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The following Articles in this Volume are Copyrighted, 1891, by J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY

in the United States of America :

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Among the more important articles in this Volume are the following:

.....

MALTHUS; MARX........ THOMAS KIRKUP.

NAMES......

Canon ISAAC TAYLOR. MAMMALS; MAN......... J. ARTHUR THOMson.

NAPOLEON.

Lieut.-Colonel CLAYTON, R. A. MAN, ISLE OF.......... Rev. T. E. BROWN,

NAPOLEON III.

F. F. ROGET.
JANCHESTER.
C. FAIRBAIRN.

NATAL.......

E. P. MATHERS.
MANURE...
John HUNTER, F.C.S.

NATIONAL DEBT Professor J. S. NICHOLSON.
MARLOWE; MARSTON.. A. H. BULLEN.

NAVY..

Captain GARBETT, R.N.
MARRIAGE.
D. MacLENNAN.

NEGROES

Dr D. G. BRINTOX,
MARRYAT..
WALTER WHYTE.

NELSON...

Professor J. K. LAUGHTON.
MARVELL..
JOHN ORMSBY.

NERVOUS SYSTEM........ Dr ALEXANDER BRUCE.
MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS JOSEPH ROBERTSON.

NEWCASTLE

W. W. TOMLINSON.
MARYLAND.
Professor M. A, NEWELL.

NEWFOUNDLAND....... J, G. COLMER, C.M.G.
MASSACHUSETTS ......
HORACE G. WADLIN.

NEW GUINEA..... Professor A. H. KEANE.
MASTIFF..
Rev. M. W. WYNNE.

NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY RICHARD Holt Hutton.
MATTER.
Professor P. G. TAIT.

NEW ORLEANS.......

NORMAN WALKER, Times Democrat. MATTHEW; MOSES...... Rev. John SUTHERLAND BLACK. New SOUTH WALES.. ... JAMES BONWICK. MAURICE.. THOMAS HUCHES.

NEWSPAPER...

JAMES BURNLEY.
MEASLES.....
Dr LUNDIE.

NEW YORK.

Professor FRANK B. GREENE. MECCA ; MEDINA........ STANLEY LANE-POOLE.

| NEW ZEALAND...

D. PETRIE and J. HISLOP, LL.D. MEDAL; MOSAIC..... ... JAMES PATON.

NIHILISM...

Prince PETER KROPOTKINE.
MEDICINE.
Dr J. P. STEELE.

NITROGEN..

Dr LEONARD DOBBIN.
MEDITERRANEAN......... Dr John MURRAY.

NITRO-GLYCERINE. ...... E. G. CAREY.
MELBOURNE..
J. F. HOGAN,

NORFOLK; NORWICH... J. C. GROOME.
MENDELSSOHN
H. WHITEHEAD.

NORTH CAROLINA........ Professor N. B. WEBSTER.
MEREDITH, GEORGE..... Rev. John S. BLACK.

NORWAY; NORTHMEN.. J. T. BEALBY.
METEOROLOGY
Dr BUCHAN.

NOSE.....

Professor HAYCRAFT.
METHODISTS.
Rev. T. T. LAMBERT.

Nova Scotia..

J. G. COLMER, C.M.G.
MEXICO......
W. DUNDAS WALKER.

NOVELS...

JOHN ORMSBY. MICHELANGELO......... CHARLES WHIBLEY.

NUMISMATICS.

Dr B. V. HEAD, British Museum. MIGRATION, Dr ROBERT BROWN.

NURSING...

LUCY J. Gipson.
MILITIA.
Lieut. -Colonel DUNLOP.

OATH; NEUTRALITY.... J. M. IRVINE.
MILL...
THOMAS W. TOD.

OBSTETRICS......

Dr R. MILNE MURRAY. MILL, JOHN STUART.... Professor SORLEY.

O'CONNELL; PARNELL. THomas DAVIDSON. MILLAIS; MILLET.... ... John M. GRAY.

OGAM..

Professor Rhys. MILLER, Hugh... ROBERT COCHRANE.

Ohio......

A. A. GRAHAM.
MILTON...
RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D.

Oils; OPIUM; PAPER. P. L. SIMMONDS.
MIMICRY.
EDWARD B. POULTON.

OPERA; ORATORIO...... FRANKLIN PETERSON.
MINIATURE PAINTING.. H. B. WHEATLEY.

OPTICS.....

Dr ALFRED DANIELL. MINING; ORE-DEPOSITS BENNETT H. BROUGH.

ORCHARD..

R. D. BLACKMORE.
MINT.....
EDWARD RIGO.

ORDERS, KNIGHTLY..... J. R. PAIRMAN.
MIRABEAU; MUSSET. ... THOMAS DAVIDSON.

ORDNANCE SURVEY...... Captain S. C. N. GRANT, R.E. MISSIONS Rev. Prof. THOMAS SMITH, D.D.

OREGON......

Professor B. J. HAWTHORNE. MISSISSIPPI (State )..... J. R. PRESTON.

ORGAX

J. F. ROWBOTHAM. MISSISSIPPI-MISSOURI. Professor J. P. LAMBERTON.

ORIGEN

Rev. A. P. DAVIDSON.
MISSOURI
J. M. GREENWOOD.

OsSIAN

Professor D. MacKinnon.
MITHRAS..
JAMES MACDONALD, LL. D.

Ovid...

Dr J. P. STEELE.
MOHAMMED.
Emm. DEUTSCH and Rev. Joun MILNE, OXFORD..

A. CLARK.
MOLE; OWL..
W. RAMSAY SMITH.

PACIFIC

Dr John MURRAY.
MOLIÈRE.
GEORGE SAINTSBURY.

PAINTING..

P. G. HAMERTON.
MOLUCCAS.
Professor A. H. KEANE.

PALÆOGRAPHY.

Canon Isaac TAYLOR.
MONEY....
Professor J. S. NICHOLSON.

PALEONTOLOGY

Professor JAJES GEIKIE. MONTAIGNE; MORE..... P. HUME Browy.

PALESTINE.

WALTER BESANT and Professor HULL. MONTESQUIEU. Rev. W. HASTIE.

PALMISTRY.

AMELIA HUTCHISON STIRLING. MONTREAL; OTTAWA... MARTIN J. GRIFFIN.

PANAMÁ.....

WOLFRED NELSON, M. D. MONTROSE, Marquis of. F. HINDES GROOME.

PARAFFIN ; NAPHTHA. William Love. MOON; METEORS........ Rev. E. B. Kirk.

PARAGUAY....... A. F. BAILLIE, Consul-general. MOORS; Navarre...... Rev. WENTWORTH WEBSTER. PARASITES ; PASTEUR.. J. ARTHUR THouson, MORLEY, JOHN........... Sir EDWARD GREY, Bart., M.P.

PARIS...

GEORGE BARCLAY.
MORMONS..
F. D. RICHARDS, Historiographer.

PARLIAMENT.

THOMAS RALEIGH,
MOROCCO....
Dr ROBERT BROWN.

Parsons, FATHER....... T, G, LAW,
MOTION..
Professor C. G. KNOTT.

Pascal..

Thomas DAVIDSOX.
MOTLEY.
F. H. UNDERWOOD, LL.D.

PATENTS...

A. W. REXTON.
MOUNTAINS....
Professor JAJTES GEIKIE,

PATRICK, ST..

Professor G. T. STOKES, D.D. MUSIC; MOZART. FRANKLIN PETERSON.

PAUL, ST....

Archdeacon FARRAR.
MYSTERIES
Rev. S. BARING-GOULD.

PEACH; PEAR.

R. D. BLACKMORE.
MYTHOLOGY
F. B. JEVONS.

PEARL....

... EDWIN W. STREETER.

The Publishers beg to tender their thanks, for revising or correcting articles in this Volume, to the EARL OF SOUTHESK; the Very Rev. the DEAN OF NORWICH; the President of MayNOOTH; Professor MaxMÜLLER; the Head-master of MARLBOROUGH COLLEGE; the Registrar of Owens COLLEGE; the town-clerks of Northampton, Nottingham, &c.; MRS OLIPHANT and Miss NIGHTINGALE; COLONEL BABBAGE; Mr John MURRAY, publisher; and Mr GARDNER, Paisley.

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altebrun, KONRAD (properly of Population, which attracted great attention

MALTHE CONRAD BRUUN), and met with no little criticism. During the geographer, born 12th August following years Malthus extended his knowledge 1775, at Thisted, in Jutland, of the subject both by travel and by reading, and studied in Copenhagen, but was in 1803 published a greatly enlarged edition of banished in 1800 because of his his essay. In 1805 he married happily, and soon having openly shown his sym. after was appointed professor of Political Economy pathy with the French Revo. and Modern History in the East India Company's

lution. He sought refuge in college at Hailey bury, a post which he occupied Paris, where he supported himself by teaching till his death at Bath on 29th December 1834. and literary labours. With Mentelle and Herbin Personally Malthus was a kindly and accomhe compiled a Géographie Mathématique du Monde plished man, who followed what he believed to be (16 vols. 1803-7), and in 1808 he began Annales the truth, and who endured without a complaint des Voyages, de la Géographie, et de l'Histoire (24 the abuse and misunderstanding, to which his vols.), in 1818 Nouvelles Annales. His principal writings exposed him. The aim of the Essay was work is a Précis de la Géographie Universelle (8 to supply a reasoned corrective to the theories vols. 1810-29; latest ed. 6 vols. 1872). He also regarding the perfectibility of society, which had contributed to the Dictionnaire de la Géographie been diffused by Rousseau and his school, and Universelle (8 vols. 1821), and took an active part which had been advocated in England by Godwin. in founding the Geographical Society of Paris. Malthus maintained that such optimistic hopes He died 14th December 1826. - His son, VICTOR are rendered baseless by the natural tendency of ADOLPHE MALTEBRUN (1816-89), was professor population to increase faster than the means of of History and Geography at the college of Pamiers subsistence. He pointed out that both in the and subsequently at Paris (1848-60); and from animal and vegetable kingdoms life was so prolific 1860 onwards he was secretary of the Geographical that if allowed free room to multiply it would fill Society of Paris. He was the author of numerous millions of worlds in the course of a few thousand geographical works, as La France Illustré ( new ed. years. The only limit to its increase is the want 1879-84), L'Allemagne Illustré (1884-86), Histoire of room and food. With regard to man, the Geographique et Historique de l'Allemagne (1866- question is complicated by the fact that the instinct 68), &c.

of propagation is controlled by reason ; but even in Maltese Cross. See CROSS.

his case the ultimate check to population is the

want of food, only it seldom operates directly, but Maltese Dog, a small kind of spaniel, with

takes a

iety of forms in accordance with the roundish muzzle, and long, silky, generally white complexity of human society. The more imhair. It is fit only for a lapdog.

mediate checks are either preventive or positive. Malthus, THOMAS ROBERT, the expounder of The former appear as moral restraint or vice. The the theory of population, was born 14th February positive checks are exceedingly various, including 1766, at the Rookery, near Dorking, in Surrey, all unwholesome occupations, severe labour and where his father owned a small estate. He was exposure to the seasons, extreme poverty, bad ninth wrangler at Cambridge in 1797, was elected nursing of children, large towns, excesses of all Fellow of his college (Jesus), took orders, and kinds, the whole train of common diseases and was appointed to a parish in his native county. epidemics, wars, plague, and famine.' Malthus In 1798 he brought out his Essay on the Principle goes on to illustrate the action of his principle by

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