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3 Your gold and silver 3 Your gold and silver long hoardare eaten with rusl, and the ed, are eaten with rust, and the rust rust of them will be a wit. of them will be a witness aguinst you, ness against you, and will that ye have not employed your eat your bodies as fire. Ye riches properly, and by irritating have treasured up MISERY your conscience, will cal your bodies (en) in the last days. as fire. By amassing riches unjustly,

and by not employing them in acts of beneficence, Ye have treasured up misery to yourselves, in the last days

of your commonwealth. 4 (188) Hark! The hire 4 Hark! The hire of the labourers of the labourers who have who have reaped your fields, which is reaned yiur fieids, which fraudulently kept back by you in vioIS fraudulently kept back lation of God's law, (Lev. xix. 13.) by you, crieth, and the crieth for vengeance against you : cries of the reapers 1 have And the cries of the reapers thus deentered into the ears of frauded, have entered into the ears of the Lord of Husts. (Rom. the ruler of the universe, who is much ix. 29. note 2.)

more powerful than the greatest of

you, and will punish you severely. 5 Ye have lived luxuri- 5 Ye have lived luxuriously on the susly? on the earth, and earth, and have given yourselves up to

them covetously, or spend them luxuriously. It is in reality a treasuring up to themselves misery against the day of judgment.

Ver. 4.-1. The bire of the labourers, &c. crieth, and the cries of the reapers. Here a twofold cry is mentioned, The cry of tre hire, and the cry of the reapers themselves, to mark more strongly the greatness of the injustice committed. In this apostrophe, there is an allusion to Deut. xxiv. 15. At his day thou shalt give him his bire.--Lest he cry against thee to the Lord. By representing the cries of the reapers defrauded of their bire, as entering into the ears of the Lord of hosts, the apostle intimates, that the great ruler of the universe attends to the wrongs done to his creatures, and is affected by them, as tender hearted persons are affected by the cries of the miserable ; and that he will in due time avenge them by punishing their oppres

Let all oppressors consider this. Ver. 5.–1. Ye bave lived luxuriously. So trgu utate literally signifies, Vulgate, Epulati estis, ye have feasted; because the felicity of the rich consists chiefly in the pleasures of the table.-The luxury of the rich Jews is finely described by the prophet Amos, chap. vi. 4. Tbat lze upon beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon their couches, and eat the lambs out of the fiock, and the calves out of the midst of the stall. 5. That chant to the sound of tbe viol, and invent to themselves instruments of musick lite David. 6. That


wanton ; ye have nourish- tas xapdias iuw is ev nused your hearts, as in a day opayns of slaughter. 6 Ye have condemned

6 Κατεδικασατε, εφονευσαand killed the just ; and τε τον δικαιον" ουκ αντιτασhe doth not resist you. σεται υμιν. .

7 Be patient, therefore, 7 Μακροθυμησατε ουν, αbrethren, unto the coming δελφοι, εως της παρουσιας του of the Lord. Behold, the Kυριου. Ιδου, ο γεωργος εκhusbandman waiteth for δεχεται τον τιμιον καρπόν the precious fruit of the

της γης, μακροθυμων επ' αυearth, and hath long patience for it, until the re. τω, έως αν λαβη υετον πρωιceive the early and latter μον και οψιμον. . rain.

drink wine in bowls, and anoint themselves with the chief ointments ; but they are not grieved for the affliction of Josepb.

2. And have been wanton. EcouteanOats Syriac (subsannastis) ye have mocked. The Greek word signifies to feed deliciously, and drink choice liquors ; and because that manner of living leads to lasciviousness, it often signifies to be addicted to carnal lusts, as in this passage, where it is distinguished from stguonoati ye bave lived luxuriously. See 1 Tim. v. 6.The Jews were so noted for lasciviousness, that Tacitus calls them projectissima ad libidinem gens, a nation exceedingly addicted to lust. Hist. lib. v. initio.

3. Ye have fatted your hearts as for a day of slaughter. Syriac, corpora restra, your bodies. A day of slaughter, is an high festival, a day of offering many sacrifices. This is an allusion to Isaiah's description of the destruc. tion of the Idumeans, chap. xxxiv. 6. For the Lord hatb a sacrifice in Bozra, and a great slaugbter in the land of Idumea. In the same manner, the destruction of God's enemies is called the supper of the great God, Rev. xix. 18. See also Ezek. xxxix. 17. The apostle's meaning is, that the rich Jews, by their luxury and lasciviousness, had rendered themselves fit to be des. troyed in the day of God's wrath.-Others think the meaning is, ye have pampered yourselves every day, as the luxurious do on high festival days' Either way understood, this passage is a rebuke to those who by fraud and oppression amass riches, and spend them in gratifying their own lusts, with. out attending to the wants of the poor. The clause, as for a day of slaughter, is wanting in the Ethiopic version, and is thought by Mill an interpretation rather than a part of the text, Proleg. 1217. But the reading of the Ethiopic version, being unsupported, is of no authority.

Ver. 6.-1. Ye have killed the just one. In Le Clerc's opinion, which Benson follows, the just one, is the Christians whom the unbelieving Jews per.

have been wanton ;' ye lasciviousness, and by that sensual have fatted your hearts, 3 manner of living, ye have fatted as (ev, 164.) for a day of yourselves for a day of vengeance, slaughter

as victims are fatted for a day of sa

crifice. 6 Ye have condemned, 6 The crime for which especially ye have killed the just ye are to be punished is this ; Ye one, who did not resist have condemned as an impostor, Ye you."

have killed the Just one Jesus of Nazareth, who, though he could have

delivered himself, did not resist you. 7 Wherefore, be pati- 7 Wherefore, having this great ent, brethren, unto the example of patience in your master, coming of the Lord. Be- be ye patient brethren who are perhold the husbandman, WHO secuted by your countrymen as he expecteth the valuable fruit

was, until the coming of the Lord to of the earth, is patient destroy your persecutors. In the concerning it, till it receive common affairs of life men exercise the early and the latter patience cheerfully. Behold the husrain.?

bandman who expecteth the valuable fruit of the earth, is patient concerning i!, till it receive the early and the laiter rain.

secuted and put to death. But as Stephen charged the council, Acts vii. 52. with murdering the just one, and as the just one is an appellation given to our Lord, Acts iii. 14. xxii. 14. to denote that he was just or righteous in calling himself the Messiah, and that the sin of the Jews in putting him to death was great, I rather think it is of him the apostle speaks ; more especially as our Lord himself, in the parable of the vineyard, expressly declared that the lord of the vineyard, for the crime of killing his son, would miserably destroy these wicked husbandmen : that is, the whole Jewish nation, to whom the crime committed by their rulers is imputed, both by Christ and by his apostles.—The conjunction and, is elegantly omitted in this clause, to express the baste of the Jewish rulers to put Christ to death, after he was condemned.

2. Who did not resist you. I have followed Michaelis in supplying the pronoun who. In the original it is, resisteth you not. But, as the other rerbs in the sentence are in the preterite tense, Ye have condemned, je have killed, this must be understood in the past time likewise.—Benson, who by the just one understands all the righteous persons who were mur. dered by the Jews from first to last, thinks this clause should be translated interrogatively ; Doch be (the Lord) not resist you ?

Ver. 7.-1. Be patient. Maxgo fupinotte. This word signifies to put off ager for a time. Here it means, to put off impatience.


8 Be ye also patient ; 8 Μακροθυμησατε και υμεις, stablish your hearts : for 5ηριξατε τας καρδιας υμων, the coming of the Lord ότι η παρουσια του Κυριου draweth nigh.

ήγγικε. . 9 Grudge not one against 9 Μη ξεναζετε καταλληanother, brethren, lest ye λων, αδελφοι, ίνα μη καταbe condemned: behold,

κριθητε' ιδου, κριτης προ των Judge standeth before the

θυρων έςηκεν. door. .

10 Take, my brethren, 10 Υποδειγμα λαβετε της the prophets, wlio have κακοπαθειας, αδελφοι μου, και spoken in the name of the της μακροθυμιας, τους προLord, for an example of φητας, οι ελαλησαν τω ονοsuffering affliction, and of

ματι Κυριου. patience. . 11 Behold, we

11 Ιδου, μακαριζομεν τους them happy which endure. υπομενοντας. Την υπομονην Ye have heard of the pa- Ιωβ ηκουσατε, και το τελος uence of Job, and have

Κυριου ειδετε, ότι πολυσπλαγseen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is very piti- χνος εςιν ο Κυριος και οιαful, and of tender mercy.



2. The early and the latter rain. Literally, ibe morning and the evening rain. The whole time the seed is in the ground being considered as one day, the early rain, is called ebe morning rain, and the latter rain, tbe evening rain. In Judea she rains come in a regular course. The early rain falls commonly about the beginning of November, after the seed is sown, and the latter rain in the middle or towards the end of April, while the ears are fill. ing. These rains were promised to the Israelites, Deut. xi. 14.

Ver. 8.-1. The coming of the Lord draweth nigb. By the coming of the Lord, James meant his coming to destroy the Jewish commonwealth. See Pref. to 2 Thess. sect. 4. Agrecably to the prophetic style, the preterite mixe hath approached, is used here to shew that the coming of the Lord was absolutely certain ; and at the time of writing this epistle, very near.

Ver. 9. Groan not against one anotber. Groaning is caused by oppression ; and when it is merely the natural expression of affliction, it moves God to pity the afflicted person. Judg. ii. 16. But as Whitby observes, when it is the effect of impatience, or when it expresses a desire of revenge, it be. comes criminal. It is this kind of groaning which the apos forbids.

Ver. 11.-1. Bebold we call tbem blessed who are patient. This being subjoined to ver. 10. where the prophets were proposed as an example of patience in suffering, it is an allusion to Christ's words, Matth. v. 11. Blesset are ye when men shall revile you and persecute you; as is plain from biş 8 Be ye also patient : 8 Be ye also patient : strengthen Strengthen your hearts; your hearts, by considering that your for the coming of the sufferings will not be long: For the Lord draweth nigh.1 coming of the Lord to destroy your

persecutors, draweth nigh. 9 Groan not against one 9 Having foretold the speedy another, brethren, lest ye destruction of your persecutors, for be condemned: Behold the

purpose of comforting you, and the Judge standeth before not to excite you to resentment, I the door.1 Gen. iv. 7. say, Groan not against one another,

brethren, as in pain till ye are avenged, lest ye be condemned. Behold Christ the Judge standeth before the

door, hearing all ye say. 10 Take, my brethren, Take, my brethren, the prophets, the prophets who have who have spoken in the name of the spoken in the name of the Lord to your forefathers, for an exLord, for an example of ample of suffering evil from the very suffering evil, and of pa- persons to whom they brought the tience.

messages of God, and of patience in

suffering 11 Behold we call them 11 Behold, after Christ's example, blessed 1 who are patient. We call them blessed who are patient. Ye have heard of the pa- Ye have heurd of the patience of Job tience of Job, 2 and ye under his heavy sufferings, and ye have seen the end of the have seen the happy end which the Lord,3 that the Lord is Lord pul to them; and that the Lord very compassionate and mer- is very compassionate and merciful to ciful.

his people, even when he afflicts them most.

adding, ver. 12. Rejoicefor so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. To shew the allusion, I have translated Maxagis Quey literally, We call obem blessed. Benson observes that the Papists to authorize their practice of making saints, have in their versions translated this clause, we beautify those who have suffered with constancy. See 3 John, ver. 5. note 2.

2. Ye bave beard of the patience of Job. After mentioning the prophets, namely Elijah, Isaiah, Jeremiah and the rest, as examples of patience under sufferings, the apostle brings in the example of Job, a Gentile, who was remarkably patient under the heaviest afflictions, and was highly rewarded. His design in this was to shew the suffering believing Jews, that their lot was not different from that of the most eminent servants of God; and that if a Gentile was so patient under great sufferings, it became them to be equally patient, as being better instructed than he was. This passage of scripture, as well as Ezek. xiv. 14. where Job is mentioned with Noah and

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