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respending book, and be delivered to the party interested for his protee-
JUAN B. ALVARADO.
This liile has been recorded in the book of records of titles
the adjudication of lands, on the 2d page of folio 8.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
April 14, 1849. SIR: This will be handed to you by the Hon. T. Butler King, if there should be, in his opinion, occasion for so doing. The object of this let. ter is to impress upon you the desire of the President, that you should in all matters connecied with Mr. King's mission aid and assist him in carrying out the views of the government, as expressed in his instructions from the Department of State, and that you should be guided by his advice and counsel'in the conduct of all proper measures within the scope of those instructions. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
T. EWING, Secretary. ADAM JOHNSTON, Esq., Indian Agent,
Sacramento and San Joachim, California.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
Office of Indian Affairs, April 7, 1849. Sir: I have the honor to enclose, herewith, a commission constituting you Indian agent at Salt Lake, California, to include the Indians at or in the vicinity of that place, and any others that may hereafter be designated by this department.
Your compensation will be at the rate of $1,500 per annum, in full of salary and all emoluments whatever, to commence as soon after the execution of your bond as a notification can reach the person now holding the appointment and receiving the salary, advising him of the change which has been made in the location of the agency, and of the discontinuance of his service and salary.
I enclose, also, the form of a bond to be executed by you, in the penal sum of $5,000, with two or more sureties, whose sufficiency must be certified by a United States district judge or district attorney.
So little is knopin here of the condition and situation of the Indians in that region that no specific instructions relative to them can be given at present; and the department relies on you to furnish it with such sta. tistical and other information as will give a just and full understanding of every particular relating to them-embracing the names of the tribes, their locations, the distance between the tribes, the probable extent of territory owned or claimed by each respectively, and the tenure by which they hold or claim it; their manners and habits ; their disposition and feelings towards the United States, Mexico, and whites generally, and towards each other; whether hostile or otherwise; whether the several tribes speak different languages, and, when different, the apparent analo. gies between them; and, also, what laws and regulations for their government are necessary, and how far the law regulating trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes (a copy of which I enclose) will, if extended over that country, properly apply to the Indians there, and to the trade and intercourse with them, and what modification, if any, will be required to produce the greatest degree of efficiency.
You are anthorized to employ one interpreter permanently, by the year, and such others, from time to time, as you may find necessary in the discharge of your duties. As the law limits the compensation of interpreters to $300 per annum, that amount cannot be exceeded; but, in the case of those employed temporarily, you will engage their services on the best terms you can, and employ them for as short periods and as seldom as possible consistent with a proper discharge of your duties. You will be allowed a horse for yourself and one for your interpreter, to be held as public property, and accounted for as such.
As you will doubtless avail yourself of the military escort which will leave St. Louis shortly, funds will be placed in the hands of the superintendent of Indian affairs at that place, to be turned over to you.
The remote position of the scene of your operations has induced the Secretary of the Interior to authorize an advance of one year's salary to yourself and your interpreter, together with other sums for other objects, as follows, viz: One year's salary for yourself
$1,500 Do do for interpreter
300 Pay of additional interpreter
200 Contingent expenses, including presents to Indians, purchase
of two horses, forage for the same, house rent, fuel, stationery, collection of statistical information, together with your travellirg expenses to your agency
It has been represented to this department that there is a Mexican boy in captivity among the Indians, either in New Mexico or California, and for whose release the Mexican minister has made a demand on this government; but as the department is as yet unacquainted with the particulars of the case, it will be made the subject of a special communication to you as soon as they can be ascertained.
After obtaining all the information you can collect, with regard to any captives, you will report their names, ages, whether they are Mexicans or Americans, the length of time they have been held in captivity ; and if they are Mexicans, whether they were taken prior to the termination of the war and treaty with Mexico, or subsequently.
In dispeusing presents to the Indians you will be as economical as
possible, and confine the disposition of them to cases where some important end is to be accomplished.
You will report direct to this office, and will lose no opportunity of doing so, as it is extremely desirable that the department be kepı well ad. vised of the state of affairs in that region. · I enclose blank forms to guide you in rendering your accounts, which must be done quarter-yearly, or as nearly so as possible.
In rendering your accounts you will account for the money placed in your hands under the following heads of appropriation, viz: Pay of superintendents and Indian agents
$1,500 Pay of interpreters
500 Contingencies, Indian department
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. MEDILL. John Wilson, Esq , Indian Agent, Salt Lake, California. P.S. I enclose a copy of the late treaty with Mexico, and also copies of the reports of Messrs. Frénont, Emory, Abert, and Cook.
Fort Bridger, ON BLACK's FORK OF GREEN
OR COLORADO RIVER, August 22, 1849. Sır: We arrived here yesterday. Messrs. Vasques and Bridger are the proprietors, and have resided here and in these mountains for more than 25 years. They are engaged as traders, belonging to the American Fur Company. They are gentlemen ot integrity and intelligence, and can be fully relied on in relation to any statement they make in regard to the different tribes, claims, boundaries, and other information in relation to the Utah and Sho-sho-nie tribes and a small band of Punnacks, as they have during all their residence been engaged in trade with them.
Among the Sho-sho-nies there are only two bands, properly speaking. The principal or better portion are called Sho sho nies, (or Suakes) who are rich enough 10 own horses. The others, the Sho-sho-coes, (or Walkers) are those who cannot or do not own horses. The principal chiefs of the Sho-sho-nies are Mono, (about 45 years old) so called from a wound in his face or cheek froin a ball, that disfigures him; Wiskin, (Cut-hair) Washikick, (Gourd Rattle) with whom I have had an interview; and Oapiche, (Big man.)
Of the Sho-sho-coes, Augntasipa is the most noted. Both bands number, probably, over 1,000 lodges of four persons each. Of the relative portion of each band, no definite account can be given; for so soon as a Sho-sho.nie becomes too poor or does not own a horse, he is at once called a Sho-sho-coe; but as soon as a Sho-sho.coe can or does own a horse he is again a riding Indian, and therefore a Sho-sho-nie.
Their language, with the exception of some Patois differences, is said to be that of the Comanche tribe. Their claim of boundary is to the east from the Red Buttes, on the north fork of the Platie, to its head in
the Park, (decayague,) or Buffalo Bull Pen, in the Rocky mountains; to the south, across the mountains over to the Yom-pa-pa, till it enters Green or Colorado river, and then across to the Back-Bone, or ridge of mountains called the Bear River mountains, running nearly due west towards the Salt Lake, so as to take in most of the Salt Lake; and thence on to the Sinks of Mary's yr Humboldt's river; thence north to the fisheries on the Snake river in Oregon, and thence south (their northern boundary) to the Red Buttes, including the sources of Green river--a territory probably 300 miles square, most of which has too high an elevation ever to be useful for cultivation of any sort. In most of these mountains and' val. leys it freezes every night in the year, and is in summer quite warm at noon and t:) half-past three p. m. Nothing whatever will grow of grain or vegetables, but the most luxurious and nutritious grasses grow with the greatest luxuriance, and the valleys are the richest meadows. The part of the Salt Lake valley included in this boundary, the Cache valley, 50 by 100 miles, and part of the valley near and beyond Fort Hall, down Snake river, can bé cultivated, and with good results ; but this forms a very small part of this country. How these people are to live or ever ex. ist for any great length of time, I cannot' by any means determine, Their support has heretofore been mostly game and certain roots, which, in their native state, are rank poison, (called the tobacco root,) but when put in a hole in the ground and a large fire burnt over them, become wholesome diet. The Mormon settlement in the Salt Lake valley has not only greatly diminished their formerly very great resource of obtain. ing fish out of the Utah lake and its sources, which to them was an important resource, but their settlement, with the great emigration there and to California, has already nearly driven away all the game, and will, un. questionably, soon deprive them almost entirely of the only chances they have for food. This will in a few years produce a result not only disastrous to them, but must inevitably engage the sympathies of the nation. How this is to be avoided is a question of much difficulty, but it is nevertheless the more imperative on the government not only to discuss but to put in practice some mode of relief for these unfortunate people, the outside barriers or enclosing mountains of whose whole country are not only covered in their constant sight with perpetual snow, but in whose lodges every night in the year ice is made, over water left in a basin, of near seveneighths of an inch in thickness. Except in three small places already named as exceptions, and two others, the Salt Lake valley and Snake river are already taken from them by the whites, and there is but little doubt the Ciche valley will soon be so occupied.
The Uluhs probably amount to from two to three thousand lodges, and are divided into many bands—as the Taos, 300 lodges; Yom-pa-po Utahs, 500 lodges; Ewinte, 50 lodges ; Ten penny Utahs, 50 lodges, (ihis band are about all who reside in the Salt Lake valley ;) Pavant Ulahs, not esti. mated. Pahnutes (or Paynutes) Utahs and the Sanpiche Utahs of these last bands, numbers not known. Their claim of boundaries is all south of that of the Sho-sho-nies, embracing the waters of the Colorado, going nuost probably to the gulf of California.
This is a much more fortunate location, and large portions of it are rich and fertile lands and a good climate. Their language is essentially Comanche; and although not techuically, yet it supposed to be substantially the same as that of the Sho-sho nies; for although, on first meeting,
they do not fully understand each other, yet I am informed four or five days' association enables them to converse freely together. Some of the people are already engaged in the cultivation of the soil, and large tracts of the country afford ample rewards to those who thus expend the sweat of their brow. Portions of these bands have always been at war with the Mexicans, constantly making inroads into New Mexico and California to steal horses. Portions of them are at present at variance with the Shosho-nies ; and, indeed, the manners and customs of the Yom pa-pas ren. der an association on the part of the whites with them dangerous, for should one be found amongst them when a sudden death, trom eliber accident or common sickness, takes place amongst them, the relatives of the dead man are at liberty, ard are sure to exercise it, of killing any stranger who may happen to be amongst them. Thus, until this custom is abandoned, nó safe intercourse can be carried on with them. Their country being more south and out of the range of white settlements or emigrants, the game is not likely to be so scarce for many years to come as it is in the Sho-sho-nie country even now, for already it has nearly all left their boundaries, except a small corner in the northeast corner of their claim; and as they are at war with the Utahs, near whose lines it is, they are afraid to go there to hunt.
Supposing the government will be prepared next summer to take some decided steps towards a regular system of intercourse with them, and with a view of enabling the government as effectually as possible to guard against the unfortunate results in operation for their entire starvation, a few only of wbich I have mentioned, for want of time, I have concluded to so arrange matters before I leave that both these nations will be able to send large delegations, if not most of the principal bands of their tribes, to a great council to be held here next summer, being by far the most convenient place for such a council, but is also where the priucipal agency ought to be established; and here also ought to be established ihe leading military post of these mountains, for which hereafter I shall give my views more at large.
I have suggested the matter of the great council to Washikick, the only principal chiet I have seen, and he highly approves of the plan. I have already made such arrangements, through the assistance of Mr. Vasques, · (Mr. Bridger not being at home) that all of both tribes will be notified of my design to hold such a council; and as soon as I shall hear your pleasure on the subject, which I hope will be at an early day after I get to San Francisco, in November, I will then fix a time which will best suit the views of the department, (if it shall meet with your approbation, as I hope it will,) and will then cause them to be notified of the day, which must, of necessity, not be later than August, and not earlier than July, as any other month would not be convenient for them to attend. The Sho-sho-nies are reputed an honest and sober people, decidedly friendly to the whites; and if proper agents are kept anong them, they will be easi. ly managed, if a fair support can be provided for them. Some of the objects which I have supposed might be gained by such a council, you will easily perceive from what I have said above; and many others of perhaps equal importance may also be accomplished. It is of great importance that these Utahs should be laid under obligations to cease their accustomed depredations on the whites and their property; and it is of greater importance to adopt some mode or other to save the Snakes from