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The important sea-port town of Sunderland is situated originally to have flowed much higher up into some of on the right side of the river Wear, in the county of the deep gullies on the coast, than it does at present; Durham, and is distant from London upwards of two indeed, there is evidence that in one of these gullies, in hundred and sixty miles,
1350, there was water sufficient for vessels to ride at A harbour for shipping at the mouth of the river anchor in the bay. Wear, appears to have been well known to our Saxon Sunderland is a parliamentary borough, comprenend, ancestors. According to Bede, they called the place ing, on the north side of the river, the townships of Wiranmuthe or Ostium Vedre, and it was here that, Monk Wearmouth, Monk Wearmouth Shore, and soon after the Norman conquest, Malcolm, king of Southwick; and on the south side of the river, the Scotland, found Edgar Atheling, the heir of England, parish of Sunderland, the townships of Bishop Wearhis sister Margaret, the future Queen of Scotland, and mouth and Bishop Wearmouth Pans. A monastery a train of Saxon exiles, lying in the haven, waiting wind was founded at Monk Wearmouth in 674, but was and tide to escape from their conquerors, into Scotland. destroyed by the Danes in the ninth century. It was
At the latter end of the twelfth century an important not restored until after the Norman conquest, and then charter was granted to Sunderland by Bishop Pudsey, it was soon reduced to be a cell of the monastery of releasing the burgesses from several of the more op- St. Cuthbert, at Durham. Bishop Wearmouth is first pressive parts of the feudal law, facilitating the transfer noticed in the charter of Bishop Pudsey, where the of property, providing for a more speedy administration borough of Wearmouth is recognised; but it appears to of justice, and in every way tending to foster the infant have been likewise called Sunderland from its very commerce of the borough. Equal privileges with those origin. The portion of this borough which is now conferred on the citizens of Newcastle, were by this known as the parish of Sunderland was detached from charter secured to the inhabitants of Sunderland, and Bishop Wearmouth in 1719, but though the towns from that time it began to rise into commercial import- were once distinct, the progress of building has united ance.
them, so that the principal street runs through both. Various conjectures have been formed as to the origin The more ancient portion of the town of Sunderland of the name of this town; but the most probable is that presents one dense mass of small houses, intersected by which supposes it to imply land sundered, or divided, in narrow streets and lanes. The crowded state of the allusion to the former situation of the place, which population, and the want of cleanliness by which this seems to have been on a point of land nearly insulated district is characterized, were doubtless the cause of the by the river Wear and the sea. The sea appears ravages of cholera in 1832, which first broke out at this Vol. XXIV.
port. The principal street in the town is High Street, 1630, including several families of Scotch settlers, and which is broad and handsome, and nearly a mile in a few foreign merchants." A new charter granted to length. It contains many good buildings, and respect the burgesses in 1634 particularly mentions sen-coal, able shops, and is well paved and lighted. Parallel with grind-stones, rub-stones, and whet-stones, as articles of it is Low Street, a much narrower and more ancient exportation, and authorizes a weekly market, two fairs, line of buildings.
and other privileges. During the last fifty years the increase of commerce During the civil wars, the importance of Sunderland and of population in Sunderland has been so rapid, that was much increased by the fact that Newcastle was the town and neighbourhood has naturally grown more stoutly and loyally defended for the king, and the export extensive. In the course of this extension very con of coal from thence was long closed against the rebelsiderable improvements have been introduced. Good lious city of London. Thus the collieries on the Wear, streets have been constructed on the outskirts of the old and the port of Sunderland, became of the utmost imtown, and many excellent institutions have been founded, portance, and one of the parliamentary commissioners which receive liberal support. A subscription library constantly resided there, until the surrender of Newwas established in 1801, and in 1814 there was erected castle took place. in the High Street, at a cost of 8,0001., subscribed by The harbour of Sunderland is formed of two piers, of individuals in 50l. shares, a noble exchange, including more than two hundred yards in length, on the north an auction mart, committee room, post office, news room, and south shores of the river, forming a beautiful proand merchants' walk. Numerous charitable institutions menade. A strong battery defends the harbour. A likewise confer honour on the town.
railway has been formed through the eastern portion of The church of Sunderland is built of brick, with a the town, running in the direction of the low quay; and square tower ; the nave has two regular aisles formed by this means coals, and other products of the interior, by pillars with Corinthian capitals; the chancel is cir- are better and more quickly shipped than higher up the cular, covered by a dome, and opening into the nave river. Previous to the erection of the piers, the haven under two fluted columns with Corinthian capitals. A and river had suffered much injury by sand-banks cast spacious gallery occupies the west end. By a regula- up by the sea, by the improper throwing out of ballast tion which we would gladly hail as universal, no burials in the harbour, and by the irregular and low building are permitted within the walls of the church.
and want of repairing of “wharf-staiths and ballastTo the south of the town is a moor, anciently called keys," so that loaded keels could only pass at high tide. the coney-warren, which includes about seventy acres of In consideration of the influence which the free navigaground, and on which are built extensive barracks, tion of this port would have in lowering the price of capable of accommodating two thousand men. At the coals in London and its neighbourhood, an act was east end of this moor a handsome chapel was erected in passed in 1669 for cleansing the harbour, and building 1769, chiefly at the expense of John Thornhill, of a pier and lighthouse. Commissions were appointed Thornhill, Esq. Within the last few years, a new for twenty-one years, with power to survey the port and church has been erected, with the aid of the parliamento river, in order to the several improvements which were ary commissioners. Monk Wearmouth has an ancient to be carried into effect. At this period, the only night church, and an episcopal chapel; and Bishop Wear- signal at this port was a lantern hoisted on a flag-staff. mouth has also an ancient church, which was much It was not until 1802 that the building of a lighthouse altered in the early part of the present century.
was commenced, from a design of Mr. Pickernell
, enThe great object of interest to a stranger in visiting gineer. It is an elegant octagonal structure, having a Sunderland is, perhaps, tie magnificent iron bridge stationary light, with nine reflectors. In 1841 an alarmwhich crosses the Wear, and connects Sunderland with ing breach took place in the north pier, at the extremity Monk Wearmouth. This bridge is indeed a good ex- of which the lighthouse stood, so that it became necesample of the spirit and enterprise of the inhabitants. It sary either to take down the building, or to repair the was projected by a gentleman of the neighbourhood, pier in an expensive manner. A bold suggestion was Rowland Burdon, Esq., who subscribed 23,0001. towards then made by the engineer (Mr. Murray,) i. e., that the the cost of the undertaking. It consists of a single lighthouse should be removed in an entire state to the arch of two hundred and thirty-six feet in span, formed end of the south pier, a distance of a hundred and fifty by small segments of iron, having a height of upwards yards. This novel undertaking was commenced in June, of one hundred feet from the centre of the arch to the 1841, and successfully completed in October of the same surface of the river at low water, so that vessels of year, without the slightest damage to the building, which above three hundred tons burden can pass under it by nightly exhibited its light during the time of removal. merely lowering their top gallants.
The gross weight moved was 338 tons. This leads us to notice the trade of Sunderland, Since the loss of a very valuable vessel in 1799, lifewhich, as most of our readers are probably aware, con boats of a peculiar construction have been employed at sists chiefly in the building of vessels and shipment of this harbour. Indeed, the rocky nature of the coast at coals. Early records prove that Sunderland was “ let this point makes it necessary to employ every means that to farm for a hundred marks" at the time when Bishop can be devised for the safety of vessels. The inside of Pudsey granted the charter above named, and in 1358 the Sunderland life-boat is described as consisting of we find further mention of the fisheries in the Wear, compartments all of which are air-tight, so that if a boat and right of drawing a net in the harbour, &c., as rented should be staved by striking on a rock or any other hard by one Thomas Menvil. Successive leases of the bo substance, it can admit no more water than the size of rough were granted by the Bishops of Durham. In the division, which will occasion little or no injury. A 1507 the lease was held by Sir Ralph Bowes, of Dalden, boat has from fifty to sixty compartments, according to knight, under 61. rent. In 1606 a separate lease was its size; all the water the boat can contain is confined to granted for anchorage and beaconage; and Surtees, the the centre, where the rowers are also placed. Thus the historian of Durham, says, “ It was probably about this boat is less liable to upset. There are also four aperperiod, the latter end of the reign of Elizabeth, or in that tures which go through the bottom to disperse the water of James, that the coal trade began to find its way into when the sea breaks in, so that when full of water the the port of Sunderland, which, in consequence, gradually whole will be discharged again in less than a minute. rose into importance; while Hartlepool, the ancient port There are seats in the centre for rowers, and at each of the Palatinate, was dwindling in inverse proportion end for shipwrecked men; and with any number of men into a fishing town. A considerable influx of population the boat can contain, it is still buoyant enough to preappears to have taken place betwixt the years 1600 and clude danger. A rope, or brass wire, goes round the
gunwale to prevent the people from being washed out,
SCHOOL FRIENDSHIP. and there is a rope on each side of the seats for the Some years ago, a boy was sent from the United States of same purpose to the rowers. The boat has an iron keel, America to a boarding-school in Yorkshire under somewhat which adds to its strength as well as ballast; the only mysterious circumstances. He was well supplied with cork used is on the outside, which answers for a fender, clothes; the expense of his board and education was paid and adds a little to the buoyancy.
for two years in advance, and an allowance of pocket-money The coal trade is the staple trade of Sunderland, and placed at the discretion of the master. An intimation was the chief vend is to the metropolis and the south-west of also given, that before the expiration of the two years, a England. Large quantities are also exported to the second remittance of money should be made, but there was Baltic, France, Holland, and Flanders. Ship-building were any means afforded for tracing the family or American
no reference whatever to any person in England, neither is carried on to a greater extent than in any other of our connexions of the boy. He was then about twelve years of sea-ports. More than three hundred ships, of various age, and by his sweet and agreeable disposition he soon burthens, were launched during the year 1839. About endeared himself to everybody in the school. Two years a hundred and thirty firms are engaged in business con- elapsed, during which he rapidly improved an education nected with the ship-building. There are also at Sunder- that appeared to have been much neglected. No accounts land brass foundries, potteries, lime-works, hat manufac. arrived from his friends. The tutor anxiously awaited the
promised remittance, but in vain. A third year elapsed. tories, copperas-works, tan-yards, breweries, &c.
He knew not to whom to apply, and the boy could not afford him any assistance. The master, though at the head of a respectable school, had a large family of his own, and
was poor. He could not bear the idea of turning the boy out ON THE LOSS OF A PIOUS FRIEND.
of his school, and yet he could not afford to keep him. He Wao shall weep when the righteous die ?
then delicately intimated to him that he should remain Who shall mourn when the good depart?
another half-year, and if at the end of that period no intelWhen the soul of the godly away shall fly,
ligence should arrive from his friends, it would then be Who shall lay the loss to the heart?
necessary for him to think of some means of employment,
assuring him of his best endeavours to serve him. The six He has gone into peace; he has laid him down
months passed away, no tidings came, and poor Henry now To sleep till the dawn of a brighter day;
seemed to be doomed to labour for his living. No sooner And he shall wake on that holy morn,
were his schoolfellows made acquainted with the circumWhen sorrow and sighing shall flee away.
stance, than they sent a deputation to the master, entreating But ye who worship, in sin and shame,
him to suffer their much-loved companion to remain at the Your idol gods, whate'er they be,
school, and offering to give up the whole of their pocketWho scoff in your pride at your Maker's name, money towards reimbursing him. The master was affected By the pebbly stream, and the shady tree :
by so generous an offer, and declared that, could he but
receive half of the usual charge, he would be satisfied. Then Hope in your mountains, and hope in your streams, Bow down in their worship, and loudly pray ;
commenced a contest among the boys who should be first
in the subscription. They collected their little all, and Trust in your strength, and believe in your dreams, But the wind shall carry them all away.
many, who had no money, sold their toys and instruments
of amusement, that they might contribute to this praiseThere's one who drank at a purer fountain,
worthy object. At the ensuing vacation, they described One who has washed in a purer flood;
poor Henry's unfortunate situation to their friends, who He shall inherit a holier mountain,
furnished them with additional means of serving him. He He shall worship a holier Lord.
was thus kept at school for two years; when his father, who But the sinner shall utterly fail and die,
had long been in India and had entrusted his son to an agent, Whelmed in the waves of a troubled sea;
arrived in England, discharged the demands of the master, And God from his throne of light on high,
and being a man of considerable wealth and influence, had Shall say, “ There is no peace for thee.”
it in his power to repay many of the boys for their kindBRAINARD.
ness, by providing them with mercantile situations in London.
TAERE is probably no one who, in some moments of idle thought, has not amused himself with wild conjectures, as
Every one must plainly perceive, that in this world we are to what may be the real position and actual home feelings of exposed to numberless evils and dangers, from which no many of the stray acquaintance, and chance friends, with prudence, or courage, or strength of our own, can possibly whom he associates. There is a broad groundwork of secure us'; accidents come, diseases come, in ways which general principles which are universal in human nature,
we cannot foresee, and in a moment we find ourselves and which gives to every man a sort of clue, more or less plunged into trouble, of which we could not have the least certain, to the hearts of his fellow-beings. For though we expectation. But God knoweth and foreseeth all things, meet together upon an infinite variety of relationships, and He “ordereth all things both in heaven and in earth.' and every individual comes into the world wearing his own What are called the gifts of fortune, what seems to be the peculiar stamp of manner and appearance, which is the work of chance, what is produced by the skill or exertion of result of many combined influences in his character and man, - all is subject to the control and government of the circumstances, yet, in point of fact, we all know, and we
great Almighty God. Every good we enjoy comes forth all feel, that we ike carry about with us, in different from Him, and every evil that befalls us arises from His degrees of depth and intensity, the same affections, the
permission, for some wise purpose.
may be an instrusame hopes, and the same fears. When in the excitement ment, but God is the aathor and mover of all; every being, of society and the whirl of business, underneath that out- and every thing in the world, is to be regarded as an instruward demeanour imposed upon us by the presence of others, ment in His hand; and He makes "all things work togeevery man is conscious of a silent depth in his own soul, ther for the good” of His servants, and the punishment which no human eye has ever pierced. And it is this of those who rebel against Him. Surely, then, we are recollection, of how different we ourselves are in solitude strongly called upon, even on the ground of self-interest, to from what we generally appear to others, which leads us place ourselves under His providence and protection, to to speculate with a feeling of interest upon what may be pray for the mighty aid of His Holy Spirit, to help and the heart secrets of those around us. History and biogra- | defend us, and for the ministry of His holy angels to keep phy derive their power over us from this principle, and us in all our ways.” Let us put our whole trust in even the daily talk of common life, and the universal love that blessed Saviour, who assures His disciples, “that the for private anecdotes of those we know, or have heard of, very hairs of their head are ail numbered.". Thus we shall arise from the desire to compare ourselves with others, and live with Him in this world as long as it is good for us, to seek some interpretation of our own mind and feelings, and he will take us at last to reign with Him for ever. by learning what others have experienced.— Truth without SLADE, Prejudice.
The mounds and earth-works which are so profusely the Indians in their dances, whether peaceful or warlike, scattered over the plains of Europe, and are especially or may have been occupied in by-gone times for torturabundant on the chalky downs of England, are simple ing and destroying their prisoners. The great Indian but enduring records of those primitive nations which trail
, or war-path, which extends from Lake Michigan have long since passed away, or whose descendants have to the Mississippi
, passes along the edge of this chain of been absorbed into the great stream of civilization which earth-works. has swept over their respective territories. These It is doubtful what animals are intended to be repremounds occur also in large numbers in America. On sented by these rude monuments of earth. It may be the borders of the Ohio, throughout the great valley of the horse, or perhaps the buffalo, an animal which in the Mississippi, and in the rich bottoms of the Missouri, these wide hunting grounds had the finest pasturage they scarcely differ from those of the Old World; but in and an almost boundless range; but the characteristic that portion of the Wisconsin territory which is bounded hump of the buffalo would scarcely be omitted in these by the Illinois to the south, and the Wisconsin river to the effigies, and though distributed over the surface of many north, a large variety of Indian mounds has been disco- hundred square miles of this country, that distinctive vered, which vary in a singular manner from those of the mark has nowhere been observed. Old World. Their configuration appears at first to resem These effigies vary from ninety to one hundred and ble the sites or ground-plan and foundation lines of for- fifty feet in length; and although one form is most premer buildings; but they are really designed as rude valent, yet it is not the only one. In the large group representations and outlines of certain animals, and even before referred to, and forming a very important portion of the human figure, in addition to those tumuli which of it, is the representation of a human figure lying in a are of the usual circular or quadrangular form. They direction east and west, the head towards the west, and occur round and about the high lands which skirt the the arms and legs extended. Its length is one hundred four lakes, forming a species of alto relievo of gigantic and twenty-five feet; and the length from the extremity proportions. At one spot at least a hundred of them of one arm to that of the other is one hundred and fortymay be counted, and along the great Indian war-path five feet. The body, or trunk, is thirty feet in breadth they often mingle with the circular mounds in ranges or—the head twenty-five feet; and its elevation above the tiers, several deep on both sides, forming a cemetery of general surface of the prairie is about six feet. sufficient magnitude apparently for the chiefs and war These monuments are covered with the same green riors and their descendants of a whole tribe.
carpet of prairie grass, intermingled with bright and About eighteen miles to the west of the four lakes, in brilliant flowers, as the prairie itself. They all most an elevated open prairie, occurs a singular group, con- probably contain bones: twelve of the mounds which taining the effigies of six quadrupeds, six quadrangular were opened contained bones in a very brittle decommounds, one circular tumulus, one human figure, and posed state, having roots and fibres growing through one circle or ring, which may have been formed by them; one was excavated through its whole length of one
hundred and fifty feet, and bones were found abundantly 1 large scale. There existed a turtle tribe of Indians, in every part. The number of individuals buried in who had that animal for its badge. some of these earth-works must have been very great, and each one may have proved the cemetery of a family.
It was evident, in the construction of these mounds, that the body or bones of the deceased were originally laid upon the surface of the ground, and the earth was then heaped upon them. No appearances occur of graves being dug in the first instance beneath the surface. Upon the summits of many of the original tumuli, it is evident that the remains of other deceased persons have been subsequently placed; and a new heaping up of soil thereon contributed to augment its former height. Finally, the wandering Menominee, or Winnebago, the last Indian occupant of the prairie, excavates a grave upon the summit, places the body therein in a sitting or reclining position, and strongly
At the great savannah on the south bank of the Wis. defends it with pickets.
consin river, called “ English Prairie,” are earth-works We have already noticed as a remarkable fact, that
which bear some resemblance to the Roman letter T. while the mounds and earth-works of the Old World pre
At Crawfordsville, on the Fox river, mounds are desent an almost identical similarity, those now under notice
scribed as being from three to seventeen rods (280 feet) present a great variety. In one instance was observed
| in length, generally about four feet high, and resembling an effigy of an animal ninety feet long, placed at the foot
lizards, alligators, and flying dragons. and at the point of a remarkable perpendicular bluff of
There seems to be a material difference in the concoarse friable sandstone, fronting a rich meadow, which
struction and position of the mounds in Georgia and in olden times was doubtless the favourite resort of the
Florida, compared with those of Ohio, Kentucky, &c. buffalo. In front of this bluff, and inclosing the effigy,
The square and pyramidal mounds occur most frequently is a long earth-work in an exact straight line, about two
in the south. In East Tennessee they occur of an exact hundred yards in length, having an opening in the centre
rectangular form. In Ohio the conical form is most opposite the animal. The position of this earth-work
prevalent. would seem to indicate that it was designed for the pur
In the region of the Mississippi, immense numbers of pose of defence or fortification against an enemy: per
mounds constantly occur, arranged, for the most part, haps it was an outwork to the stronghold in the rear
systematically, and containing human bones, and other formed by the bluff itself. The great Indian road skirts
traces of man. It has been suggested that they may be along the outer or southern side of this embankment
ruins of ancient dwellings, constructed, on the old Mexican plan, of large bricks, and were covered with earth, which, mouldering down, left mounds in such abundance that the traveller seldom loses sight of them.
It is stated that, in an ancient walled town near Columbia, in Tennessee, the ruins of many houses are seen; they are of various sizes, from ten to thirty feet in diameter, and all of circular form.
No precise position with respect to the points of the compass seems to have determined the construction of the Wisconsin mounds; and in one case, a single member of a group of animals has been placed at right angles to the rest. The selection of site appears to have been influenced mainly by the contiguity to the lakes and principal rivers, and to those great lines of internal communication which from an unknown period traversed this fine country. By this arrangement the greatest publicity was given to the burial-places of the distinguished dead; to the simple yet permanent monu
ments erected to commemorate their fame and rank, and In the accompanying figure are represented two perhaps with the design to perpetuate the honour and animal-shaped mounds, between which passes the same to flatter the vanity of some of the many tribes and Indian path, at the distance of six miles west of the four branches into which this great Indian family appears, lakes. These figures represent a different species of from remote times, to have been subdivided. animal to those already traced. In one instance-only It is unsafe to reason on the origin of these remarkone-they are depicted with the appendage of a tail ; able tumuli. In most cases the present wandering tribes the others are tailless, and whether in the present case of Indians are entirely incompetent to give any account this deviation from the usual configuration resulted from of them, or to furnish the slightest tradition respecting the caprice of the Indian artists, or really depicted some the ancient possessors of the soil. Successive tribes beast more favoured by nature than his contemporaries, have occupied by turns the region of country where they it is not easy to decide. They are respectively a hun- | abound, and some of them do not erect permanent monudred and twenty and a hundred and two feet long, and ments of this character to the memory of their dead. perhaps may have been intended to represent foxes. | To a far different race, assuredly, and to a far distant
Beyond the Wisconsin territory, on the north side of period, must we look, to trace the authors of these sinthe river of that name, in the region still held by the gular mounds; not to the degenerate tribes which are Winnebagos, occur innumerable mounds, both of the retiring before the power and intelligence of the white circular and most of the other forms already noticed. man of the Old World. Who were they who left almost In one position near the river, a group of six of these imperishable memorials on the soil, attesting the superiappears to represent birds, probably the eagle, or perhaps ority of their race? Nation, and tribe, and family sucthe crane, which was the ancient badge of the chiefs of ceed each other, and for a while occupy the land. They a once powerful tribe of Chippewas. Forms supposed vanish in succession, and leave few or no traces. Yet, to represent turtles also occur, and are on an equally of this unknown people, thousands and tens of thousands