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abstract academic ALGOL algorithms argued argument aspects of computing automated Campbell-Kelly & Aspray Castells Chalmers Chapter claim complexity computational instruments computer sci computer scientists computing technology concepts considered constructionist cultural debate defined Denning descriptive development of computing Dijkstra disciplinary discipline discussed Donald Knuth early electronic computing ence ENIAC epistemological example facts falsificationism Feyerabend field of computing FORTRAN framework history of computing human instance knowledge Knuth Kuhn Kuhn's Kuhnian Lakatos large number logic machine mathematics Mauchly meta-knowledge methodology methods models Neumann normal science normative normative account noted objective ontologically paradigm phenomena philosophy of science physical Popper practical problems processes programming languages puter science question refers scientific semantic social construction social studies society sociocultural sociology software engineering statement blocks statements stored-program structures studies of computer techniques technological determinism technological momentum term theoretical theory thesis tion topics Turing understanding viewpoints wrote
Стр. 81 - Autobiography, sadly remarked that "a new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.
Стр. 305 - A man, viewed as a behaving system, is quite simple. The apparent complexity of his behavior over time is largely a reflection of the complexity of the environment in which he finds himself.
Стр. 67 - On the one hand, it stands for the entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques, and so on shared by the members of a given community.
Стр. 82 - Later scientific theories are better than earlier ones for solving puzzles in the often quite different environments to which they are applied. That is not a relativist's position, and it displays the sense in which I am a convinced believer in scientific progress.
Стр. 81 - The transfer of allegiance from paradigm to paradigm is a conversion experience that cannot be forced.
Стр. 66 - In this connection it is not irrelevant to note that of all forms of mental activity the most difficult to induce, even in the minds of the young who may be presumed not to have lost their flexibility, is the art of handling the same bundle of data as before, but placing them in a new system of relations with one another by giving them a different framework, all of which virtually means putting on a different kind of thinking-cap for the moment.
Стр. 81 - Lifelong resistance, particularly from those whose productive careers have committed them to an older tradition of normal science, is not a violation of scientific standards but an index to the nature of scientific research itself. The source of resistance is the assurance that the older paradigm will ultimately solve all its problems, that nature can be shoved into the box the paradigm provides.
Стр. 60 - Aufbau, is that our statements about the external world face the tribunal of sense experience not individually but only as a corporate body.