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Elus

L

HARVARD
UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY

COPYRIGHT, 1908, 1910,

BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

Set up and electrotyped. Published June, 1903. Reprinted March, July, 1904; February, August, 1905; January, October, 1906; January, August, 1907; April, 1908.

New and revised edition published March, 1910. Reprinted December, 1910; July, 1911; August, 1912; January, 1913: July, 1914; April, 1916.

PREFACE

In most secondary schools the time devoted to the study of American government is so limited that especial care is necessary in selecting the topics to be considered and the methods to be used. The chief aim in studying our governments is unquestionably the preparation of our high school students for the proper exercise of their duties and privileges as American citizens. In the opinion of the author, this preparation must include at least three things. First of all, the pupils must gain an adequate knowledge of the structure and functions of our system of government. In the second place, they should be to some extent familiar with the affairs of to-day which are connected with the work of government, in order that our political system may become real, and not be a lifeless organization to be studied chiefly in books. Last, but perhaps most important from the standpoint of life as well as the school, some training must be given which will enable the pupils to look upon both sides of public questions, to weigh arguments, and to judge for themselves whether reasons given for a particular policy may be satisfactory. This training of the judgment in connection with practical subjects must not lead the pupils to imagine that they are solving or can solve the problems of government, but should enable them to learn and understand the truth about each one which they consider.

In rewriting the book the author has placed much more emphasis upon the activities of government than in the

earlier work. This has made it necessary to change the arrangement of many topics and chapters, as activities have been grouped according to their relations with one another rather than connected with the governmental officials through whom a special phase of the work may be performed. It is hoped that the introduction of new material, the shifting of emphasis still further to the more practical features of our government's work, and the new special helps for students will make the text even more acceptable than the original American Government.

The author acknowledges with great pleasure the many helpful suggestions made by teachers and friends. Corrections of errors will be received gladly from those who have occasion to use the volume.

PASADENA, CALIFORNIA,
May, 1909.

SUGGESTIONS

MANY teachers may prefer to study the parts of the book in an order different from that in which they are now arranged. Although the author advises that the present arrangement be followed, little difficulty will probably be found in studying Part II before Part I, though it is probably more difficult. The author has found it advisable to

make a careful examination of the written Constitution of the United States in connection with the work of the Constitutional Convention, Chapter XV. The pupils can then distinguish much more easily between the constitutional and the extra-constitutional features of our national government. This distinction ought to be understood on all important subjects, but should not be over-emphasized.

When classes devote a year to American history and government, all authorities agree that the two should be correlated as far as possible. Under ordinary conditions, however, naturally the major part of the work in civics would follow the regular course in history. It therefore may be necessary to study the text-book on government as a whole after the historical discussions have been completed. In this part of the class work the historical facts can be reviewed to advantage, and at the same time used to illustrate the topics of the text. Such a correlation of the two subjects will make both of them more vital and interesting.

As stated in the preface, no course in American government can be satisfactory which does not give opportunities to investigate the actual work of government in its many practical phases. For this investigation, many of the

"Questions" at the ends of the chapters can probably be used to advantage. Every pupil ought to do some additional outside work every month, in order to gain skill in discriminating between important and unimportant facts, in making notes, and in formulating reports. With this end in view the marginal references and those under the head of "Studies" at the ends of the chapters have been selected carefully from books and magazines that are easily accessible. It will probably be possible, also, for each pupil to prepare a more formal paper or give an extended oral report upon one of the "Topics."

Much can be done in the class room in studying constitutions, charters, sample ballots, and other papers almost as useful which can be obtained at but slight expense. Interest may be quickened by holding a legislative session, at which bills are presented, debated, and brought to a vote. Trials with a judge, jury, attorneys, and witnesses may be possible by a little extra preparation and help from outside, if necessary.

The following suggestions may be given for the school library. This should have several copies of the state constitution and of the city charter, if the school is located in a city. A recent copy of the Congressional Directory and some good newspaper almanac for the current year are essential. No library should be without several copies of Bryce's The American Commonwealth, abridged edition, nor Hart's Actual Government; Hinsdale's The American Government, and the author's American Federal State will undoubtedly be found helpful. The Century series of eight volumes entitled "The American State," edited by Willoughby, are exceedingly valuable. valuable. Some good text-book upon the government of the State in which the class resides is almost indispensable. Those recently published in Macmillan's Handbooks of American Government series are excellent. In fact, if there is no text-book of this character, the author would suggest that a copy of Morey's The Govern

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