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was received by the King and Queen with camier commenced while she was living in the utmost cordiality, precedence being a hotel, Rue d'Anjou, which she had purassigued her even over all the ladies of the chased and fitted up and wherein she court. Tbe times were critical and Murat's hoped to pass the rest of her life in peace position was just then one of exceeding and security. But a fresh reverse of forperplexity. To save his crown he had tune occurring in 1820, she resolved no joined the coalition against the brother-in- longer to form part of her husband's famlaw to whom he owed his greatness, and ils, but while engaging to maintain him it was from the balcony of Queen Caro. out of the wreck of her own fortune, she line's apartment that Madame Récamier determined to withdraw entirely from the beheld the British fleet entering, by Murat's world, and hired apartments from the invitation, the bright blue waters of the nuns of the Abbaye-aux-bois, a little conlovely bay.

vent which lay soinewhat withdrawn from Three years of husbandless but by no the street in the midst of the fashionable means solitary wandering were terminated Faubourg S. Germain. This then was the by the fall of Napoleon, the gates of Paris final retreat which she rendered famous by were once more opened to her, and she thirty years of residence. In her “ cell” immediately bent her steps homeward. she lived alone, but she dutifully procured Her beauty was still in full and perfect a lodging for her husband (who died in flower, and to all her other charms was 1830) in the neighborhood, and provided now added the prestige of innocence long him and Ballanche with their daily dinner. persecuted by the fallen power. Her But though her salon ever remained a mother's fortune, which amounted to four temple, the object of worship, by degrees, hundred thousand francs, added to the re- was changed, the idol of former days be. sults of M. Récamier's industry, enabled came the priestess, while Chateaubriand her once again to surround herself with who had quickly won the first place, if not the comforts and indulgences of life. Old in the heart, at least in the imagination of friends were not wanting to welcome her Madame Récamier, occupied the shrine return, Madame de Staël was in Paris, and and was worshipped, as it has been said, the widow of Moreau (who inet death like the Grand Lama himself. When he stricken by a French bullet when serving deigned to talk, everybody was bound to in the ranks of the Russian army) from listen, when he was moderately tired of a rhom she had been separated by ten long speaker, he stroked an ugly cat, placed years of exile. Three generations of Mont- purposely in a chair by his side, when he morencys were to be seen in her salon, and was tired beyond endurance he began it was on observing the impression made playing with a bell-rope which lay conby Madame Kecamier upon his grandson veniently within his reach, and then Ma. Henri, that the old duke remarked so dame Récamier wonld immediately rush to gracefully “ that though they did not die the rescue. Now and then the hostess, of it, all nevertheless were wounded.” It , who sat on one side of the fireplace, the was at this period, and at Madame de rest round in a circle, wouid relate some Staël's, that the fair Juliette first made the anecdote connected with earlier days ; one acquaintance of the Duke of Wellington ; such relating to Joseph Bonaparte has come and it is with reference to the words in down to us. “ I was standing one day,” which he is said to have addressed her the said Madame Recamier, " at the door of first time he saw her after the crowning the Spanish ambassador's hotel, conversing victory over his illustrious enemy-Je l'ai with the King ; the royal carriage was in bien battu-that the somewbat dubious as- waiting, and the prince, wbo was always sertion has been hazarded that his homage very gallant, had just taken leave of me, was unwelcome. The truth probably was when I heard a gruff voice muttering somethat from motives of patriotism she dis- thing close to my ear, I turned round, and liked the duke ; at any rate she preserved beheld a grenadier, a thorough ‘ vieux de a selection of bis effusions and ridiculed la vieille,' who had posted himself by the him as unable to spell correctly two con- footway as a sort of amateur sentinel. secutive words of French.

• Citizen,' he blurted out, addressing King It was not long before the death of Ma- Joseph, 'thy equipage is ready,' then dame de Staël in 1818, that the intimacy changing his tone after a moment's reflecbetween Chateaubriand and Juliette Ré. tion, he added, 'Whenerer it may please


the forest primæval is cleared, a new vege- on an inland sea across the face of the
tation usurps the soil, a vegetation which South Downs, and the central plain of
necessarily comes from elsewhere. In France and Belgium. It naturally resulted
America, where the substitution is a thing that these antiquated creatures, developed
of such very late date, we can trace the to suit the conditions of the cretaceous
limits of the two floras, native and intru. world, could no more hold their own
sive, with perfect ease and certainty. against the improved species imported
Strange as it sounds to say so, European from nineteenth century Europe than the
weeds of cultivation have taken possession Australian black fellow could hold his own
of all eastern America to the exclusion of against the noble possessor of the Reming-
the true native woodland flora almost as ton rifle. European animals and European
fully as the European white man with his plants overran this new province with
horses and cows has taken possession of astonishing rapidity. The English rat
the soil to the exclusion of the noble Red beat the Maori rat out of the field as soon
Indian and his correlative buffalo. The as he looked at him. The rabbit usurped
common plants that one sees about New the broad Australian plains, so that baffed
York, Philadelphia, and Boston are just legislators now seek in vain some cheap
the familiar dandelions, and thistles, and and effectual means of slaving him whole.
Ox-eye daisies of our own beloved father- sale. The horse has become a very weed
land. In open defiance of the Monroe among animals in Victoria, and the squat-
doctrine, the British weed lords it over the ters shoot him off in organized battues,
fields of the great republic : the native merely to check his lawless depredations
American plant, like the native American upon their unfenced sheep walks.
man, has slunk back into the remote and It is the same with the plants, only, if
modest shades of far western woodlands. possible, a little more so. Our petty Eng-
Nay, the native American man himself had lish knotgrass, which at home is but an
noted this coincidence in his Mayne Reid- insignificant roadside trailer, thrives in the
ish way before he left Massachusetts for unencumbered soil of New Zealand so
parts unknown : for be called our ugly lit- hugely that single weeds sometimes cover
tle English plantain or ribgrass " the a space five feet in diameter, and send
White Man's Foot," and declared that their roots four feet deep into the rich
wherever the intrusive pale-face planted ground. Our vulgar little sow-thistle, a
his sole, there this European weed sprang yellow composite plant with winged seeds
up spontaneous, and ousted the old vege- like dandelion-down, admirably adapted
tation of the primæval forest. A pretty for dispersal by the wind, covers all the
legend, but, Asa Gray tells us, botanically country up to a height of 6,000 feet upon

the mountain sides. The watercress of What is happening to-day under our our breakfast tables, in Europe a mere own eyes (or the eyes of our colonial cor- casual brookside plant, chokes the New respondents) in Australia and New Zealand Zealand rivers with stems twelve feet long, helps us still further to understand the and costs the colonists of Christchurch nature of this strange deluge of ugly and alone 3001, a year in dredging their Avon uncouth plants—a deluge which is des- free from it. Even so small and lowtined, I believe, to swamp, in time, all the growing a plant as our white clover (which, cultivable lowlands of the entire world, being excellent fodder, doesn't technically and to cover the face of accessible nature rank as a weed) has completely strangled before many centuries with a single dead. its immense antagonist, the New Zealand level of cosmopolitan weediness. When flax, a huge iris-like aloe, with leaves as the great southern continent and the great tall as a British Grenadier, and fibres powsouthern island were first discovered, they erful enough to make cords and ropes fit possessed the most absurdly belated fauna to hang a sheep-stealer. For weeds are and flora existing anywhere in the whole genuine Jack-the-Giant-killers in their own world. They were hopelessly out of date; way; a very small plant can often live a couple of million years or so at least be- down a very big one, by mere persistent hind the fashion in the rest of the globe. usurpation of leaf-space and root-medium. Their plants and animals were of a kind Sometimes the origin of these obtrusive that bad “ gone out” in Europe about settlers in new countries is ridiculously the time when the chalk was accumulating casual. For example, a dirty little Eng.

Fish weed of the weedies for thives Qui Sata OT_II., tui Dor one of the comfourishes abundant's OL . Tenzott IT manas. werd it cultivated and waste habited island of thit Antarcti. sess. Fios Tolsce neat!" all over the globe without did it get there! We that its name in the mos.** Like the rai and the cock ers wbo found II ou tit sal Durti in TarL. II.** Cirilization in every ship; it grew in the greatest anali€ bear . I snrends it seeds with evert sack of certain spot, whic: TIITIDE : OI ex- FUIT ; anc i acromnanies the emicrant, ination to be the forgotter. grave ca in Int Tem diri oz bn hnots, to erers cor English sailor. Here with tit si o te th covonizatole earth. that curious nitsiert il eutanaza de I: diesl' necessari foliow, however, tribution. The part bal & rare Tree in al. *eros AT D! or inconspicuous. dog with a civilizec spadt : and the stadt Samt familjar nesis, which seem to have had presumably beer UTOLLIT: iron 12 reel Serial's dereioned to suit the exiland. Clinging 10 is sutia ait une renc troufiesc cultivation, are both it was used were no doute somit iitlit - Duitsealuit and handsome. Car scarlet noticed clots of Britisi. ciat, emiadec IL CUTI-Dodies. OUT Due cort-cockles, our wbose midst $25 a single sted, 11 TUI- DITTI COTT-campion, are instances in bed itself off, it would seen., aras the poll : st be stil, more brilliant sonthDewlr-dng earl. The emri germe el surnfiar or wild gladiolus that stans, Dated, and grew to D & Dian : anc IL E FEL 1 al snikes of crimson hiassom, the very few years, in that m ecaniec soi.waring expanse of French and Italian the whole island was Diverec Fil it I beat-pied I think the reason here is merous descendants. Finding a fair fiend that CILI vido-fertilized, so the plants and do faror, luci is the sert esce that I among is zal stems, in order 10 natural selection, it had tasel Sun., and w as the erilizing insects sufficiently, multiplied, and replenisht e ea i 10 Date thellist res zo he tall and verr atsoine purpose, as al weegt vil do when tracce. In other respects, however, it do human band inierieres 10 preren her curious to notice how closer these

The greater pan on esisting week beauto: weeds have accommodated their as I already remarked come D. LIE al lauts to be peculiar circumstances of the rest of our crime, gova, bad or ceruleid mi. lace. The soil is plonghed indifferent from the remote east. In ore Oboe & Teur : so ther are al annuals many cases their copurt o mri i D3 roots of bois vocid be crushed at den even now fails town: thet me rar stored in the Diorghing ; ther feet with as antique as cultisi TIBET, CULTELIO ibe corn, ripen with the corn, are reaped raries of the bande-age or some are 100 and thrashes with the corn, and get their neers, and have spread westward wil bord seeds sown br the farmer with his seedand barler till aber bare Din fart made corn in spite of his own efforts. One of the tour of the woid ad te cbe the most deads and destructive emang globe-trotters right consider bensaires them, indeed, the parks the com wharta entitled at last to write a book adot their which festens its marders spoker.me travels. Our little shepherd's purse is a roots to the rootlets of the com and son good typical example of these comopoln the life-blood of the standing cron, has itan voyagers; there is hard ya quarter of gone so far as to produce seeds that every the world where it does not now grow in ls imitate a grain of hest and nas great profusion ; yet it is nowhere foand accurately be distinguished from the livre far from human habitations; it lores the est grains among which ther lark roadside, the garden, the failow, the bare close and discriminative botanii Ni patch in towns where the tall board of the top. This is one of the best instrup eligible building site “ lifts its head and known of true mimiere in the v isito lies”' with more brazen impudence than world, and it is *s sucresfai in the even the London Monument. Even to- er part of Europe as such wied e day, nobody knows where this ubiquitous always manage to be foundling, this gypsy among plants, really Still, as a rule, weeds under tv comes from. It is a native of nowhere. weedy-looking ; they are the experime All that the most authoritative of our bot. types that can dray out * Miera in polis anists can find to tell us about it is that it ence somehow in open suulit with may be “ probably of European or West short allowance of either sey up WAT

Most of them have fly-away feathery seeds, like thistles, dandelion, groundsel, and coltsfoot : all of them have advanced means of dispersion of one sort or another, which ensure their going everywhere that wind or water, beast or bird, or human hands can possibly carry them. Some, like burrs and tickseed, stick into the woolly fleeces of sheep or goats, and get rubbed off in time against trees or hedgerows : others, like the most dangerous Australian pest, are eaten by parrots, who distribute the undigested seeds broadcast. A great many have stings, like the nettle, or are prickly, like thistles, or at least are rough and unpleasantly hairy, like comfrey, hemp-nettle, borage, and bugloss. The weediest families are almost all disagreeably hirsute, with a tendency to run off into spines and thorns or other aggressive weapons on the slightest provocation. Their flowers are usually poor and inconspicuous, because weedy spots are not the favorite feeding grounds of bees and butterflies, to whose aesthetic intervention we owe the greater number of our most beau tiful blossoms : indeed, a vast majority of weeds show an inclination to go back to the low habit of self-fertilization (long cast aside by the higher plants), which always involves the production of very grubby and wretched little flowers. As a whole, in short, the weedy spirit in plants resembles the slummy or urban spirit in humanity ; the same causes that produce the one produce the other, and the results in either case tend to assimilate in a striking manner. Till very recently, the cosmopolitan weed was for the most part one of Mediterranean or West Asiatic origin. It could at least claim to be a foster. brother and contemporary of nascent civilization, a countryman of the Pharaohs, the Sennacheribs, or the Achaemenids. Of late years, however, new weeds from parts unknown, without pedigree or historical claims, are beginning to push their way to the front, and to oust these comparatively noble descendants of Egyptian and Mesopotamian ancestors. The Great West is turning the tables upon us at last, and sending us a fresh crop of prairie weeds of its own devising, as it now threatens us also with the caucus, the convention, and the Colorado beetle. A return-wave of emigration from west to east is actually in progress; and in weeds, this return-wave

promises in the end to assume something like gigantic proportions. Many years ago, the great Boston botanist, Asa Gray, prophesied its advent, and his prophecy has ever since gone on fulfilling itself at the usual rapid rate of all American phenomena, social or natural. It is easy enough to see why the western weeds should have the best of it in the end, under a régime of universal civilization. Eastern America, this side the Alleghanies, was a forest-clad region till a couple of centuries since ; and when its 'forests were cleared, French and English vegetation supplanted the native woodland flora. But the Mississippi Valley had been from the very beginning a vast basin of treeless prairie-land ; and on these sun smitten prairies, innumerable stout plants of the true weedy sort had such elbow room to grow and compete with one another as nowhere else in the whole world, save perhaps on the similar South American pampas. Here, then, the struggle for existence among field-weeds would be widest and fiercest; here the most perfect adaptations of plant life to meadow or pasture conditions would be sure to evolve themselves ; here the weed would naturally reach the very highest pitch of preternatural and constitutional weediness. As long, however, as the forest intervened between the open prairies and the eastern farms, these rude western weeds had no chance of spreading into the sunny crofts and gardens of the neat New England farmer. But when once the flowing tide of civilization reached the prairie district, a change came o'er the spirit of the cone. flower's or the tick-seed's dream. By the cutting down of the intermediate forest belt, man had turned these adventurous plants into vegetable Alexanders, who found new worlds, hitherto unsuspected, before them to conquer. They were equal to the occasion. The prairie vegetation set out on its travels eastward, to reach, and soon I believe to cross in its thousands the barrier of the Atlantic. The railways helped the prairie migrants greatly on their eastward march ; indeed, what is the good of railways if it isn’t to facilitate communications between place and place And the run of the railways exactly suited the weeds, for almost all the great trunk lines of America lie due east and west, so as to bring the corn and pork of the Mississippi Valley to the great shipping ports of the Atlantic seaboard. But they brought the pests of agriculture just as well. The waste spaces along their sides form everywhere beautiful nurseries for weeds to multiply in ; and the prevailing north-west winds, which in America blow on an average three days out of four the year round, carried their winged seeds bravely onward toward the unconscious farms of Pennsylvania and Connecticut. Another way, however, in which the prairie plagues spread even more insidiously was by the eastern farmer using western seed, in the innocence of his heart, to sow his fields with, and thus introducing the foe in full force with his own hands into his doomed domain. One of the worst ests of Wisconsin and Minnesota has thus een naturalized in Canada through the use of Western clover-seed. Some twenty years ago, prairie weeds were unknown everywhere along the Atlantic seaboard ; now, they dispute possession with the European buttercups, dandelions, or goosefoots, and will soon, in virtue of their sturdier and stringier prairie constitution, habituated to long drought or broiling sunshine, live down those damp-loving and dainty cis-Atlantic weeds. In time, too, they must reach Europe ; and here they will in many cases almost entirely swamp our native vegetation. In fact I think there can be little doubt that, with the increase of intercourse all over the world, a few hardy cosmopolitan weeds must tend in the long run to divide the empire of life, and map out the cultivable plains of the globe between them. Symptoms of this tendency have long been noted, and are growing clearer and clearer every day before our eyes. Weeds are keeping well abreast of the march of intellect, and are marching, too, wherever (like the missionaries) they find a door opened in front of them. In fact, they stand in the very van of progress, and sometimes spread even into uncivilized tracts as fast as the salvationist, the slave-trader, and the dealer in rum, rifles, and patent medicines generally. Now, every country, however uncivilized, has a few true weeds of its own— local plants which manage to live on among the cleared spaces by the native huts, or in the patches of yam, Indian corn, and plantain. The best of these weeds—that is to say, the weediest—may be able to compete in the struggle for life even with

the well-developed and fully-equipped plagues of more cultivated countries. Thus, even before the opening out of the prairie region, a few American plants of the baser sort had already established themselves by hook or by crook in Europe, and especially in the dry and congenial Mediterranean region. I don't count cases like that of the Canadian river-stopper, the plant that clogs with its long waving tresses all our canals and navigable streams, because there the advantage of Canada, with its endless network of sluggish waterways, is immediately obvious ; a plant developed under such special conditions must almost certainly live down with ease and grace our poor little English crowfoots and brookweeds. But the Canadian fleabane, a scrubby, dusty, roadside annual, with endless little fluffy fruits as light as air, has, for more than a century, held its own in the greatest abundance as a highway vagabond in almost all temperate and hot climates; while the Virginian milkweed, also favored by its cottony seeds, is now as common in many parts of the Old World as in the barren parts of its native continent. I don’t doubt that in time these picked weeds of all the open lowland regions, but more especially those of the prairies, the pampas, the steppes, and the veldt, will overrun the greater part of the habitable globe. They are the fittest for their own particular purpose, and fitness is all that nature cares about. We shall thus lose a great deal in picturesque variety between country and country, because the main features of the vegetation will be everywhere the same, no matter where we go, as they already are in Europe and Eastern America. Toujours perdrix is bad enough, but toujours lait d'áne— always sow-thistle—is surely something too horrible to contemplate. Nevertheless, the symptoms of this dead-level cosmopolitanization of the world's flora abound to the discerning eye everywhere around us. At least three North American weeds have already made good their hold in England, and one of them, the latest comer, a harmless little Claytonia from the north-western States, is spreading visibly every year under my own eyes in my own part of Surrey. Thirty years ago Mr. Brewer, of Reigate, noted with interest in his garden at that town the appearance of a small exotic Weronica; the “interesting” little plant

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