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of the past as far as it is known to us, you will see that those countries in which the populations continued and prospered were connected by land with Europe and as a matter of history, so far as we know, had never had experience of democratic government. Asia, throughout the millenniums of its existence, had had theocratic governments, governments in which the sovereign, the emperor or the king, the conqueror, spoke with absolute authority, because his voice was God's voice and he was but the lieutenant of God on earth. And into that position, into the seats of these God-inspired rulers passed some human symbol of the power of a western democracy, and at once the questioning, active mind of Asia saw the change-realized that this ruler that they had now was different from the rulers that they had had, and they learned that the theory which the western nation followed was that these men sent to them as governors received their power from the people and not from God direct.

There you have, in this clash of two ideas of government. as it works and ferments, grows and develops, the cause of the great geographical unrest as I see that cause at the present time. Add to these causes all the effects of the war, that I have already spoken of. Add to them the effect of all the agitators in the world. At the bottom, however, the unrest that we have to meet centres upon, has its origin in, and is a product of, the industrialization of the nations. Tackling that problem, finding the solution for the difficulties which are associated with it, is a work for many patient years. If we are to find the solution successfully, we nations which are of European stocks must declare among ourselves a peace of the Europeans in order that we may solve the difficulties which must be solved if the civilization that we have known is to continue through the centuries without collapse; for you cannot have a civilization continuing which is questioned, challenged and, if possible, destroyed by its own children from its own very heart. Before we can deal with these problems which are thronging towards us, I believe it absolutely essential that we should have an arrangement among the nations which will secure for them international peace and allow the thought of statesmen and the time of statesmen to be concentrated upon these internal problems.

And the very foundation of that friendship between the nations, I believe, must be, if the friendship is to endure, the development of a close sympathy, of real mutual respect and understanding between all the British nations and that other great English-speaking nation, the United States of America. On the basis of such a friendship the peace of the Europeans can be established. I doubt if for many years it could exist on any other foundation. And you, Canada, by the accident of your position, by community of interest, by knowledge and by innumerable friendships are especially placed to help to



build the golden bridge of sympathy between the British nations and the United States. To you is given the privilege of constructing the bridge which will cross the chasms of ignorance and the abyss of misrepresentation by which some might seek, by which some have sought, to create misunderstanding between these peoples. If you succeed, if we succeed, in building and establishing that bridge between the peoples, then we shall have taken the first essential step on the pathway which leads to that world of our dreams, a world of peace and justice. that step taken we can face the future confident that we shall have time, if we set our minds to it and do not fall into bickering by the wayside, to deal with the problems which must be dealt with before the world returns to the spirit of peace. But if we were to fail, if by any awful mischance troubles were to arise between the English-speaking peoples, then he would be a brave and foolhardy man who looked for any peace in the future. I do not believe civilization would long exist if there were strife between them.

The responsibility upon us all is great, but the responsibility and the opportunity which you, Canada, have is enormous -glorious, and I believe that you are the people who will take that chance and who will build the bridge which we must cross to safety and prosperity in the future.


Ottawa, September 3rd, 1920

Mr. Chairman, Mr. President, Lord Cave, Mr. Minister, Ladies, Brothers in Law, Fellow Taxpayers:

The Chairman has made my task, welcome as it is, even more difficult for me because of his generous words. Fortunately I remember that my personal sovereign, like every other good American wife, will keep me humble; so that I shall not be unduly uplifted, as my Scotch ancestors used to say.

Now that the 18th Amendment has abolished the 19th hole (laughter) in the United States, when I go to New York and look around for the American Quarter, among the foreign signs and find almost everybody else looking for the American dollar, I also find that many of my friends think that the best thing in New York is a ticket to Montreal (laughter); and when I came up to my summer home in Quebec two months ago, for my first vacation since 1917, instead of one long train at 7:45 in the Grand Central Station, there were two long trains for Montreal. (Laughter) But, Mr. Chairman, there are nobler reasons for coming to Canada, to the land of the Northern Star, whose dominion stretches from sea to sea, whose ideals and example now shine to the uttermost parts of the earth. What an example! What wonderful things you have done since we last met together in Toronto.

Our dear Vice-President, Hon. Isaac Campbell, in a most eloquent address in Winnipeg some months ago, told the fact, the unique fact, that in one block of 240 feet in Winnipeg and on one side of the block there dwelt three men who had received the Victoria Cross in the great war. (Applause) Fiftythree Canadians won the Victoria Cross in the great war. (Applause) Whatever we may think of other decorations, the whole world knows that the Victoria Cross is for merit. And that, Sir, is typical of the new Canada, the Canada that has come to national consciousness, the Canada that has taken her place beside the older nations of the world, the Canada that lost her life to save it, in behalf of liberty and justice.

And a very good reason for coming to Canada at this time, Sir, is this great meeting of the Canadian Bar Association, which has made such marvelous progress in such a short space of time. The Nestor of the American Bar Association, the Treasurer, Mr. Wadhams, tells me I do not remember

it, of course that the year of our creation was 1878; but I can well remember twenty years after that time, and I make bold to say in his presence that the American Bar Association had not made in twenty years, proportionately to the population of the country, the same progress which the Canadian Bar Association has made in five years. (Applause.) It did not have at that time the same representative membership. It did not have at that time the same public confidence, the confidence of the Bar, and it was very far from having that recognition by the general public and that recognition by the general government or by the governments of the particular states which the Canadian Bar Association has from the Canadian public, from the Dominion Government and Dominion from the governments of the provinces. But then, Sir, we had no Sir James Aikins (hear, hear and applause), and we never have had. If we had only been fortunate enough to have Sir James Aikins in the United States -and would that we had him, or even a man like him!-as the first President of the American Bar Association, I venture to say that he would be the President of the American Bar Association to-day. (Applause.) And as a member of the Canadian Bar Association, through your favour-an honour which I prize very highly-I want to congratulate ourselves and the Dominion of Canada that Sir James has consented to go on in the office which he has made, and which he has made famous. (Applause.) And I should like to say, since I think he has just left the room, that I think it very fortunate that you have elected Mr. Coleman as Secretary and Treasurer of the Association. (Applause.) We all know about the man behind the scenes, who thinks of everybody and everything except himself, and who works hard to bring about the success before the


This meeting, of course, is high water mark. I do not see how it could be improved, and yet I have no doubt that next year Sir James and the rest of you will improve it. The only possible improvement that I could think of would be to bring this entire company to the Capital of the United States. We came to Montreal in 1913, and I think it is about time that you returned our visit. (Hear, hear.) We shall not be able of course, to show you such a climate, or such weather, or such hospitality, but what we can do we shall be only too glad to do. And let me say, that if you do not all come, I sincerely trust that you will send next year, not one representative, however distinguished, but a delegation representing all the provinces at least one from each province to the interest and instruction and advantage of the American Bar Association.

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May I say when I am speaking of hospitality, that we value very greatly, we who are your guests, the hospitality which you have shown to the ladies. The ladies of the com

mittee of the Carleton County Bar Association, Lady Borden as its convener, Lady Aikins, and Her Excellency the Duchess of Devonshire, have shown the greatest courtesy and consideration and have given the greatest pleasure to the ladies who are with us.

I have seen much civic hospitality. When I was working out my term of ten years at hard labour, I enjoyed the hospitality of New York and Chicago and Richmond and Charleston and Atlanta, and other cities, and we have been keeping open house in Washington for a great many years, for the forty-eight states and the territories and dependencies and such distinguished Canadians as we were fortunate enough to get from time to time, but I never have seen anything to surpass the gracious and delightful hospitality of Ottawa. (Hear, hear.)

I appreciate very much the presence of Lord Cave to-day. Those of us who listened to his admirable and delightful addresses will never forget them, and I shall never forget his courtesy in attending here to-day. The address of your new Ambassador to Washington from Great Britain, who has already made so favourable an impression with us, so thoughtful, so thought-provoking, will be a memory in all our minds. And as an American or as a fellow-American, for I count you all as Americans let me also say that we are proud to have been represented officially from the American Bar Association by the best beloved ex-President we have ever had in the United States. (Applause.) And now, as I am Scotch by descent(I speak golf, although I do not play it) - you will let me say also that I was very glad to meet and to hear my fellow Presbyterian the new Prime Minister of Canada, to see what an upstanding, clear-minded, straightforward, courageous man he is. I say that, of course, without any intention to trench upon party politics here. I am not trenching upon party politics at all.

Our presidential campaign seems to be at the boiling point. In fact, the pot seems to have boiled over into Canada. I shall make no reference to it except to say that if you could only tell me how the twenty-seven million voters added by the 19th Amendment to our enormous electorate will vote, I could tell you who would be the next president of the United States. (Laughter.)

I may be permitted perhaps to make one other entirely non-partisan observation about our presidential election, which you as lawyers will appreciate better perhaps than the public, and that is, that it is of immense importance, regardless of all other questions, in that during the next four years from the 4th of March next, in all probability, four of the nine judges of the Supreme Court of the United States will retire. Four

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