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the correspondent would read only those which were with b, and the column beginning with h; and at the intended for him, while another person would peruse point of intersection of those two, we find the letter the whole as one connected narrative. A similar thing in which is the one which we must use. The second is sometimes done by the use of a perforated plate, like letter in the word beach is e, over which the keya stencil-plate; each party is provided with a plate, letter is also e; we therefore look for the point of insimilarly perforated; the writer lays the plate on his tersection of column e with line e, and there we find paper, writes the significant words on the paper through the letter in which therefore forms the second letter of the perforations, and afterwards fills up the blanks, so our cipher. We thus proceed, letter after letter, finding as to make a seeming letter on any other subject. The the cipher by the combined aid of the original letter party to whom he sends it, lays his perforated plate on and the key letter placed over. Any one who is famithe paper, and reads only those words which appear liar with the use of a common multiplication table, will through the perforations,

readily understand a particular symbol is found by the Numerous ciphers have been formed, by arranging

intersection of a horizontal line with a vertical column. words in an order not acknowledged by the rules of the The four words, when completed in cipher, assume the English language; such as, proceeding from left to right, from top to bottom, from bottom to top, from

iiafo, hefphe, gljafl, ghllj; one corner to another diagonally, &c.; but these plans, in which it will be seen that the symbol for any parthough they may be amusing for trifling purposes, are ticular letter is by no means always the same.

When unable to bear the searching scrutiny of a decipherer. the tablet is extended to twenty-six complete alphabets,

The same may be said of a plan, which was at one time every letter in turn, be represented by twenty-six much acted on in France, and by which a letter, when different symbols, easily discernible to those who know read in the usual way across, from edge to edye, ap- the key, but impenetrable by others. peared to relate to some unimportant subject; but if We here dismiss the subject of ciphers; but the only half of it be read, divided from the other half by a term Secret writing seems to require that we should very narrow perpendicular space, it will be found to say a few words respecting the use of secret or symrelate to a totally different subject. Considerable skill pathetic inks, that is, inks which are only visible under is required to effect this well, but it is very easy of certain conditions. The preparation of such kinds of detection.

writing-fluids, is, like the use of ciphers, traceable to a Some writers on this subject, have carried the prin- very early period; for Ovid describes how a letter may ciple of intricacy so far, as to suggest, that each line of be written with new milk, and made legible by subsethe required communication, should be expressed in a quent means. Without tracing the various modes in different cipher from the preceding; that a should im which this species of secret correspondence has been ply b in one line, c in another, d'in a third, &c.; but at different times carried on, we will briefly explain the the time required to write, or to read a communication principles which are concerned in the process. of this kind, would be enormous.

It has even been These sympathetic inks are separable into different proposed to change the cipher at every successive word, classes, viz., 1, those which become visible by passing a to make the interpretation more impracticable to those liquor or a vapour over them; 2, those that become who are not intrusted with the key or clue.

visible only when exposed to the air ; 3, those which We cannot attempt to describe all the ciphers which appear by strewing fine powder on the letters; 4, those have been invented; but shall, as a cɔncluding instance, which appear only by heat; or, 5, by moisture; and, 6, speak of the chiffre quarré, or square cipher, probably those which appear of various colours. the most inscrutable that has yet been devised, with If we write with a solution of acetate of lead, or a out, at the same time, being so difficult to the writer solution of gold in nitro-muriatic acid, or of nitrate of as some others. Each party is provided with a square bismuth, or of sulphate of iron, on a sheet of paper, the tablet, containing twenty-six alphabets arranged one letters will, when dry, be invisible; but if the first and under another. The upper alphabet begins with a and third be exposed to sulphureous liquids or vapours, the ends with X, in the usual manner: the second begins second to a solution of tin, and the last to an infusion with b and ends with a, z being the last letter but of galls, the letters will become instantly visible, asone: the third begins with c and ends with b; and so suming a brown, purple, black, or blue tint, according on, each alphabet beginning at a later letter than the to the circumstances of the case. This developement preceding one, and z, where it occurs previous to the of colour arises from the chemical action which ensues last letter, being immediately followed by a.

A key, between the ink and the solution which is subsequently consisting of one short word, no matter what, is then employed. agreed on; and the communication is written in a way

The second class includes such substances as nitrates which we will exemplify by the annexed abridged tablet. of silver, of copper, or of mercury, muriate of tin,

acetate of iron, and many other salts, which are scarcely

visible when used as ink on paper, or when kept carefully e f g

shielded from light; but which attain a dark colour e f g h i j k 1

when exposed to the light. This kind of sensitiveness ej 9

to light forms the basis of the photogenic and daguerrefgh i j k 1

otype processes. i j k 1

The third class of inks are less dependent on chemical i j k 1

action: they consist of substances which, like milk, cream, P 9

vegetable juices, weak solutions of some of the salts, The reader may conceive these alphabets carried out,

&c., have a certain degree of viscidity or stickiness, and till there are twenty-six lines, each containing twenty

are a long time in hardening : coloured powder strewed six letters. Let our key be the word head, and let

on letters written with these inks, within a reasonable us express such words as beach, decide, deface, chief; time after writing, will, by adhering to the letters, ren(these we select, merely because they suit our limited der them visible. alphabet given above.) Place these words, with the

Those inks which become visible by exposure to the key above them, thus :

fire, form the most extensive class, including juice of headh eadhea dheadh eadhe

lemons, juice of onions, a solution of muriate of ammobeach, decide, de face, chief.

nia, or of sulphate of iron, diluted sulphuric acid, and Our first letter is b, and the key-letter over it is h; many other liquids which contain substances capable of we therefore look in the tablet for the line beginning combining with the paper by heat. Sulphuric acid, if

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not sufficiently diluted, will at once corrode the paper;

CURIOUS CHESS PROBLEMS. but if sufficient water be added to prevent this, charac

XII. ters

may be written which, though invisible at first, soon become as black as if written with common ink, when

The following remarkable position was, we believe, first exposed to the fire.

given by Salvio ; but a similar one occurs in the works The fifth class we may exemplify by such fluids as a

of Greco and Stamma. It is a good illustration of the solution of alum, of acetate of lead, of vitriol, and of value of position at Chess, for in most situations the such salts as dissolve imperfectly in water, and there

King and Knight are not able of themselves to give fore leave a copious sediment when mixed with it. The

mate; but in this case advantage is taken of the adverwriting is then made visible by the following circum- sary's pawns. The good player frequently enlists his stance; that if the characters, written with a strong

adversary's men into his own regiment. solution of

any of these salts, be dried, and then washed White moving first, is to mate in four moves. with water, the insoluble part of the salt becomes visible

Black moving first, White is to mate in five moves. on the paper, as it is not affected by the water in the same way as the other parts of the paper; the letters assume a tint, gray, brown, or some other, according to the nature of the salt employed.

The last class of inks is composed of such substances as muriate of tin, a solution of which is invisible when used as ink; but if a camel-hair pencil be dipped in a decoction of cochineal, brazil-wood, log-wood, or some such substance, and drawn over the letters, they will become visible, and will assume beautiful tints, crimson, purple, yellow, &c.

The secret history of many European courts would furnish curious details respecting the extent to which secret writing has been carried; particularly at the time when Buonaparte held powerful sway in Europe. But the discussion of such details does not fall within the scope of these papers; our o..ject having been merely to develope the principles on which writing by cipher has been usually conducted.

Some further remarks on this subject will be found in the eighth Volume of the Saturday Magazine,


page 244.

fant eye


On, Thou! who taught my
To pierce the air, and view the sky,
To see my God in earth and seas,
To hear Hiin in the vernal breeze,
To know Him midnight thoughts among,

The relations that exist between the human soul and its
O guide my soul, and aid my song.

Divine Creator, are of measureless importance. If the Spirit of Light! do thou impart

magnificent spectacle of the starry sky, the broad earth, Majestic truths, and teach my heart;

and all the wonders displayed around us, is calculated to Teach me to know how weak I am;

raise hosts of ideas respecting each class of phenomena, how How vain my powers, how poor my frame;

vast is the inference which we are thereby entitled to draw Teach me celestial paths untrod

with regard to the wisdom and power of the great Framer The ways of glory and of God.

of all! Can it be supposed that He intended us to have a No more let me in vain surprise,,

knowledge of them alone, or that His productions should To heathen art give up my eyes;

be more worthy of consideration than Himself? Great and To piles laborious science reared,

valuable as is the immediate knowledge, which we derive For heroes brave, or tyrants feared ;

from the works of God, it is vastly inferior to that which But quit philosophy, and see

we also gain from them, as to His existence and sublime The fountain of her works in Thee.

providence. The phenomena of creation, could have no

value without a Creator. Were it possible to arrive at the Fond man ! yon glassy mirror eye,

conclusion that this fair and wondrous world had no Head, Go, pierce the flood, and there descry

I could only wish to die. Existence would be priceless The miracles that float between

without a belief in God; and in the continuance of our The rainy leaves of wat’ry green;

being in a better world. I could sooner suppose a corpse Old Ocean's hoary treasures scan,

never to have been fraught with life, a statue to have been See nations swimming round a span.

hewn without hands, or å work of genius or intellect to Then wilt thou say, and rear no more

have originated without a soul, than arrive at the concluThy monuments in mystic lore,

sion that the universe had no God. As for those who can My God! I quit my vain design,

believe that an overruling wisdom, and an untiring beneAnd drop my work to gaze on Thine;

volence, do not preside wherever there is light, and life, Henceforth I'll frame myself to be,

and being, we must grieve for their delusion; but rejoice O Lord! a monument of Thee.-CRABBE.

that they are mistaken. It is exalting to acquire knowledge, and to imbue our hearts with the dictates of virtue,

but it is elevating to the utmost, to know that there is CARISTIAN perfection does not consist in doing extra- One, who is goodness and truth unalloyed. The phenoordinary things; but in doing common things after a mena of creation are valuable in themselves, but they are Christian manner.

infinitely so, when viewed in relation to their Author.

How cold and dry are the pursuits, of science, when MISERABLE is the case of those who have no hopes, but that enlivened by no reference to Him, to Whom science and the God and Word of Truth will prove false.

truth alike owe their origin!—M'Cormac's Philosophy of

Human Nature. We always do good or harm to others by the manner of our conversation.-BISHOP WILSON.


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Marseilles is the first sea-port in France, and owes than five hundred fathoms in length, and one hundred much of its importance to its natural position. It is a and fifty in breadth, on the east side of which are docks flourishing city, situated in a bay of the same name on for the galleys, whilst in every part there are commothe Mediterranean sea, and is the capital of the depart- dious quays and storehouses. It is capable of receiving ment of the Bouches du Rhone; it is also stated to be nine hundred vessels, which are not visible from the sea; the most ancient city of Europe, dating nearly three but the water is not sufficiently deep for the larger ships thousand years back, from the first landing of the Pho- of war, which anchor without the entrance. cians on that shore, at which time it bore the name of The city of Marseilles is in the form of a square, and Massilia. The harbour is esteemed one of the safest is divided into the old and new town: the former situated and most convenient in the Mediterranean. The bay is on an eminence, and composed of narrow dirty streets, formed by two points, called Cape Couronne and Cape and mean houses ; the latter lying on the south and east Croisette, which are fifteen miles distant from each sides of the harbour, and containing wide and well-paved other: within the bay are ports for anchoring till the streets, with many handsome houses. The public ediwinds serve for entering the harbour. The city, which fices are numerous, but not very remarkable or attractive surrounds the harbour, occupies an amphitheatre, rising to strangers. The cathedral, or ancient church of St. on all sides, until it terminates in the encircling chain of Victor, is one of them, though Marseilles is now no hills. Thus it happens that the port of Marseilles is the longer an episcopal city, being comprehended in the common drain for the city and surrounding country, so diocese of Aix. The crypts and substructures of this that the effects are most unpleasant and injurious; for building are of the eleventh century; the upper part the sea is tideless, and exposed to the influence of a dates from 1200, but the battlemented towers were burning sun, which renders the accumulation of noxious erected in 1350, by Pope Urban the Fifth, who had materials in its stagnant waters a serious nuisance. been abbot of St. Victor. This edifice was formerly one Except by natives, this is deemed an intolerable incon- of the most celebrated abbeys in Christendom, having venience, and at particular times destroys all pleasure in many other abbeys and religious establishments dependwalking on the quays. Dredging-machines require to ing upon it. be constantly employed to lessen this evil; the occur On the very summit of a rocky hill to the south of rence of a south-east wind is also beneficial by.causing a the town and harbour, is a curious chapel within a small circulation in the waters. Were it not for the offensive fort, inclosing a relic of great value in the estimation of nature of these accumulations, the quays at Marseilles fishermen and others. The chapel and its decorations would afford a constant source of amusement to visitors

are thus described in Murray's Handbook for Travelfrom the variety of shipping and of costume which might lers in France. « An image of the Virgin carved in there be noticed. The harbour forms a basin of more olive wood, and of great antiquity, is inclosed within this VOL. XXIV,


humble shrine; it is held in the highest veneration through- the council room at Marseilles. The figure of the good out the Mediterranean by the sailors, fishermen, and their Bishop, who visited the sick and dying when nearly all the wives, and its walls and roofs are hung with ex-votos, chiefly other ecclesiastics had fled from the city, is here intropaintings representing moving accidents by flood and field; duced; also of the Chevalier Rose, who helped to bury the all the veriest daubs, but very curious as illustrating the

dead with his own hands. At a time when every night religious feelings of the people. Besides a vast number of shipwrecks, storms, steam-boat explosions, escapes from added a thousand or twelve hundred to the dead of MarBritish vessels of war, there is a whole host of surgical ope- seilles, when every avenue was choked with the bodies of rations, sick beds, road-side accidents, &c. The cholera the dead and dying, or with heaps of infected goods thrown produced numerous offerings, among them a silver tunny from the houses; when there were none but galleyfish, presented by the Marseilloise fish-wives. Many ostrich slaves, and these only under terror of the sword, that eggs, and models of ships, are suspended from the roof, and would help to remove the dreadful accumulation; when one corner is filled with cast-off crutches, the gifts of grate all the miseries and horrors that human nature is subject ful cripples, now no longer lame, and by ropes' ends, by which men have been saved from drowning."

to were heaped on the devoted inhabitants, or were creThe same writer describes the view from the top of ated by their own wild despair, depravity, and selfishthe hill beside the chapel as one of the best which can

ness, the conduct of those who still laboured amongst be obtained at Marseilles, presenting the vineyards and them, and put their lives in momentary peril for their olive-gardens of the vicinity, dotted with white country sakes, is indeed worthy of note. Pope notices the conhouses, called Bastides, to the number of five or six

duct of Bishop Belzance:thousand, belonging to the citizens and shopkeepers.

Why drew Marseilles' good bishop purer breath,

When nature sickened, and each gale was death. Yet the general aspect of the country is so arid and

The progress of the plague was noted every day, in dazzling to the sight, that “the eye is delighted to turn the city records of Marseilles, and in the extracts from and repose upon the deep blue of the Mediterranean, the this journal published soon afterwards, and translated graceful curves of the coast of the gulf of Lyons, and into English in 1721, we find the following account of the little group of islands called If, crowned by a castle, the Bishop's intrepid performance of his duties :-" In once a state prison, in which Mirabeau was shut up.”

vain from the beginning of the contagion was he pressed to The Museum, in which is also a picture-gallery, con leave the city, to endeavour to preserve himself for the rest tains the few remaining relics of the ancient Massilia, of his diocese; he rejects all such counsels, and hearkens some marbles, engravings, and medals of value, and a only, to those which the love the Sovereign Pastor has library said to contain ninety thousand volumes and two inspired him with for his flock, suggest to him; he tarries thousand manuscripts. The picture-gallery contains with unshaken fortitude, determined to lay down his life about a hundred and fifty pictures, not remarkable for for the good of his sheep, if God is pleased to require it. their beauty, and very badly lighted.

He is not satisfied with prostrating himself at the feet of Establishments of a sanatory nature are extremely mitigate his wrath ; his charity is active; he is every day

altars, and lifting up his hands to heaven to beseech God to well conducted at Marseilles; the cause being, those in the open streets, through all quarters of the town; he fearful ravages of the plague which, in 1720, destroyed goes up to the highest and worst of the apartments of the nearly fifty thousand persons, or half the population. houses, to visit the sick; crosses the streets among the dead The Lazaretto* is a commodious and well-regulated esta- bodies; appears in the public places, at the port, at the blishment to the west of the port, covering an area of no ring; the poorest, the most destitute of friends, those less than fifty acres, and furnished with the necessary to whom he goes with the most earnestness ; and without

afflicted the most grievously and hideously, are the persons apartments for all classes of persons, and extensive store- dreading those mortal blasts which carry poison to the houses for goods. It is surrounded by a double wall, heart, he approaches them, exhorts them to patience, disand is inaccessible except to those who enter it to per- poses them to die, pours celestial consolation into their form quarantine. This immense establishment was able souls, drops everywhere abundant fruits of his generous to receive the entire French army on its return from charity, distributing money wherever he goes, and espeEgypt. Of late years a new access has been formed to cially in secret to indigent families, whom holy curiosity the building, bringing it into connection with the har- prompts him to seek out and relieve; he has already given bour by means of a canal, without any contact with the away twenty-five thousand crowns, and takes up what

money habitations. This entrance is finished by a magnificent

he can upon pledges, to enable him to distribute more.

“Death has hitherto spared him, but has continually gate, called Dieu-donné. The care taken at Marseilles surrounded him, and almost mowed under his feet. The for the prevention of disease, is equalled by the provision plague gets into his palace, the greatest part of his officers made for the cure of various maladies. The hospitals and servants are struck with it; he is obliged to retreat are very numerous, and adapted to the circumstances of into the house of the chief president at Marseilles; the different classes of sufferers. The Hotel-Dieu receives plague pursues him thither, and not only attacks the rest all poor persons whose maladies are not incurable. About of his domestics, but two of his chosen assistants in his two thousand five hundred individuals are annually ever, does not terrify him, nor withhold him one moment

labours, one of whom expired beneath it. All this, howrelieved at this institution, besides wbich food and lodg- from any of the duties of his fervent charity ; he goes every ing is provided during three days for all distressed per where still to visit the infected.” sons who come with passports of indigence or disease. The contagion commenced in June, reached its most La Churité is another institution of a more general terrific height in August, and declined in October and nature, and has generally about eight hundred and fifty November, but it was not until the 10th of December patients under treatment. La Maternité receives and that the Journalist of Marseilles could write as follows: supports, during two months, distressed women about to “This day the distemper has so abated throughout the city, become mothers. Many other hospitals for foundlings, that no new patient has been carried into any hospital. insane persons, &c., are likewise regulated by a govern entirely appeased ; that this miserable unfortunate city will ment commission, and there are several voluntary associations for visiting and relieving the sick, and otherwise laid it desolate ; and that we shall be secured from all

be wholly delivered from this cruel visitation, which has distressed.

returns of it, by the wise, exact, and judicious precautions The dreadful visitation of 1720, already alluded to, which M. de Langeron takes, in concert with the sheriffs, has employed the pens of various writers, and has been with such indefatigable zeal, such laborious assiduity, such made the subject of painting. One by Gerard, exhibiting prudent vigilance, and such singular application, that the the ravages of the malady, and the self-devotion of some preservation of Marseilles cannot but be looked upon as his of the principal inhabitants, helps to adorn the walls of work; and its surviving inhabitants will be ever obliged to

bless his name, and those of the sheriffs who second him so : A view of this building, together with much interesting information well, and do so justly merit, by the ardour with which on the subject of Quarantine and Lazarettos, will be found in Saturday they have exposed their lives, the title of Fathers of their Magazine, Vol. XVI., pp. 173, 180.


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The origin of this dire calamity appears to have been of soda and sulphuric acid, and some other chemical the arrival of several ships from countries infected with articles. Nearly eight thousand persons find employthe plague. One of the officers at Marseilles, who was ment in the making of caps for the Africans, called put on board an infected ship, to see quarantine duly Tunisan caps. There is a coral-fishery on the coast, performed, died there, and gradually cases of malignant but the manufacture of Coral, for which this city was fever, of a virulent character, appeared in the town. formerly famed, has considerably declined, having been The plague boil did not at first appear, but in the course transferred to Leghorn, Genoa, and Naples. The buildof a week or two, decided cases occurred, and whole | ing and equipment of vessels of all sizes, and supplying families and streets began to be shut out from all them with sailors, is an abundant source of employment, intercourse with the rest of the town. No doubt the as is also the fishery, and the preserving of fish by increasing heat of the summer, the dirty habits of the salting and smoking. Sugar-refineries, paper-mills, people, and the unwholesome state of the waters, fear- glass-houses, &c., also exist in this busy commercial city. fully accelerated its ravages. The commercial character The fish-market displays several varieties of fish unof the town at that period, as at present, must have known to northern seas. drawn great numbers of persons together within its walls, and occasioned that dense and crowded state of HISTORICAL NOTICE OF THE COURT OF many districts of the city, which is common in manufac

STAR CHAMBER. turing towns. The population of Marseilles, without reckoning the extensive and thickly inhabited suburbs,

II. was in 1836 estimated at about one hundred and twenty In addition to the method of proceeding in the Court of thousand, and from the peculiar character of that popu- Star Chamber as described in a former article, another lation as attracted thither in search of employment, it mode was adopted in all cases of libel, conspiracy, and perhaps occurs, that the number of deaths in a series of matters arising out of force or fraud. Crimes of the twenty years has exceeded the number of births by greatest magnitude were treated of in this court, but about ten per cent., a fact which is said not to have punished solely as trespasses, the council not. having appeared in any other large city in Europe.

claimed the power of inflicting death. Causes of a During a considerable portion of the year the climate capital nature could originate only in the king, who by of Marseilles is most delightful; but in summer and prosecuting in this court showed a desire to remit the autumn the heat is so intense, that the streets, at times, sentence against the life which would have been passed appear to glow like a furnace, and it is impossible to in the courts of law. In these cases, a bill of complaint. take any pleasure in the open air. By night, too, the directed to the council was written in English upon air is peopled with mosquitoes, to the inexpressible parchment, and signed by a learned man or counsellor. annoyance of the wearied traveller. A cutting dry wind The bill (which was limited to fifteen sheets, each sheet from the north-west, called the Mistral, frequently suco containing not more than fifteen lines,) was filed with ceeds the hot season. This is a violent and bitterly-cold the clerk of the council, who thereupon granted a warwind, very painful to the eyes, and which fills the atmo rant to the process-maker, directing him to issue a subsphere with a yellow haze.' The mistral is the cause of pæna addressed to the defendant, commanding him to those sudden changes in temperature, which travellers appear before the council in the next term. are sometimes surprised to meet with in the south of The process of the Star Chamber might, according to France. An unvarying sky, and a mild and delightful ancient practice, be served upon the defendant in any state of the weather, are by no means to be reckoned place. În Roman Catholic times, the market or the on ; for although rain seldom falls, this piercing blast, church seems to have been the usual place for service. which occasionally alternates with excessive heat, is Mr. Bruce quotes from Hudson a case which occurred scarcely less trying to the constitution than the variations in the second year of Henry the Eighth, in which one in our own climate.

Cheeseman was committed to prison for contempt of The higher classes at Marseilles make use of the court in drawing his sword upon a messenger who French language, but among the lower orders the Pro- served process upon him in the church of Esterford, in vençal alone is used. This is a compound of Greek, Essex. “ The practice," says Mr. Bruce, "of wearing Latin, Catalan, and French, with many words which are swords during divine service is ancient; and in Poland, not capable of derivation from either of those tongues, so late as the beginning of the seventeenth century, it and are supposed to be the remains of some ancient and was the custom for gentlemen to draw their swords at original language. The commerce of Marseilles was church during the repetition of the Creed, by way of tesinjuriously affected by the Revolution. Previous to that tifying their zeal for the faith.”. event it enjoyed a great trade with India, America, and The person summoned by the subpæna appeared perthe Levant, to which it exported cloths, soap, leather, sonally before the chancellor or president of the council

, and salt fish. Then, however, as at the present time, “ sometimes in the chancellor's house, sometimes in the the trade of this city was principally with Italy. The parliament chamber, sometimes in the inner star chammanufactures now carried on at Marseilles are, according ber, sometimes in court.” But in the reign of James to a writer in the Encyclopædia Britannica, chiefly the the First, the practice was for the defendant to appear following :-Soap-making, This employs more than before the clerk of the council, who made an entry of two thousand persons, and sets in action four hundred his appearance, and took from him a bond not to depart furnaces. The materials for this manufacture are pro- without licence of the court. duced in the department, being Provence oil and soda. After appearance, the defendant was bound to put in Tanning. This employs four or five hundred persons, an answer upon oath to the plaintiff's bill. If he rewho use the hides brought from Buenos Ayres, as well fused to answer, he was committed to prison for a ceras those of the neighbourhood; and obtain the skins of tain time; and if at the expiration of that time, he still sheep, goats, and kids, either from the department, or refused, either the bill was taken pro confesso, or he from Corsica or Sardinia. The greater part of the was retained in custody, and kept upon bread and water leather is exported to Italy.Hat-making. Six hundred until he answered. When the defendant had put in his workmen employed in this manufacture produce about answer, the plaintiff proceeded to examine him upon twenty thousand hats annually, some of which are written interrogatories,-a practice greatly abused, being shipped to Spain and the colonies.-Cotton-spinning, by employed, says Hudson, “like a Spanish Inquisition, to means of machinery, has been recently introduced, and rack men's consciences, nay, to perplex them with intriemploys between five and six thousand workmen. A cate questions, thereby to make contrarieties, which thousand persons are also employed in the manufacture I may easily happen to simple men; and men were exa

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