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takes place. In Derbyshire, for instance, it is asserted material in building their nests, and the elder natural. that scarcely a goldfinch is seen from the middle of ists, who have been considered in error when they autumn until the ensuing spring. Before the end of spoke of thistle-down as the lining of the nest, may April they again make their appearance, and soon be have been perfectly accurate in their descriptions. The come abundant,

sources whence the goldfinch gains his winter supply of The nest of the goldfinch is constructed with care thistle-seeds are thus noticed by a popular writer. and neatness, and is frequently placed among the foliage The numbers of those seeds are beyond all counting; and of evergreens, or on the weak branches at the top of the means with which they are furnished for floating about orchard trees.

The song of the male bird is in its with the lightest wind that stirs, are most effective: they greatest perfection in the month of May, and continues are, at the same time, fitted for laying hold, and their oily

nature renders them not easily destructible by the weather. with little intermission from sun-rise to sun-set. The

Hence they are everywhere; and one who examines the materials used in building the nest seem to be just those quantity of down that floats off from a single bed in a neg; which are the nearest at hand, and the most suitable for lected garden, must see that one acre of cultivated land the purpose. Fine moss, lichens, stalks of grass and allowed to run to waste would suffice to infest a whole slender twigs are nicely interwoven to form the frame- parish. It is a maxim in farming that where the hedges work, and this is lined with wool, horse-hair, willow and lanes are foul, the fields never can be clean ; and down, &c. To show that the birds take the most con

countless instances may be seen in England, and in Middlevenient materials within reach, a naturalist relates that

sex not less than in more remote places, where the farmer when a pair of goldfinches had formed the ground-work gives half of what his land might produce to the weeds

, of their nest of moss and dried grass, he scattered wool just because he will not grub up some green lane or incon

venient corner, but retains it as an ever-productive nursery in the garden, and they immediately left off using the of the most productive species., But though these accumuother materials and employed the wool. The next day lations of unseemly plants spoil or diminish the harvest of he gave them cotton, and on the third day supplied them the farmer, they yield an ample autumnal and winter with down, and he found that on each occasion they took supply for the goldfinches, and the margin of the wild is the new material and carried on their work with it, for simply because the farmer on the richer ground is a sloven.

often made gay with the colours and song of the goldfinclı, saking that which they had previously used, The goldfinch weaves with willow-down inlaid,

As if conscious of the essential service it performs, And cannach.tufts*, his wonderful abode;

the goldfinch trusts to the protection of man, and Sometimes suspended at the limber end

nestles near his dwelling. It has also been known to Of plane-tree spray, among the broad-leaved sloots, show considerable boldness and confidence in such situThe tiny hammock swings to every gale;

ations. An empty cage being left open in a passage Sometimes in closest thicket 'tis concealed,

entrance to a house in a country town, a goldfinch was Sometimes in hedge luxuriant, where the brier

one morning found in it, feeding upon the seeds which The bramble, and the plum-tree branch,

had been placed for the former occupant. The door Warp through the thorn, surrounted by the flowers Of climbing vetch and honeysuckle wild.

was closed upon the bird ; but as it appeared to be a An instance of sagacity is given in the case of a pair

female, it was shortly let out again. In about two of goldfinches who had built their nest on a branch that

hours it returned, was again shut in, and then released was too slender to afford proper support for their brood.

as before. A few days afterwards the bird came back, When the young birds were hatched, the parents per

accompanied by her mate, She entered the cage, and ceived that the weight of the growing family was too

fed as usual, but her companion sat on the outside wires, great for the branch, for they actually found it giving and then flew to a neighbouring tree. Several weeks way. In this emergency, and to save their nesť from

now elapsed, and the circumstance was almost forgotten, falling, they were observed to interlace the bending when the goldfinch again made her appearance, accomtwig with a stronger branch that was near it, and to

panied not only by her former companion, but by four secure their work by means of a piece of small string full-grown young ones. She entered the cage and fed which they had picked up.

as usual, but she could not induce her brood to follow A flexible branch is generally chosen for the nest,

her example. Finally she went off, and from that time which is therefore literally a cradle; yet in the most

was never seen again. tempestuous weather the female sits closely on her eggs, been reared from the nest, or put into a cage when just

The majority of the goldfinches kept in cages have without regard to the violent rockings to which she is exposed. The male is very attentive, and sings assidu- Aedged, and fed by the parents. A square cage is ously to his mate.

recommended for these birds in preference to a round Hid among the opening flowers

one, as they dislike the swinging motion caused by the Of the sweetest vernal bowers,

latter. If allowed to run on the floor, a small artificial Passing there the anxious hours

tree should be provided for the birds as a roosting. Iu her little mossy dome,

place. The goldfinch seldom appears so happy in a Sits thy mate, whilst thou art singing,

cage as the linnet or canary. It flutters against the Or across the lawn seen winging,

wires, or betrays by incessant hoppings to and fro, its Or upon a thistle swinging, Gleaning for thy happy home.

impatience of confinement. In order to cure it of this It may perhaps be thought that the above lines are

fluttering, it is sometimes confined in a small trap-cage, only applicable to the later broods of goldfinches, since

two or three inches square, until the habit is overcome. in the early spring, the usual nesting-time, the thistle

But the better way, in all cases where it is practicable, has produced neither flower nor seed for the supply of where it may indulge its active disposition.

is to give this restless bird the run of a room or aviary, this bird. But in the neighbourhood of waste lands, where thistles are very abundant, it will be found that

The goldfinch is a hearty feeder. In the wild state there is a supply for the goldfinch nearly all the year of the thistle, dandelion, lettuce, goat's-beard, radish,

it subsists on various kinds of small seeds, such as those round. The autumnal thistles retain a portion of their seed until the spring, so that the wind has not shaken chick-weed, groundsel, &c. In the house it is fed with them all bare until the groundsel, the dandelion, and poppy, canary, and hemp-seed, varied with lettuce and other plants have arrived to take their place. Thus, such as chick-weed, water-cresses, lettuce, or endive.

Green food must be given occasionally, although the supply of thistle-down and seed is smaller Bechstein says, “ I have a goldfinch which appears in in the spring than at any other period, yet in particular districts , sheltered from violent winds and abounding in good health, and eats not only of all the vegetables brought

to table, but also meat, thougl in their wild state these thistles goldfinches may still employ this favourite birds never touch insects.” When kept in a room with * The spikes of the Cotton-grass, Eriophorum.

other birds, the goldfinch endeavours to keep possession

of the seed box, driving off, if he can, any of his com

EASY LESSONS IN CHESS. panions who wish to share its contents.

XXI. Sereral of our naturalists speak of the goldfinch as producing three broods in the year, but the experience

The Lopez GAMBIT. of Bechstein is opposed to this. He describes the The Lopez Gambit, so cailed in honour of Ruy Lopez * female as rarely producing more than one brood in the the celebrated Chess player and writer, was first deyear, unless she has been disturbed, and then the number scribed in his treatise published in 1561. Some writers of eggs is diminished. On this account, goldfinches regard it merely as a variation of the ordinary King's never appear to increase in number.

The eggs are

Bishop's game t; it is, however, a true gambit, a Pawn bluish-white, spotted with red, and having black streaks, being sacrificed early in the game by the first player, with sometimes a circle at the large end. The young for the sake of position. It is a safe opening for the may be reared on poppy-seed and the crumb of white first player, because, unlike most of the gambits hitherto bread soaked in milk or water. If it is wished to take considered, the second player cannot capture the ûambit only the male birds from the nest, all those which have Pawn without getting an inferior game, nor can he a whitish ring round the root of the beak must be left.

conduct the defence after the manner of an ordinary One of the commonest diseases of the goldfinch is Gambit, as will be proved by the first example given, of epilepsy, for the cure of which the following is Bech- this opening. stein's plan. “ Plunge the sick birds every now and

WHITE.

BLACK. 1. K. P. ito squares.

1. K. P. two squares. then into cold water, letting them fall suddenly into it, and

2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square.

2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square. cutting their claws, or at least one or two, short enough for 3. Q. to K. secord squarc. the blood to run. From bleeding giving so much relief one

If Black play Q. B. P. one square, you take his would think that this disease is a kind of apoplexy occa

K. B. P. with your K. B. checking, and then play Q. to sioned by want of exercise, and too much food. Bulífinches and thrushes are more subject to it than any other birds, Q. B. fourth square, recovering the B. Black has a and bleeding always cures them. I have seen this done choice of several moves, but suppose he play

3. Q. P. one squiara. with great success in the following manner, but much

4. K. B. P. two'squares. delicacy and skill are required, as there would be great

You thus resolve the game into the Lopez Gambit. danger of laming the bird :-A very small hole is made on

Black has several moves, buć in the present game he the surface of the claw, with a lancet or very sharp penknife ; it is then plunged in lukewarm water, and if the proceeds as in the defence of an ordinary gambit, which operation be well done the blood runs like a thread of red gives him a very inferior position, because by playing silk; when removed from the water the bleeding stops : no out the K. B. at the second move he is a move behind. bandage or dressing is required.”

hand, compared with his position in the ordinary King's The goldfinch is fond of bathing, and should be sup- Gambit.

4. P. takes P. plied with the means of doing so daily during the spring

8. K. Kt, to K. B. third square.

8. K. Kt. P. two squares. and summer months. In the middle of winter it would

6. Q. P. two squares.

0. B. to Q. Kt. third squaro. do the same; but it is only on very warm days that the 7. K. R. P. two squares. practice should be allowed at that season, as it may He cannot of course advance K. R. P. one square; take cold and die from using the water on frosty days. if he move K. B. P. one square, you take K. Kt. P. with

These birds become blind in old age and also lose their your Kt. and then play Q. to K. R. fifth square, win. beautiful colours, but with care they may be kept sixteen ning easily: therefore he plays or even twenty years. A goldfinch mentioned by the

7. K. KI. P. one square. erinent naturalist Gesner lived to the age of twenty

8. K. Kt. to Kt. fifth square.

8. K. Kt. to K. R. third square. three years, but at last grew so infirm that its owner You have a very fine position, and with ordinary care was obliged to scrape its claws and beak, that it might ought to be able to win easily. take food, and support itself on its perch. It had lived The following game from Greco is well calculated chiefly on poppy-seed, and had lost its power of flying. to illustrate the powerful and peculiar attack acquired The plumage, instead of changing to a darker hue, as by the first player, when the defence is weak or injudiis commonly the case, became quite white.

The use of

cious. The moves of the second player are very likely hemp-seed is found to have the effect of making the to be made by one unacquainted with this form of plumage darker, and this seed is eaten greedily by the Gambit.

1. K. P. two squares.

1. K. P. two squares. birds even when they are in a dying state. But this

2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square.

2. K. B. !o Q. B. fourth square. only hastens their death, and must be considered very 3. Q. to K. second square.

3. Q. to K. second square. improper food for delicate or sick birds. Small quan

5. K. R. takes K. B.

5. K. P. takes P. tities of canary-seed, plenty of groundsel, chick-weed, and lettuce , with thistle-heads, when they can be pro-Pawn, but the present game will furnish another instance

It is very natural in the second player to take this cured, will afford the best supply for ailing birds. The goldfinch has many enemies. The situation of of its impropriety. Q. P. one square would have been

a much better move. the nest often makes it the prey of cats, and the beauty

6. Q. P. two squares. and value of the birds lead to an earnest search on the

You thus occupy the centre of the board with your part of bird-nesting boys. There is a great demand for the goldfinch as a cage-bird, and a fine male usually pawns, and open a path for your Q. B.

6. Q. to K. R. fifth square chg: sells for five or six shillings, though when first caught

This check is not judicious. He cannot win your they do not fetch so high a price. These birds in some

K. R. P., because by advancing your K. Kt. P. you cases become tame and familiar in confinement; as an

defend it with your Q. Indeed, it is in anticipation of instance of this, we may give the case mentioned by the this check that it is usual in this gambit to play Q. to translator of Bechstein's work. “ Madam

K. second square at the third move. Instead of this goldfinch that never saw her go out without making every check Black ought to have played Q. P. one square, or effort in his power to quit his cage and follow her, and K. Kt. or Q. K. to B. third. He ought, in fact, to get welcomed her return with every mark of extreme delight; as soon as she approached, a thousand little actions showed out his pieces, and not thus contend with a solitary his pleasure and satisfaction: if she presented her finger, Queen against a large array of his adversary's forces.. he caressed it a long time, uttering a low joyous murmur.

7. K. Kt. P. one square.

7. P. takes P. This attachment was so exclusive that if his mistress, to

8. K. R. takes P. prove it, substituted another person's finger for her own,

Ii is much better for you to take the P. with the R. he would peck it sharply, whilst one of his mistress's placed between two of this person's would be immediately distin- voi. XVIII., p. 149.

* A notice of Ruy Lopez will be found in Saturday Magazine, guished, and caressed accordingly."

+ Seo Saturday Magazine, Vol. XXI., p. 23.

4. K. B. P. two squiares.

4. K. B. takes K. Kt.

had a

your Q. B.

BLACK.

instead of R. P., because the R. has now a wide range | In his new Treatise on the Game of Chess, the public of attack. You now also threaten to attack his Q. with cation of which is just completed, Mr. Lewis gives a

variation of the above defence, which also leads to an 8. K. Kt. to K. B. third square. even game. It is very similar to that given by Mr. 9. Q. Kt. to Q. B. third square. 9. K. Kt. to K. R. fourth square.

Cochrane. Greco now commences one of those brilliant and

1. K. P. two squares,

1. K. P. two squares, so characteristic of this 2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square. decisive attacks which are

2. K. B. to K. B. fourth square, 3. Q. to K. second square.

3. Q. P. one square. player. Taking advantage of his adversary's confined

4. K. B. P. two squares.

4. K. Kt. to K. B. third square position he sacrifices a piece, in order to lay bare the 5. K. Kt. to K. B. third square.

5. Q. to K. second square. 6. Q. P. one square.

6. Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth square. feeble defence of the Black King.

7. K. B. P. takes P.

7. Q. P. takes P. 10. K. B. takes K. B. P. checking.,

8. Q. B. to K. Kt, fifth square.

8. Q. Kt. to Q. second square. If the K. go to Q. square you win his Q. by playing 9. Q. Kt, to Q. second square, 9. K. castles with Q. R.

10. K. castles with Q. R. your Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth square. If he move to K. B. square you win K. Kt.; therefore,

The first of the two following problems is by M. 10. K. takes K. B.

D'Orville. The author of the second is M. Andersson, 11. Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth square. 11. Kt, takes R.

of Breslau. Both these problems are very beautiful You save your Q. and win his, by checking. 12. Q. to K. B. third, square chg. 12. K. to K. Kt. third square.

examples of Chess ingenuity. His object in moving his K. to this position seenis to Problem XXIII. White moving first is to give checkbe to protect his Kt. after you have captured the Q.;

mate in four moves. but whatever he does he cannot save his game. 13. Q. B. takes Q.

13. K. Kt. to K. R. fourth square. 14. Q. to K. B. fifth square, chg.

14. K. to K. R. third square. 16. Q. Checkmates.

Mr. Cochrane gives the following defence against this method of opening the game. 1. K. P. two squares.'

1. K. P. two squares. 2. K. B. to Q. B: fourth square, 2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square. 3. Q. to K. second square.

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3. Q. to K. second square. 4. K. B. P. two squares.

4. K. K:. to K. B. third

square. If you advance K. B. P. one square, Black, by advancing Q. P. two squares, will remain with a good game; therefore, 5. K. Kt. to B. third squiare. 5. Q. P. one square.

If you move K. R. P. one square, with the view of advancing K. Kt. P. two squares, Black, by playing K. Kt. to K. R. fourth square, will gain a pawn or the exchange; you therefore play, 6. Q. Kt. to B. third square.

6. Q. B. P. one square. in order to prevent the advance of your Q. Kt. 7. Q. P. one square.

7. Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth square. 8. K. B. P. one square. You can now advance this pawn with safety.

8. Q. Kt. to Q. second square, 9. Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth square.

9. K. R. P. one square. You do not take off his K. Kt., because the Q. Kt. is ready to occupy_its place; and if he advance his

Problem XXIV. White to move first, and to give K. Kt. P. upon the B., you can take it en passant.

check-mate in four moves. 10. Q. B. to K. R. fourth square.

10. K. Kt. P. two squares. 11. P. takes P. en passant.

11. K. B. P. takes P. 12. K. R. P. one square.

12. K. B. takes Kt. 13. Q. takes B,

13. Castles with Q. R Mr. Cochrane

says,

" the situation of the Black is full as good as that of the White."

1

WHITE.

BLACK.

In the following game an approved mode of defence is given, which, after the first nine or ten moves, leaves to each party the choice of castling with an even game. 1. K. P. two squares.

1. K. P. two squares. 2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square.

2. K. B. to Q. B. fourth square. 3. Q. to K. second square.

3, Q. P. one square. 4. K. B. P. two squares

4. K. Kt. to K. B. third square. Black now plays his best move. 5. .Q. P. one square.

6. Q. B., to K. Kt. fifth square. 6. K. Kt. to K. B. third square. 6. Q. to K. second square. 7. P. takes K. P.

7. Q. P. takes P. 8. Q. B. to K. third square.

8. Q. Kt. to Q. second, He thus not only gets out a piece and defends his K. B., but also liberates Q. R., and gives liberty to his K. to castle on either side. 9. Q. Kt. to Q. second.

Having played out your Q. B. you also get out your Q. Kt., which now does not obstruct Q. B., while it will serve to replace K. Kt. should Black capture it, with his B.

9. K. castles with K. R. 10. K. castles with K. R.

Mr. Lewis says that the game is now about equal.

WHITE.

JOHN W. PARKER, PUBLISER, West STRAND, LONDON.

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RUINS OF THE MONZAS, OR HOUSE OF THE NUNS, AT CHICHEN-ITZA.

74

ACCOUNT OF THE RUINED CITIES OF YUCATAN.

II.

the lower cornice is carried up. Over these stand out in a Kings pile their domes in air,

line six bold projecting curved ornaments, as at Uxmal, That the coiled snake may bask on sculptured stone

resembling elephants' trunks. In the central space over And nations clear the forest to preparo

the doorway is an irregular circular niche in which porFor the wild fox and deer more siately dwellings there!

tions of a seated figure with a head-dress of feathers, still

HEMAXS.
Palace and tower on the plain were left,

remains. The tropical plants and shrubs growing on the Like fallen trees by the lightning cleft:

roof hang over the cornice like a fringe-work, and add The wild vine mantles the stately square,

greatly to the picturesque effect of this elegant façade. The Maya's throne is the serpent's lair,

“The whole building is composed of two 'structures And the jungle grass o'er the altar springs.--HeMANS. entirely different from each other, one of which forms a

wing to the principal edifice, and has, at the end, the façade RUINS OF CHICHEN.

above described. The whole length is 228 feet, and the In a foregoing Supplement, at page 33, of the present depth of the principal structure is 112 feet. The only volume, we commenced a description of the mysterious portion containing interior chambers is that which Mr. ruins of Yucatan. We now propose to follow Mr. Stevens, Stevens calls the wing. The great structure adjoining to the traveller who has so ably investigated the condition and the wing is apparently a solid mass of masonry, erected only origin of these remains, to the completion of his last expe- to hold up the two ranges of buildings upon it.., A grand dition. The reader will remember that we introduced the staircase 56 feet wide rises to the top. On one side of the subject to him, first, with an outline of the discovery of staircase a huge breach, 20 or 30 feet deep, has been made the country by the Spaniards in the sixteenth century. by the proprietor, for the purpose of getting out buildingWe next collected what particulars are known concerning stone; this discloses only solid masonry. The grand stairthe modern Mayas, or Indian inhabitants of the peninsula case is 32 feet high, and has thirty-nine steps. On the top of Yucatan, and, after briefly sketching the five principal of the structure stands a range of buildings, with a platform cities, Merida, Campeachy, Valladolid, Izamal, and Tekax, of 14 feet in front.” we proceeded from these points to explore the ruins of “From the back of this platform the grand staircase rises Mayapan, Uxmal, Zayi, Ticul, Kabah, Zabnà, and Labphak. again fifteen steps to the roof of the second range, which

We propose, now, to leave Valladolid nine miles behind forms a platform in front of the third range; this last is, us to the eastward, and pay a visit to the Ruins of Chichen. unfortunately, in a ruined condition, and it is to be observed The first settlement of the Spaniards in the interior of that in this, as in all other cases, these ancient architects Yucatan was made at Chichen, or Chichen-Itza, as it was never placed an upper building on the roof of a lower one, called, from the name of the people who then occupied the but always carried it back, so as to rest it on a structure district. It was here that Don Francisco Montejo, com solid from the ground, the roof of the lower range being mander of the third expedition, made a fatal mistake; merely a platform in front of the upper one. lured by the glitter of gold in another province, he divided “ The circumference of this building is 638 feet, and its his forces, and sent one of his best captains with fifty men height, when entire, was 65 feet. It seems to have been in search of it. From that time calamities and dangers constructed only with reference to the second range of pressed upon him; altercations and contests began with apartments, upon which the art and skill of the builders the Indians; provisions were withheld, and all that they have been lavishly expended. It is 104 feet long, and 30 ate was procured at the price of blood. At length, the feet wide, and the broad platform around it, although overIndians determined upon their utter destruction. Immense grown with grass several feet high, formed a noble promemultitudes surrounded the camp of the Spaniards, hemming nade, commanding a magnificent view of the surrounding them in on all sides. The latter, seeing themselves reduced country. to the necessity of perishing by hunger, determined to die “Detached portions of human figures continually occur bravely in the field, and went out to give battle. The most among these remains which are well drawn, the heads sanguinary fight they had ever been engaged in then took adorned with plumes of feathers, and the hands bearing place. The Spaniards fought for their lives, and the shields and spears." Indians to remain masters of their own soil. Masses of the latter were killed, but great slaughter was made among

THE CARACOL OF CHICHEN. the Spaniards, and, to save the lives of those who remained, Northward from the Monjas of Chichen stands among the Don Francisco retreated to the fortifications.

ruins an object conspicuous for its picturesque appearance, Unable to hold out there, the Europeans took advantage and unlike any other Mr. Stevens had seen in this country, of a night when the Indians were off their guard; they tied except one at Mayapan much ruined. It is circular in a dog to a bell, putting some food before him, but out of his form, and is known by the name of the Caracol, or winding reach, and then, with great silence, they marched out from staircase, on account of its interior arrangements. It stands

The dog, when he saw them going, pulled the on the upper of two terraces. The lower one measures in cord in order to go with them, and afterwards

to get at the front from north to south 223 feet, and in depth from east food. The Indians, supposing that the Spaniards were to west 150 feet, and is still in good preservation. A grand sounding the alarm, remained quiet, waiting the result, but staircase 45 feet wide, and containing twenty steps, rises to a little before daylight, perceiving that the bell did not cease the platform of this terrace. On each side of this staircase, ringing, drew near the fortification and found deserted forming a sort of balustrade, were the entwined bodies of In the meantime, the Spaniards escaped towards the coast, two gigantic serpents, 3 fcet wide, portions of which are and in the meagre and disconnected accounts of their dan- still in place; and among the ruins of the staircase was a gers, it is, perhaps, not surprising that we have none wliat- gigantic head which had terminated on one side the foot of ever of the buildings, arts, and sciences, of the fierce inhabi- the steps. tants of Chichen.

The platform of the second terrace is reached by another

staircase 42 feet wide. In the centre of this stands the THE MONJAS OF CHICHEN.

building, which has four small doorways facing the cardinal The Monjas, or House of the Nuns, is conspicuous among points. The height, including the terraces, is little short of the ruins of Ćhichen-Itza. It is remarkable for its good | 60 feet, and, when entire, even among the great buildings state of preservation, and the richness and beauty of its around, this structure must have presented a striking ornaments. The engraving at the beginning of this paper appearance. The doorways give entrance to a circular will convey some idea of the florid architecture of the corridor 5 feet wide. The inner wall has als four doorAmerican Indian. On the right hand is represented the ways, smaller than the others, and standing at intermediate corner of a building called the Eglesia, or Church. The points of the compass, facing north-east, north-west, southheight of the noble façade which is represented in the body west, and south-east. These doors give entrance to a of the wood-engraving is 25 feet, and its width 35 feet. It second circular corridor, 4 feet wide, and in the centre is a has two cornices of tasteful and elaborate design. Over the circular mass apparently of solid stone; but at one place, doorway are twenty small compartments of hieroglyphics at the height of 8 feet from the ground, was observed a in four rows, five in a row, and to make room for which | small square opening choked up with stones. The walls of

the camp:

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