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PAGE NO. 43 LXII 1. 8 whist: hushed. L. 33 Pan: used here for the Lord

of all. 46 – 1. 21 Lars and Lemures: household gods and spirits

of relations dead. Flamens (1. 24) Roman priests.

That twice-batter'd god (1. 29) Dagon. 47

1. 6 Osiris, the Egyptian god of Agriculture (here,
perhaps by confusion with Apis, figured as a Bull),
was torn to pieces by Typho and embalmed after
death in a sacred chest. This mythe, reproduced in
Syria and Greece in the legends of Thammuz, Adonis,
and perhaps Absyrtus, represents the annual death of
the Sun or the Year under the influences of the winter
darkness. Horus, the son of Osiris, as the New
Year, in his turn overcomes Typho.-It suited the
genius of Milton's time to regard this primaeval
poetry and philosophy of the seasons, which has a
further reference to the contest of Good and Evil in
Creation, as a malignant idolatry. Shelley's Chorus
in Hellas, Worlds on worlds,' treats the subject in
a larger and sweeter spirit. L. 8 unshower'd grass :

as watered by the Nile only. 49 LXIV The Late Massacre: the Vaudois persecution, carried

on in 1655 by the Duke of Saroy. This 'collect in verse,' as it has been justly named, is the most mighty Sonnet in any language known to the Editor. Readers should observe that, unlike our sonnets of the sixteenth century, it is constructed on the original Italian or Provençal model,-unquestionably far superior to the imperfect form employed by

Shakespeare and Drummond. 50 LXV Cromwell returned from Ireland in 1650. Hence the

prophecies, not strictly fulfilled, of his deference to
the Parliament, in stanzas 21---24.
This Ode, beyond doubt one of the finest in our
language, and more in Milton's style than has been
reached by any other poet, is occasionally obscure
from imitation of the condensed Latin syntax. The
meaning of st. 5 is 'rivalry or hostility are the same
to a lofty spirit, and limitation more hateful than
opposition. The allusion in st. 11 is to the old
physical doctrines of the nonexistence of a vacuum
and the impenetrability of matter :-in st. 17 to the
omen traditionally connected with the foundation of
the Capitol at Rome. The ancient belief that certain
years in life complete natural periods and are hence
peculiarly exposed to death, is introduced in st. 26 by

the word climacteric.
Lycidas. The person lamented is Milton's college

friend Edward King, drowned in 1637 whilst crossing
from Chester to Ireland.
Strict Pastoral Poetry was first written or perfected
by the Dorian Greeks settled in Sicily: but the con-

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ventional use of it, exhibited more magnificently in
Lycidas than in any other pastoral, is apparently of
Roman origin. Milton, employing the noble freedom
of a great artist, has here united ancient mythology,
with what may be called the modern mythology of.
Camus and Saint Peter,-to direct Christian images,
--The metrical structure of this glorious poem is
partly derived from Italian models.
1. 11 Sisters of the sacred well : the Muses, said to
frequent the fountain Helicon on Mount Parnassus.
1. 10 Mona: Anglesea, called by the Welsh Inis Dowil
or the Dark Island, from its dense forests. Deva
(1. 11) the Dee: a river which probably derived its
magical character from Celtic traditions : it was
long the boundary of Briton and Saxon.-These
places are introduced, as being near the scene of the
shipwreck. Orpheus (1. 14) was torn to pieces by
Thracian women. Amaryllis and Neaera (1. 24, 25)
names used here for the love-idols of poets : as
Damoetas previously for a shepherd. L. 31 the blind
Fury: Atropos, fabled to cut the thread of life.
Arethuse (1. 41) and Minoius : Sicilian and Italian
waters here alluded to as synonymous with the
pastoral poetry of Theocritus and Virgil.
1. 3 oat: pipe, used here like Collins' oaten stop 1. 1,
No. CXLVI, for Song. L. 11 Hippotades: Aeolus, god
of the Winds. Panope (1. 14) a Nereid. The names
of local deities in the Hellenic mythology express
generally some feature in the natural landscape,
which the Greeks studied and analyzed with their
usual unequalled insight and feeling. Panope repre-
sents the boundlessness of the ocean-horizon when
seen from a height, as compared with the limited
horizon of the land in hilly countries such as Greece
or Asia Minor. Camus (1. 18) the Cam; put for King's
University. The sanguine flower (1. 21) the Hyacinth
of the ancients; probably our Iris. The pilot (1. 24)
Saint Peter, figuratively introduced as the head of
the Church on earth, to foretel the ruin of our
corrupted clergy, then in their heighth' under
Laud's primacy.
1. 3 the wolf: Popery. Alpheus (1. 7) a stream in
Southern Greece, supposed to flow underseas to join
the Arethuse. Swart star (1. 13) the Dogstar, called
swarthy because its heliacal rising in ancient times
occurred soon after midsummer. L. 34 moist vows :
either tearful prayers, or prayers for one at sea.
Bellerus (1. 35) a giant, apparently created here by
Milton to personify Bellerium, the ancient title of the
Land's End. The great Vision :--the story was that
the Archangel Michael had appeared on the rock by
Marazion in Mount's Bay which bears his name.
Milton calls on him to turn his eyes from the south

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homeward, and to pity Lycidas, if his body has drifted into the troubled waters off the Land's End. Finisterre being the land due south of Marazion, two places in that district (then by our trade with Corunna probably less unfamiliar to English ears), are named, -Namancos now Mujio in Galicia, Bayona north of the Minho, or perhaps a fortified rock (one of the Cies Islands) not unlike Saint Michael's Mount,

at the entrance of Vigo Bay. 58 LXVI

1. 4 ore : rays of golden light. Doric lay (1. 23) Sici

lian, pastoral. 60 LXX The assault was an attack on London expected in

1642, when the troops of Charles I reached Brent-
ford. Written on his door' was in the original title
of this sonnet. Milton was then living in Aldersgate
Street.
1. 10 The Emathian Conqueror : When Thebes was
destroyed (B.C. 335) and the citizens massacred by
thousands, Alexander ordered the house of Pindar
to be spared. He was as incapable of appreciating
the Poet as Lewis XIV of appreciating Racine : but
even the narrow and barbarian mind of Alexander
could understand the advantage of a showy act of

homage to Poetry. 61 - 1.1 the repeated air Of sad Electra's poet : Amongst

Plutarch's vague stories, he says that when the Spartan confederacy in 404 6. c. took Athens, a proposal to demolish it was rejected through the effect produced on the commanders by hearing part of a chorus from the Electra of Euripides sung at a feast. There is however no apparent congruity between the lines quoted (167, 8 Ed. Dindorf) and the result

ascribed to them. 62 LxxII This high-toned and lovely Madrigal is quite in the

style and worthy of the adgas
style, and worthy of, the 'pure Simonides.'

quite in the 63 LXXV Vaughan's beautiful though quaint verses should

be compared with Wordsworth's great Ode, No.

CCLXXXVII. 64 LXXVI Favonius : the spring wind. 65 Lxxvii Themis : the goddess of justice. Skinner was grand

son by his mother to Sir E. Coke ;-hence, as pointed out by Mr. Keightley, Milton's allusion to the bench. L. 8: Sweden was then at war with Poland, and

France with the Spanish Netherlands. 67 LXXIX l. 10 Sydneian showers: either in allusion to the

conversations in the Arcadia,' or to Sidney himself as a model of gentleness' in spirit and de

meanour. 71 LXXXIV Elizabeth of Bohemia: Daughter to James I, and

ancestor to Sophia of Hanover. These lines are a

fine specimen of gallant and courtly compliment. 72 Lxxxv Lady M. Ley was daughter to Sir J. Ley, afterwards

Earl of Marlborough, who died March, 1628-9, coin

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cidently with the dissolution of the third Parliament of Charles' reign. Hence Milton poetically compares his death to that of the Orator Isocrates of Athens,

after Philip's victory in 328 B.C. 76 XCII, XIII These are quite a Painter's poems. 80 xcix From Prison : to which his active support of Charles I

twice brought the high-spirited writer. 84 CV

Inserted in Book II as written in the character of a

Soldier of Fortune in the Seventeenth Century. 85 CVI Waly waly: an exclamation of sorrow, the root

and the pronunciation of which are preserved in the word caterwaul. Brae, hillside: burn, brook : busk, adorn. Saint Anton's Well: at the foot of

Arthur's Seat by Edinburgh. Cramasie, crimson. 87 CVII burd, maiden. 88 CVIII corbies, crows: fail, turf: hause, neck: theek,

thatch.-If not in their origin, in their present form this and the two preceding poems appear due to the Seventeenth Century, and have therefore been

placed in Book II. 90 cxi The remark quoted in the note to No. XLVII applies

equally to these truly wonderful verses, which, like

Lycidas,' may be regarded as a test of any reader's insight into the most poetical aspects of Poetry. The general differences between them are vast; but in imaginative intensity Marvell and Shelley are closely related.-This poem is printed as a translation in Marvell's works: but the original Latin is obviously his own. The most striking verses in it, here quoted as the book is rare, answer more or less to stanzas 2 and 6:

Alma Quies, teneo te! et te, germana Quietis,
Simplicitas! vos ergo diu per templa, per urbes
Quaesivi, regum perque alta palatia, frustra:
Sed vos hortorum per opaca silentia, longe

Celarunt plantae virides, et concolor umbra.
L'Allégro and Il Penseroso. It is a striking proof of

Milton's astonishing power, that these, the earliest
pure Descriptive Lyrics in our language, should still
remain the best in a style which so many great poets
have since attempted. The Bright and the Thought-
ful aspects of Nature are their subjects: but each is
preceded by a mythological introduction in a mixed
Classical and Italian manner. The meaning of the
first is that Gaiety is the child of Nature; of the
second, that Pensiveness is the daughter of Sorrow

and Genius. 92 CXII 1.2: Perverse ingenuity has conjectured that for

Cerberus we should read Erebus, who in the Mythology is brother at once and husband of Night. But the issue of that union is not Sadness, but Day and Aether:-completing the circle of primary Creation, as the parents are both children of Chaos, tho first-begotten of all things. (Hesiod)

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PAGE NO. 93 CXII 1. 12 the mountain nymph; compare Wordsworth's

Sonnet, No. ccx. L. 38 is in apposition to the preceding, by a grammatical license not uncommon

with Milton, 94

1. 1 tells his tale: counts his flock. Cynosure (1. 14)
the Pole Star. Corydon, Thyrsis &c. : Shepherd
names from the old Idylls.
1. 24 Jonson's learned sock: the gaiety of our age
would find little pleasure in his elaborate comedies.
L. 28 Lydian airs : a light and festive style of

ancient music. 96 CXII 1. 3 bestead: avail. L. 19 starr'd Ethiop queen:

Cassiopeia, the legendary Queen of Ethiopia, and
thence translated amongst the constellations.
1. 29 Cynthia : the Moon: her chariot is drawn by
dragons in ancient representations.
1. 16 Hermes, called Trismegistus, a mystical writer
of the Neo-Platonist school. L. 27 Thebes &c. : sub-
jects of Athenian Tragedy. Buskin'd (1.. 30) tragic.
L. 32 Musaeus : a poet in Mythology. L. 37 him that left

hall told: Chaucer, in his incomplete Squire's Tale.' 99

1. 2 great bards : Ariosto, Tasso, and Spenser, are here intended. L. 9 frounced: curled. The Attic

Boy (1. 10) Cephalus. 100 CXIV Emigrants supposed to be driven towards America

by the government of Charles I. 101 - 1. 9, 10 But apples, &c. A fine example of Marvell's

imaginative hyperbole. - CXV l. 6 concent: harmony.

Summary of Book Third It is more difficult to characterize the English Poetry of the eighteenth century than that of any other. For it was an age not only of spontaneous transition, but of bold experiment: it includes not only such divergences of thought as distinguish the Rape of the Lock' from the Parish Register,' but such vast contemporaneous differences as lie between Pope and Collins, Burns and Cowper. Yet we may clearly trace three leading moods or tendencies the aspects of courtly or educated life represented by Pope and carried to exhaustion by his followers; the poetry of Nature and of Man, viewed through a cultivated, and at the same time an impassioned frame of mind by Collins and Gray :- lastly, the study of vivid and simple narrative, including natural description, begun by Gay and Thomson, pursued by Burns and others in the north, and established in England by Goldsmith, Percy, Crabbe, and Cowper. Great varieties in style accompanied these diversities in aim : poets could not always distinguish the manner suitable for subjects so far apart; and the union of the language of courtly and of common life, exhibited most conspicuously by Burns, has given a tone to the poetry of that century which is better explained by reference to its historical origin than by

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