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in the middle of a delightful plain, European powers, and, among others, with its deep green ferny suminit one with some individuals of our nacrowned with a Druidical circle, and tion. These persons seem, from the its declivities white with sheep, the tenor of the instrument, to have prosilvery links of Manor Water winding mised the Raja an embassy from their at its base, through fertile huughs and sovereign, but such a one never arfields of grain; the aged trees scatter- rived. ed here and there along the bottom of the precipitous hills, the wild A Treaty between the Kings of Goa abodes of the goat, the raven, the fox, and Tallo (confederated Macassar and the falcon; and the dark summits Chiefs) and the People called Engof the farther mountains towering

lish. over all,-present a burst of upland Four Englishmen only shall reside scenery not unworthy of arresting the at Macassar. The English shall not notice of the traveller, even although construct forts nor warehouses, nor it had never possessed the additional express any desire to possess Macasattraction of having been the resi- sar. The English shall not go into dence of the illustrious Ferguson, as

the interior of our country,—they well as of the eccentric Dwarf of shall take no cognizance of offences, Manor Water." * The eccentric they shall convert none of our people Dwarf, as the same writer states, to their religion. In any disputes also requested that a clump of rowan- arising between them and us, they tree might be planted above his shall conform to the laws of our grave, on the Woodhill. A promise country. The English shall not comto this effect was given him. But he mit any acts of hostility within our changed his mind on his death-bed, harbours, towards any other nation and was

gathered to his fathers" whatsoever. Whenever they come like a decent Christian, in the church- into our harbours they shall make us yard of Manor.

presents of fire-arms and ammunition. Before sailing, they shall pay the ac

customed fees for weighing merchanGOA AND TALLO (CONFEDERATED

dise and the usual imposts; and they Chiers)

shall farther wait upon the King of

Goa, and ask his permission to proPEOPLE CALLED ENGLISH-1615. (Communicated by John Crawfurd, Esq.) should come to our country on the

ceed on their voyage. If a great man The following paper is a curious part of the English, we, on our side, instance of the jealousy with which engage not to interfere between him the European nations were viewed on and his dependents, provided he does their first intercourse with India. The nothing which is disagreeable to us. Macassar nation was then the most Such a person shall, on no account, commercial of the East Insular tribes. purchase for slaves persons They were the carriers of the Archi- fess the Mahommedan religion." In pelago, and had a natural monopoly any affair which may arise between of the spice trade, not to say that they such great man and us, he shall follow were paramount on their own native the customs of our country ; on his island of Celebes. Among the re- return home he shall deliver the precords of this people were found in our sent treaty to the King of England, times treaties with various native and that he may understand and acknow

ledge it, and forswear any claim to " A short account of David Ritchie, our country, or intention to do any with an elegy on his death : printed for the thing hostile towards us, or listen to author, July 1816.” This is curious, as the affairs of the neighbouring counhaving been in print some little time be- tries, or of the states of our island. fore the Tales of my Landlord appeared. Lastly, When the English are in our But it was never published, and the author, whom we have conversed with, does harbours, our enemies shall be their not imagine that any of the few copies enemies, but we shall take no part which he privately distributed could pose with them against theirs. Agreed upon sibly have found their way to the hands on Tuesday, in the month of Moof either Mr Peter Pattieson, or his learned harram, year B. 1024 of the Hegira, and worthy patron, the Schoolmaster of corresponding with the Christian year Gandercleugh.







who pro

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STATE OF THE SCOTTISH ARMY UN- advantageously, and with such small

DER GENERAL ALEXANDER LESLIE, loss to the Scottish army.

In the month of August 1641, King In the summer of 1640, an army Charles I. in the course of his journey was suddenly collected in different into Scotland, visited the army at parts of Scotland, for the purpose of Newcastle, and was entertained by repelling an expected invasion from Leslie with a display of its exact disEngland, and placed under the com

cipline and soldierlike appearance, mand of General Alexander Leslie, which probably was intended by the aided by various other officers who, General for other purposes besides like himself

, had learned the military those of common military parade. Of art, and acquired no small share of this royal review, and of the conduct military fame, in the wars of Gustavus of the army and its commander, on Adolphus. On the approach of the Eng- their soon afterwards retiring from lish forces under the Lord Conway, the England, a curious and not uninteScottish army crosed the Border, and resting account was published at the on the 28th of August, at Newburn, time in one of those small pamphlets on the river Tyne, encountered and which were then issuing daily from repulsed their opponents, and obtained the press, and of which we shall here complete possession of Newcastle and present our readers with a reprint. the neighbouring country as far as the It is of English composition, but will borders of Yorkshire. In this situa- be found to do ample justice to the tion they remained for more than a military character of the Scottish year: but during this period of inac- army, and their able commanders; tivity, it is creditable to the talents of not omitting what was due to the Leslie and his officers, that they not warlike inventions of " that their faonly maintained the most exact dis- mous engineer Sandy Hamilton,” who cipline among his troops, but were

will be readily recognized as the person able to improve their skill in all the of whom we have given some account. military exercises, to a degree that His Maiesties passing through the had till then been but little known

Scots Armie: ds also, his Entertainin Great Britain.

ment by Generall Lesly. Together Among these officers, one of the

with the manner of the Scots marchmost eminent was Colonel Sir Alexander Hamilton [of Priestfield], ge

ing out of Newcastle. Related by

the best Intelligence. Printed in neral of the artillery, or master of the year 1641. the ordnance, a younger brother of His Maiesties passing through the Thomas first Earl of Haddington ; and who, like the commander-in

Scots Army. chief, had been recalled by his coun

GENERALL LASLEY being aduertrymen from a distinguished station tised of the time of his majesties comin foreign service, to take a share in that distracting and unhappy warfare

The mechanical inventions of Colonel with which his native kingdom was

Hamilton had not been altogether confined threatened. In a petition to the King to the art military. In 1624, he obtained and Parliament of Scotland, Colonel

a patent for the sole using of a new cart Hamilton states it as " not unknown It sets forth, “ that our souerane lord, un

devised by him, for the space of 21 years. that his whole study has been in the art derstanding that Mr Alexander Hamilton, of military discipline, especially anent brother to the Earle of Melrois, by his artillery, wherein he being employed paines, industrie, and grite charges, hath in Germany upon honourable and devysed and found out the use of a new good conditions, he was recalled there. carte, wherein gritter weight and burdenis from to England, where his majesty may with far lesse force be drawne, and was graciously pleased to grant him convenientlie caryed then hath bene done pensions and allowances of eight hun- with onie uther kynd of carte hitherto dred pound Sterling by year;" and knowne or heretofore used ; and our said in the history of the civil wars, his he sould reape the fruitts of his honest la

soverane lord, thinking it good reasone that eminent services as a soldier, more

bouris in that kinde, and to encourage him especially in his own department of and utheris to goe on in finding out such the ordnance, are commemorated. It laudable engynes,—Thairfore, " &c. In a was owing to his superior skill in the future number we may probably offer to management of artillery that the affair our readers some details of the history of at Newburn had been terminated so this eminent person.



ming to Newcastle, that hee might inuention of gunnes, neuer better as well appeare in his own art and was seene or heard ; they discharged lustre, as in his dutie and loialty to wondrous swift, but with as good a his soueraigne, (hauing first made his method and order as your skilfullest choyce of fitt ground, hee drew out ringers observe with bels, not sufferhis whole forces, both horse and foot, ing the noyse of the one to drowne with the artillerie: and the better to the other. The king receiued such express the souldiers salute and wel- contentment, that whereas his dinner come of their king, hee rallied his was appointed and prouided at the men into two diuisions of equall num- maiors of New-castle, hee yet went ber, ranging them in a great length, and honoured Generall Lasley with with an equall distance betweene them his presence at dinner, who hath not of about eight score, which rendered only gained a good report with his them the more conspicuous, and with majestie to be a brave souldier, but the braver aspect to the beholders. also a singular esteeme to be a most Through these the king was to pass; expert and able commander and genewhither being come, the Generali a- rall, by such of our English officers lighting from his horse, (which was as were then with his majestie. presently taken by two of his footmen,) The manner of the Scots departure, hee prostrated himselfe and service be

and marching out of Newcastle. fore the king, upon his knees, his majestie a while priuately talking to

The Scots, when they marched out him, and at his rising gave him his of Newcastle, their artillerie being hand to kisse, and commanded his mounted vpon their carriages, aduan

ced first forth with the cannoniers horse to be giuen him, whereon remounted, he ridd with the king and some troops of horse; then most

and other officers thereto belonging, through the armie. In the first place stood Highlanders, them their prouision, baggage, and

of the regiments of foot ; after commonly called Redshankes, with their plaides cast ouer their shoulders, the foot,' and all the rest taking their

carriage ; then followed the rest of hauing euery one his bowe and ar- leaves in a most brotherly and friendrowes, with a broad slycing sword by ly manner. Being gone some foure his syde; these are so good markesmen that they will kill a deere in his miles from the towne, their generall speed, it being the chiefest part of

hauing directed them to march fortheir living, selling the skinns by wards, he returned to Newcastle, acgreat quantities, and feeding on the companied with some few of his of. filesh. Next were musketeers, inter- ficers, causing the toll-bell to be rung lac't with pikes, and here and there wp and downe the towne, proclaiming intermixt with those dangerous short that if any of the towne were not yet gunnes, inuented by that their famous from any of his officers or souldiers,

satisfied for any thing due to them engineer Sandy Hamilton, and were for the sudden execution of horse, in let them bring in their tickets and hee case they should assaile them: then

would pay them, which hee did acagain bowes, muskets, and pikes, for cordingly, to the great content of the a good distance on both sides. In the the generall and his whole armie. And

townes-men, and much applause of midway, the artillery was placed by, after a solemne taking of his leave, he tiers, consisting of about 60 peices of followed the armie, going all the way ordnance, the cannoniers standing in readines with fired linstocks in their along with them in the reere, as they hands. The horsemen were here marched, and not any thing taken placed on both sides, which serued as

from any man in all their iourney, to wings or flankes for the whole army, ing the good esteeme of all that pas

their singular commendation, and gaynand so forward in the same order, but

sed by. disposed into so goodly a presence and posture, with such sutable equipage and míllitarie accommodations, that NOTICE they appeared ready to give or take WINKS, AN INSTRUMENT OF TORbattaile, or forthwith to have gone upon some notable designe. And as the MR EDITOR, king passed along, they gave such In a very able and amusing paper, in frue fyre, as it is beleeued, since the your August Number, on Thumbikens


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and other instruments of torture for- legal, and as some of the leaders have merly used in Scotland, mention is been actually convicted and punished, made of the Pilniewinks. Whether it would be vain to expect that their the following anecdote may in any records, if they still exist, should be way illustrate the subject, I leave to subjected to scrutiny.

But an apyour own decision, or, if you insert it, proximation may be deduced from to that of your readers.

certain known facts. Some years ago the writer of this A petition, presented by the operaarticle was in a large, and rather a tives to Parliament, was subscribed mixed company, in the neighbour- by upwards of 20,000 persons residkood of Fordoun, in Mearns, and on ing in Glasgow and its vicinity. Few some of the younger members expres- weavers residing in Renfrewshire, sing their mirth in rather a boisterous Ayrshire, and the more remote counmanner, an old man, half seriously, tics, were included. Care is said to half jocularly, declared they should have been taken to admit only real be put into the pilniewinks. As the signatures ; but exertion was also usword was a new one to me, I made ed to make these as numerous as posinquiry as to its meaning, and was sible, in order to give weight to the answered, that it was pitting their application. . If the number quoted finger in a bor, and ca'ing in a pin be doubled, it may contain nearly the aside it.* The person I allude to entire number in Scotland ; and is now gathered with his fathers,” 40,000 is generally understood, by or more particular inquiry would have well informed persons, to be about been made. Should it meet your the actual amount. This may be approbation, I may, at a future pe- reckoned about one-eighth part of the ríod, send you a drawing and descrip- whole adult male population of Scottion of a set of “ Witches' Branks," land. It is, however, to be noticed, which I have seen; an instrument that the quantity of cloth fabricated calculated for preventing the unfor- since the depression of prices has very tunate wretches, whom the folly and greatly increased, although the numsuperstition of the time consigned to ber of operatives may be stationary, a horrid death, from expressing their or even declining. suffering when the most painful tor- were high, weavers, on an average, tures were applied to them. I am, certainly did not work above fifty &c.

J. S. hours weekly. At present, on an Montrose, Sept. 23, 1817.

average, they work at least eighty hours, and with redoubled exertion.

Upon a pretty general inquiry, the STATISTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE result is, that few new looms are at

MANUFACTURES present constructed, and very few old OP GLASGOW, PAISLEY, GREENOCK,

ones unoccupied, which certainly indicates a stationary trade, verging to

wards decline ; if it be at the same (Continued from p. 124, and Con- time considered, how very many old cluded.)

weavers have been sent back to their Of the actual number of operative original employment, by the reducFeavers it is difficult, perhaps impos- tion of the navy, army, militia, and sible, to obtain a correct estimate. other establishments dependent on a They are said to have formed them. state of warfare. The training of apselves into district societies, when con- prentices is certainly almost annihitending with their employers. The fated. records of these societies, if accessible, The proximate cause of this state of would furnish the best return of their the trade is very clearly the fluctuaactual numbers. But, as these com- tion and general decline in the wages binations have been denounced as il- of labour. This will be best explain

ed by a detail of the actual facts.

A printed list of the prices to be Putting the finger in a holc, and paid for weaving the most general forcing in a pin, or wedge, beside it, and descriptions of cotton goods, was pubin that respect similar to the buits, but ap- lished about the year 1790'; and this plied to younger persons, whose legs might list was regarded, for many subsehave been broken by the latter operation. quent years, as a standard, though

Whilst wages





subjected to occasional reduction, not plain the state of all or most of the vague or undefined, but bearing al- others. ways a reference to the list itself. Bleachers, dyers, cloth-lappers, and This system gradually changed into the other master tradesmen who are the practice of rendering all prices of employed by the manufacturer of labour dependent on mutual agree- cloth, with separate establisments of ment between the employers and ope- their own, suffer less from the depresratives, without reference to any ge- sion. Their situation is somewhat neral standard. This open mode of analogous to that of the spinner. agreement was ultimately sanctioned The extent of the weaving manufacby an act of Parliament, which pro- ture fully employs them, and there is vides, however, that manufacturers seldom sufficient competition amongst shall deliver to a weaver, along with themselves to injure each other. every web, a ticket, upon which the Calico printers, who conduct all the agreement of the parties, as to the processes of manufacture, and whose wages to be given, shall be distinctly establishments require enormous capispecified.

tal and outlay, experience all the disThe variation of the prices of la- advantages of overstocked trade, withbour, computed from an average of out generally having any intermediate the tickets of the most respectable agent to divide the risk betwixt them houses, compared with the list of and the exporter; they are, besides, 1792, is given below. It is also to subject to heavy duties of excise, which be observed, that the prices of plain require a certain and additional capigoods, of a description for which there tal, generally of great extent. As a is always a certain demand, however counterpoise, the policy of their worklimited, have been taken; because the men has been directly opposed to that vicissitudes occasioned by fancy and of the operative weavers ; and their fashion, are always uncertain and sus- uniform endeavour has been to expicious.

clude operatives from the trade, and In the table, unity is taken as the to obtain a monopoly against their rate of the maximum list 1792; the employers. This has certainly kept ratio of declension, since the year the stock of printed goods lower in 1812, is expressed by the decimals. the market than it might otherwise List of 1792 acted on until 1804, 1.00

have been, had this check not existed. 1813, February,

Its illegality has not entirely prevent

.52 May,

ed it from doing some good ; though

.72 July,


probably this was little in the con1814, 1815, passim, (for little fluc

templation of either of the parties intuation occurred,)


.56 1816, February,

Connected with the cotton trade, the

.46 1817, June,

next and last branch to which any al

.36 July,

lusion is necessary, is the stocking or

.32 August,

hosiery manufacture, the depression .36

of which has also been great. The fair inference resulting from In this manufacture, however, there this state of our great manufacture, is no particular locality ; for none, which has absorbed so much capital perhaps, is more generally distributed and employed so many persons, be- over all Scotland. The policy of the comes very obvious.

manufacturers, in this department, It has been carried beyond those has been directly the reverse of that limits which the existing demand, to followed by the manufacturers of cloth. which the manufacturer can find ac- Stocking frames are complex and costly cess, will exhaust; and, although it machines, which capitalists only can must ever prove a great and beneficial generally acquire; and which are very trade to the country, within its legi- soon rendered useless, without contimate sphere, it evidently has been, stant employment and attention. The and is greatly overdone.

policy, therefore, of the manufacturers Whatever depression of manufac- has been, to restrict their men to a tures exists in the west of Scotland, certain quantity of work, without dismust mainly be deduced from this missing them entirely. Many, howsource ; a few remarks, therefore, ever, have left the trade ; and, as it may probably prove sufficient to ex- is essentially laborious, and requires

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