understanding, duction, narration (when necessary), propthe will and the taste; it treats of the osition and division, proof or refutation, true, the beautiful and the good; and is, and conclusion or peroration, and the elotherefore, didactic, critical, and pathetic or cution, which relates to the style, and practical. These different objects are requires elegance, purity and precision. often united in the same work, which, The delivery, or pronunciation, also falls therefore, partakes of all the three charac- here. Aristote, Cicero and Quintilian ters above mentioned, but, at the same are the principal writers on rhetoric among time, one or the other character so far the ancients; and the most valuable Engprevails as to give a predominant temper lish works on this subject, are Campbell's to the whole. In a narrower sense, rhet- Philosophy of Rhetoric, Blair's Lectures