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orts of the Atlantic seaboard. the well-developed’ and fully-equipped orought the pests of agriculture plagues of more cultivated countries.

ell. The waste spaces along their Thus, even before the opening out of the orm everywhere beautiful nurseries prairie region, a few American plants of

eeds to multiply in ; and the prevail- the baser sort had already established them. , Dorth-west winds, which in America selves by hook or by crook in Europe, and jow on an average three days out of four especially in the dry and congenial Med. the year round, carried their winged seeds iterranean region. I don't count cases bravely onward toward the unconscious like that of the Canadian river-stopper, farms of Pennsylvania and Connecticut. the plant that clogs with its long waving Another way, however, in which the prai- tresses all our canals and navigable streams, rie plagues spread even more insidiously because there the advantage of Canada, was by the eastern farmer using western with its endless network of sluggish water. seed, in the innocence of his heart, to sow ways, is immediately obvious ; a plant dehis fields with, and thus introducing the veloped under such special conditions must foe in full force with his own hands into almost certainly live down with ease and his doomed domain. One of the worst grace our poor little English crowfoots and pests of Wisconsin and Minnesota has thus brookweeds. But the Canadian fleabane, been naturalized in Canada through the a scrubby, dusty, roadside annual, with use of Western clover-seed. Some twenty endless little fluffy fruits as light as air, years ago, prairie weeds were unknown has, for more than a century, held its own everywhere along the Atlantic seaboard ; in the greatest abundance as a highway now, they dispute possession with the Eu- vagabond in almost all temperate and hot ropean buttercups, dandelions, or goose- climates ; while the Virginian milkweed, foots, and will soon, in virtue of their also favored by its cottony seeds, is now sturdier and stringier prairie constitution, as common in many parts of the Old habituated to long drought or broiling World as in the barren parts of its native sunshine, live down those damp-loving and continent. I don't doubt that in time dainty cis-Atlantic weeds.

these picked weeds of all the open lowIn time, too, they must reach Europe ; land regions, but more especially those of and here they will in many cases almost the prairies, the pampas, the steppes, and entirely swamp our native vegetation. In the veldt, will overrun the greater part of fact I think there can be little doubt that, the habitable globe. They are the fittest with the increaso of intercourse all over for their own particular purpose, and fitthe world, a few hardy cosmopolitan weeds ness is all that nature cares about. We must tend in the long run to divide the shall thus lose a great deal in picturesque empire of life, and map out the cultivable variety between country and country, beplains of the globe between them. Symp- cause the main features of the vegetation toms of this tendency have long been will be everywhere the same, no matter noted, and are growing clearer and clearer where we go, as they already are in Europe every day before our eyes. Weeds are and Eastern America. Toujours perdrix keeping well abreast of the march of intel- is bad enough, but toujours lait d'âneJect, and are marching, too, wherever (like always sow-thistle-is surely something too the missionaries) they find a door opened horrible to contemplate. in front of them. In fact, they stand in Nevertheless, the symptoms of this the very van of progress, and sometimes dead-level cosmopolitanization of the spread even into uncivilized tracts as fast world's flora abound to the discerning eye as the salvationist, the slave-trader, and the everywhere around us. At least three dealer in rum, rifles, and patent medicines North American weeds have already made generally.

good their hold in England, and one of Now, every country, however uncivil. them, the latest comer, a harmless little ized, has a few true weeds of its own- Claytonia from the north-western States, local plants which manage to live on among is spreading visibly every year under my the cleared spaces by the native huts, or own eyes in my own part of Surrey. in the patches of yam, Indian corn, and Thirty years ago Mr. Brewer, of Reigate, plantain. The best of these weeds—that noted with interest in his garden at that is to say, the weediest-may be able to town the appearance of a small exotic compete in the struggle for life even with Veronica ; the “interesting” little plant Most of them have fly-away feathery seeds, promises in the end to assume something like thistles, dandelion, groundsel, and like gigantic proportions. Many years coltsfoot : all of them have advanced ago, the great Boston botanist, Asa Gray, means of dispersion of one sort or another, prophesied its advent, and his prophecy which ensure their going everywhere that has ever since gone on fulfilling itself at wind or water, beast or bird, or human the usual rapid rate of all American phehands can possibly carry them. Some, nomena, social or natural. like burrs and tickseed, stick into the It is easy enough to see why the westwoolly fleeces of sheep or goats, and get ern weeds should have the best of it in the rubbed off in time against trees or hedge- end, under a régime of universal civilizarows : others, like the most dangerous tion. Eastern America, this side the AlAustralian pest, are eaten by parrots, who leghanies, was a forest-clad region till a distribute the undigested seeds broadcast couple of centuries since ; and when its A great many have stings, like the nettle, 'forests were cleared, French and English or are prickly, like thistles, or at least are vegetation supplanted the native woodland rough and unpleasantly hairy, like com- flora. But the Mississippi Valley had frey, bemp-nettle, borage, and bugloss. been from the very beginning a vast basin The weediest families are almost all dis- of treeless prairie-land ; and on these agreeably hirsute, with a tendency to run sun sınitten prairies, innumerable stout off into spines and thorns or other aggres. plants of the true weedy sort had such sive weapons on the slightest provocation. elbow room to grow and compete with one Their flowers are usually poor and incon- another as nowhere else in the whole spicuous, because weedy spots are not the world, save perhaps on the similar South favorite feeding grounds of bees and but American pampas. Here, then, the strugterflies, to whose æsthetic intervention we gle for existence among field-weeds would owe the greater number of our most beau be widest and fiercest ; here the most pertiful blossoms : indeed, a vast majority of fect adaptations of plant life to meadow weeds show an inclination to go back to or pasture conditions would be sure to the low babit of self-fertilization (long cast evolve themselves ; here the weed would aside by the higher plants), which always naturally reach the very highest pitch of involves the production of very grubby and preternatural and constitutional weediness. wretched little flowers. As a whole, in As long, however, as the forest intervened short, the weedy spirit in plants resembles between the open prairies and the eastern the slummy or urban spirit in humanity; farms, these rude western weeds had no the same causes that produce the one pro- chance of spreading into the sunny crofts duce the other, and the results in either and gardens of the neat New England case tend to assimilate in a striking man- farmer. But when once the flowing tide ner.

of civilization reached the prairie district, Till very recently, the cosmopolitan a change came o'er the spirit of the cone. weed was for the most part one of Medi- flower's or the tick-seed's dream. By the terranean or West Asiatic origin. It cutting down of the intermediate forest could at least claim to be a foster. brother belt, man bad turned these adventurous and contemporary of nascent civilization, plants into vegetable Alexanders, who a countryman of the Pharaohs, the Sen- found new worlds, hitherto unsuspected, nacheribs, or the Achæmenids. Of late before them to conquer. They were equal years, however, new weeds from parts un- to the occasion. The prairie vegetation known, without pedigree or historical set out on its travels eastward, to reach, claiins, are beginning to push their way to and soon I believe to cross in its thousands the front, and to oust these comparatively the barrier of the Atlantic. noble descendants of Egyptian and Mes- The railways helped the prairie miopotamian ancestors. The Great West is grants greatly on their eastward march ; turning the tables upon us at last, and indeed, what is the good of railways if it sending us a fresh crop of prairie weeds isn't to facilitate communications between of its own devising, as it now threatens us place and place ? And the run of the railalso with the caucus, the convention, and ways exactly suited the weeds, for almost the Colorado beetle. A return-wave of all the great trunk lines of America lie due einigration from west to east is actually in east and west, so as to bring the corn and progress ; and in weeds, this return-wave pork of the Mississippi Valley to the great shipping ports of the Atlantic seaboard. the well-developed and fully-equipped But they brought the pests of agriculture plagues of more cultivated countries. just as well. The waste spaces along their Thus, even before the opening out of the sides form everywhere beautiful nurseries prairie region, a few American plants of for weeds to multiply in ; and the prevail- the baser sort had already established theming dorth-west winds, which in America selves by book or by crook in Europe, and blow on an average three days out of four especially in the dry and congenial Medthe year round, carried their winged seeds iterranean region. I don't count cases bravely onward toward the unconscious like that of the Canadian river-stopper, farms of Pennsylvania and Connecticut. the plant that clogs with its long waving Another way, however, in which the prai- tresses all our canals and navigable streams, rie plagues spread even more insidiously because there the advantage of Canada, was by the eastern farmer using western with its endless network of sluggish waterseed, in the innocence of his heart, to sow ways, is immediately obvious ; a plant dehis fields with, and thus introducing the veloped under such special conditions inust foe in full force with his own hands into almost certainly live down with ease and his doomed domain. One of the worst grace our poor little English crowfoots and pests of Wisconsin and Minnesota has thus brookweeds. But the Canadian fleabane, been naturalized in Canada through the a scrubby, dusty, roadside annual, with use of Western clover-seed. Some twenty endless little fluffy fruits as light as air, years ago, prairie weeds were unknown has, for more than a century, held its own everywhere along the Atlantic seaboard ; in the greatest abundance as a highway now, they dispute possession with the Eu- vagabond in almost all temperate and hot ropean buttercups, dandelions, or goose- climates ; while the Virginian milkweed, foots, and will soon, in virtue of their also favored by its cottony seeds, is now sturdier and stringier prairie constitution, as common in many parts of the Old habituated to long drought or broiling World as in the barren parts of its native sunshine, live down those damp-loving and continent. I don't doubt that in time dainty cis-Atlantic weeds.

these picked weeds of all the open lowIn time, too, they must reach Europe ; land regions, but more especially those of and here they will in many cases almost the prairies, the pampas, the steppes, and entirely swamp our native vegetation. In the veldt, will overrun the greater part of fact I think there can be little doubt that, the habitable globe. They are the fittest with the increase of intercourse all over for their own particular purpose, and fit. the world, a few hardy cosmopolitan weeds ness is all that nature cares about. We must tend in the long run to divide the shall thus lose a great deal in picturesque empire of life, and map out the cultivable variety between country and country, beplains of the globe between them. Symp- cause the main features of the vegetation toms of this tendency have long been will be everywhere the same, no matter noted, and are growing clearer and clearer where we go, as they already are in Europe every day before our eyes. Weeds are and Eastern America. Toujours perdrix keeping well abreast of the march of intel- is bad enough, but toujours luit d'ânelect, and are marching, too, wherever (like always sow.thistle-is surely something too the missionaries) they find a door opened horrible to contemplate. in front of them. In fact, they stand in Nevertheless, the symptoms of this the very van of progress, and sometimes dead-level cosmopolitanization of the spread even into uncivilized tracts as fast world's fora abound to the discerning eye as the salvationist, the slave-trader, and the every where around us. At least three dealer in rum, rifles, and patent medicines North American weeds have already made generally.

good their hold in England, and one of Now, every country, however uncivil- them, the latest comer, a harmless little ized, has a few true weeds of its own Claytonia from the north-western States, local plants which manage to live on among is spreading visibly every year under my the cleared spaces by the native huts, or own eyes in my own part of Surrey. in the patches of yam, Indian corn, and Thirty years ago Mr. Brewer, of Reigate, plantain. The best of these weeds—that noted with interest in his garden at that is to say, the weediest-may be able to town the appearance of a small exotic compete in the struggle for life even with Veronica ; the “interesting” little plant is now by far a commoner pest in all the plants ; it is an open fight between them, fields of southern England than almost any in which victory inclines sometimes to one one of our native knotweeds, thistles, or side and sometimes to the other. Thus charlocks. The Peruvian galinsoga (I sorrel and knotweed are terrible plagues in apologize for its not having yet acquired New Zealand, but they yield at last to juan English name ; our farmers will find dicious treatment if the ground is thorone for it before many years) has spread oughly sown with red clover. On the immensely in Italy and the Riviera, and other hand, though white clover is strong now grows quite commonly wild on the enough to live down all the native New roadsides about Kew, whence it will swoop Zealand weeds, if our coarsest English in time with devouring effect upon the bawkweed once gets into the soil, with its surrounding counties. Elsewhere in the deep taproot and its many-winged seeds, world our European thistles have usurped the clover is nowhere in the hopeless strugwhole thousands of square miles in the gle with that most masterful composite. plains of La Plata, wbile in Australia the Once more, Mr. Wallace tells us that the South African Capeweed, a most pugna. Capeweed, long considered “unexterminacious composite, has rendered vast areas ble” in Australia, has succumbed, after of sheep walk unfit for grazing. These many trials, to the dense herbage formed are but a few out of thousands of in- by cultivated Jucerne and choice grasses, stances which might easily be given of the In this way man will have to fight and way in which the cosmopolitan weed is conquer the cosmopolitan weed all the driving out the native vegetation all over world over when its time comes, and will the world, just as the brown rat of the succeed in the end. But his commercial Lower Volga has driven out the old black and agricultural success will be but a small rat in every civilized land, and as the consolation after all to the lover of nature European house-fly and the Asiatic cock for that general vulgarization and equali. roach bave driven out the less pestiferous zation of the world's flora which universal flies, crickets, and midges of most other culture and increased intercourse must al. countries.

most of necessity bring in their train to • Finally, let us give the devil his due. every quarter of the habitable globe. — These weeds do not necessarily in every cornhill Magazine, case live down all kinds of cultivated

MADAME RÉCAMIER.

The story of the lives of those remark- ships, so vigilantly does she appear to have able women who, as leaders of brilliant guarded her good name that she was lisalons, have witnessed the leading men of kened to the “ nymph Arethusa bearing the day in French society, literatnre and the unmingled freshness of her stream politics at their feet, can never be void of through the waters of the Ionian Sea,” interest. Many of them indeed, as de. Of bourgeois origin, and with no prescribed by Sydney Smith,“ violated all tension to literary gifts or what was called the common duties of life, though they esprit, it may be asked what was the nagave very pleasant little suppers ;'' but in ture of the spell which enabled the enin one respect, at any rate, Madame Ré- chantress to exercise a sway so potent over camier differed widely froin her predeces. the Parisian world? The answer to this sors, for not even at the zenith of her question must be sought in the influence celebrity was the slightest breath of scan. of pre-eminent beauty and an intense dedal ever associated with her name, and sire to please. But her story must speak though the list of the conquests of Don for itself. Giovanni pales before the catalogue of her Julie Adelaide Bernard was born at triumphs, and though half her lifetime Lyons, where her father was a notary, seems to have been spent in creating the December 4, 1777. He was handsome, most passionate attachments, and the and married to a pretty blonde, from whom other half to have been passed in taming his danghter inherited the exquisite and them down to the level of ordinary friendunmatchable beauty to which she was

mainly indebted for hér celebrity. Broth- from her earliest years ; when a tiny child, ers and sisters she had none, whence per- a watchful neighbor who caught her climbhaps it arose ibat she was quickly with- ing a fence to steal his fruit was so subdrawn from the shelter of the convent dued by her charms as she sat crying on which had been her early home, and recol- the wall that she escaped with no heavier lections of the endless round of ceremonies punishment than an apronful of fruit. At and processions, the clouds of incense, twelve years of age she had been singled the chants and flowers which had been out by Marie Antoinette from the midst associated with her every day existence of a crowd of strangers assembled to gaze were thenceforth but a vague, sweet dream. on royalty at Versailles ; and now, the About the year 1784 M. Bernard obtained churches being reopened after the Revoluan appointment in Paris, where he was tion, as she handed round the alms bag at shortly afterward joined by the youthful S. Roch, the people mounted chairs, pilJuliette. Among the most frequent visit lars, even the altars of the side chapels in ors at her father's house was Barrére, to order to see her, and at Longchampswhose friendly influence the family were then in full vogne - every voice proindebted for their safety during the stormy nounced that she was the fairest. She days of the Revolution, and M. Rose Ré- excelled especially in dancing, and her becamier, son of a hosier at Lyons, a wealthy witching evolutions in the “ shawl dance". Parisian banker, destined to become the served Madame de Staël as a model in young lady's husband. M. Recamier- “ Corinne." somewhat of a supernumerary on the It was in connection with negotiations scenes to be described-seems to have preliminary to the purchase of M. Neck. been a rood-looking but weak man, ready er's hotel in the Rue du Mont Blanc to oblige his friends while they lived, and (Chaussée d'Antin) by her husband, that equally ready to be separated from them she was first introduced to Madame de by the band of Death. During the Ter- Staël. The acquaintance rapidly ripened ror he was a constant attendant at the into inseparable friendship, so that, as guillotine, and witnessed the sad end of Madame Hamelin laughingly observed, the the King and Queen, as well as many of most certain way to insure the presence of his acquaintances, with the view of hard- either of the ladies in society, was to inening himself, as he said, against the time vite them both. It was at her house that when his own hour shiould likewise come. a young man, delighted at finding himself When M. Recamier proposed marriage to seated between Madame Récamier and the child whose beauty he bad watched in Madame de Staël, complimented them by its development, he was forty-two years thanking his host for thus placing him beof age and she fifteen. No difficulties tween wit and beauty ; the Swedish Amseemed to have been raised by the fair bassadress, who was not handsome, thereJuliette, who at once accepted the worthy upon remarked that this was the first time banker without apprehension or repug- in her life that she had ever been called nance. He had ever been kind and gen- beautiful. erous in her infant days, had given her, as In the month of December 1797, the she said, her prettiest dolls, what doubt Government resolved to celebrate the retherefore that he would prove himself un turn of the young conqueror of Italy by mari plein de complaisance. And so it be- giving a triumphant fête. In the first fell that at the darkest hour of the Revo- court of the Luxembourg palace, an altar lutionthe very year indeed that the King and statue of Liberty were erected, at the and Queen were put to death-these two foot of which sat the five Directors in full were married ; but the tie which bound Roman costume, and in one of the seats them was but nominal, Madame Récamier reserved for those who had been specially received only her name from her husband, invited, Madame Récainier found place. and the relations between the banker and She had never seen the youthful general, his young and beautiful wife remained and, anxious to obtain a better view of his ever of a filial and parental character. features, she rose for that purpose. By

No long time, however, elapsed ere the this movement, the eyes of the crowd Jady was to take her place among the were attracted to her, and her surpassing reigning beautics of the day. She had in- loveliness was greeted by a spontaneous deed been prepared for such a position burst of admiration. The sound by no

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