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The style of buildings erected by John of Beverley
cannot now be known. They were partially destroyed The ancient town of Beverley, in Yorkshire, is situated in the contests between the Saxons and Danes which at the foot of the wolds, and about a mile from the river occurred shortly after the death of the founder. The Hull. It is celebrated for its splendid cathedral, which, clergy, however, again returned to their dilapidated as well as the town itself, is said to have been founded possessions, and re-assigned them to their original uses. by a celebrated individual called St. John of Beverley, During the repeated and harassing attacks of the Danes, whose history has been transmitted to posterity by it is not to be supposed that the church and monastery means of the venerable Bede, one of his pupils.
were ever completely restored, and it is not till after the John of Beverley was of a respectable Saxon family, | lapse of more than two hundred years that we find much and born at Harpham, on the wolds of Yorkshire, about mention made of them. King Athelstan then conferred the year 640. At this period the country was beginning some important gifts and privileges on the church at to recover from the darkness and barbarism consequent Beverley, especially the right of sunctuary, in token of on the Saxon invasion. Many of the priests who had which a fridstol, or chair of peace, was placed in a conretreated before the storm to take refuge in Scotland spicuous situation near the altar, as an emblern of proand Ireland, had there established schools and monas tection to the refugee. The limits of the sanctnary, teries which had become the chief seats of learning to called leuga, were included within the circumference of a the northern parts of the kingdom. From these monas circle, of which the radius was about a mile. The limits teries, missionaries were also sent out to diffuse more of the sanctuary were defined by four crosses, placed on widely the knowledge of the Christian religion, and to the four principal roads leading to the town: one of promote the civilization of a semi-barbarous race. John these still remains, in a dilapidated state. “If a male. of Beverley passed his youthful days in the monastery factor flying for refuge was apprehended within the crosses, of Whitby, which had been founded by missionaries the party that took or had hold of him there, did forfeit from Icolmkill, and was then under the direction of St. two hundreth; if within the walls of the church-yaril, then Hilda. The elementary instruction which the youth if within the doors of the quire, then eighteen hundreth
six hundreth; if within the church, then twelve hundreth; received from the sisterhood at Whitby, was afterwards besides penance, as in case of sacrilege ; but if he presumed exchanged for the more advanced learning gained in the to take him out of the stone chair near the altar, called schools of Theodore, archbishop of •Canterbury, where fridstol, or from among the holy relics behind the altar, the he is said to have made himself master of all the learn- offence was not redeemable with any sum, but was then ing of his age. It is further stated that he went to become sine emendatione, boteless, and nothing but the utOxford, and was the first on whom the degree of Doctor most severity of the offended church was to be expected, of Divinity was conferred; but this is probably a fiction, by a dreadful excommunication, besides what the secular it being very doubtful whether Oxford became a seat of power would impose for the presumptuous misdemeanour."
It was in the learning until after the death of John of Beverley.
938 that Athelstan thus distinguished
the church at Beverley, which thenceforward became a Be this as it may, the fame of his learning brought him many pupils, and amongst the rest the Venerable place of much note. John of Beverley was canonized
in the year 1037, in the time of John, the twentieth Bede, who delights in exhibiting the piety, zeal, and wisdom of his instructor.
pope. In 1183 a dreadful fire consumed the collegiate The earlier part of John's Church of St. John of Beverley, upon the site of whicli, career was passed in the instruction of youth, but sub
in process of time, the principal part of the present sequently he entered on the laborious and toilsome life
splendid edifice was erected. The church at Beverley of a missionary, travelling about from place to place, held jurisdiction over Beverley itself, and several other and labouring with distinguished zeal and success to parishes, but we meet with little to mark its history instruct the ignorant multitudes in the doctrines and until it became involved in the fate of similar instituduties of the Gospel. At a later period he betook him- tions, at the dissolution of monasteries and of collegiate self to a life of solitude, living as a hermit in the neigh- churches. bourhood of Hexham, though he was too valuable a
In 1717 the minster was in a very ruinous state ; but person to be permitted long to remain in that seclusion.
The celebrated Wilfred, patron of the arts and lite by the exertions of public-spirited individuals, a fund rature, had been appointed to the bishopric of Hexham, addition to indispensable repairs, the church was re
was raised, and the necessary repairs undertaken. In to which that of York was afterwards added. He like. wise held the monastery of Rippon, of which he was the
pewed and adorned in divers ways. Unfortunately, the founder. When Egfrid came to the throne of North with the Gothic style of architecture so beautifully ap
ornaments thus introduced were far from harmonizing nmbria, in 670, he justly deemed the jurisdiction of plied in the edifice itself
. “Every thing," says Mr. Wilfred to be too extensive for one individual; and Allen, “was formed on Grecian models: the galleries were having called a council, at which Theodore, archbishop supported by Doric pillars, and adorned with Doric triof Canterbury, presided, it was determined that the glyphs. Before the old altar-screen was placed a wooden bishoprics of Hexham and York should be held by dif. one of Grecian work, on which stood eight beautiful Coferent individuals. Wilfred made violent opposition to rinthian, pillars, supporting a splendid triumphal arch, surthis proposal, and on this occasion introduced the custom mounted by a magnificent gilded eagle. The pulpit, the of appealing to the court of Rome. The Pope decided reading-desk, the cover for the font, all made at the same in his favour, and hence a long series of expulsions and time, were in the same taste; and by way of climax of restorations followed, involving the church in anarchy which the Grecian and Pointed styles were mixed together,
absurdity, an entrance-screen into the choir was erected, in and confusion, and terminating at length in favour of and a kind of nondescript monster produced, referable to no Wilfred. Amidst these struggles, John was successively species of architecture.” raised to the sees of Hexham and York, where his learn In 1813 a better system of repairs commenced, a ing and piety shone out in a new and more extended competent person being engaged at a permanent salary sphere. Bede describes the diligence with which he to take charge of the minster, and to enter on a regular visited the various parts of his diocese, and performed course of repair, strictly on the principle of restoration. all other episcopal duties. During his visitations he Since that time, the Corinthian pillars and the wooden repaired to Beverley, then called Silva Deirorum. At | altar-screen have disappeared, the choir has been fitted this place he founded a parish church, and likewise a
for divine service, instead of the nave, and the orimonastery, both being dedicated to St. John the Baptist. ginal altar-piece has been restored. After presiding over the see of York for about thirty The exterior of Beverley Minster is particularly years, he resigned his dignities and retired to his own grand, and much resembles York Minster.' The west monastery, where he expired on the 7th of May, 721. front is considered by Rickman to be by far the finest
perpendicular front in England. He remarks that what | possession of the stall on which it was placed. The ornathe west front of York is to the decorated style, this is ments with which this stall is decorated, consist of a central to the perpendicular, with this addition, that in the front group, representing a gentleman in the hunting-dress of a at Beverley only one style is seen, and therefore all is
person of distinction, with a hawk upon his hand, and harmonious. The centre is occupied by the splendid
attended by servants and dogs. On each side is a circle, window of the nave, and at the ends of the side aisles the other, a cock of the true game breed, trimmed ready for
containing a single figure; the one, a dug gnawing a bone, rise two noble towers, strengthened with buttresses, battle. Hence we may conclude, that the Rev. John richly ornainented with niches and canopied heads. Wake was a branch of a noble family, and attached to the Each tower has four large and eight small pinnacles, sports of the field and other domestic recreations, as well as and a very beautiful battlement. The doors are ex the more sedentary pursuits, either of his sacred profession, tremely rich, the pointed arch being bounded with nu or the amusement of decorating oaken benches with caricumerous mouldings, and the hollows occupied by small
ture embellishments.” flowers and busts. The head of the arch is covered The grotesque and ridiculous designs on many of with a lofty and elegant canopy, crocketted, and crowned these seats, while they are singularly misplaced in a with a finial, above which is a small niche with a superb sacred edifice, are yet sufficient to excite curiosity and canopy. The great window is in breadth equal to the investigation. On one is the exhibition of a shrew whole extent of the central division of the building, and whose husband has placed her in a wheelbarrow, and consists of nine lights, subdivided by a transom into two appears to be conveying her to the ducking-stool, while tiers. The head of the arch is occupied by two sub- her countenance is distorted with rage and fury, and she arches, which, with their spandrils, are filled with nume is in the act of tearing off her husband's wig. Other rous minute lights, with arched heads, made by perpen- subjects are: a monkey riding on the back of a hare; dicular mullions. The arch is bounded by a sweeping another monkey acting as physician to a bed-ridden canopy, crocketted, and ending in a finial; above the goat; a hog playing on the bag-pipes, and a number of canopy a double series of upright panels with arched hogs dancing; a man on horseback preceding muzzled heads, divided by an embattled string, range from the bears; a man teaching a monkey to dance; grotesque arch to a cornice even with the spring of the gable. It sport of men riding on rams; a man drawing a bear in is finished with a raking battlement, delicately pierced, a sledge; a monkey dandling a child; three fools dancand ornamented with five pinnacles, placed at short in- ing a marisco; a fox preaching to the geese; a quarrel tervals,
between two sculptors, who are striking each other with The north porch of Beverley Minster is celebrated chisel and mallet, while a man at the side is holding his for its rich and elaborate workmanship. Mr. Rickman nose in contempt. says of it, that as a panelled front it is perhaps une
The restoration of the ancient altar screen was comqualled. The entrance is a pointed arch. The door pleted in 1826, and exhibits a magnificent specimen of has a double canopy, the inner an ogee, the outer a elaborate carving. The pulpit is an octagon of two triangle with beautiful crockets and tracery, flanked by stages, the lower seing panelled with cinquefoil pointed buttresses with rich niches, crowned with pinnacles. arches, the upper with crocketed pediments, each
The transept is built in a much simpler style of archi- triangle having a superb purfled finial, enclosing a tecture, and at its junction with the nave, rises a low panelled imitation of pointed windows with tracery. square tower with a parapet. On this tower a modern The canopy is ornamented with an ogee battlement. donie was erected in 1706, from a design by Lord Bur In the vestry is the celebrated frid-stool hewn out of lington. This unseemly addition to the building was solid stone. taken down in 1824.
In the north aisle of the choir is a beautiful staircase, The east front of this church is fine, but the large consisting of a series of arches, each rising higher than window is an introduction of a more modern period. It the former with elegant shafts and mouldings. This has nine lights divided in height by a transom; in the staircase has been supposed, though it appears inacsweep of the arches are sub-arches with perpendicular curately, to be the shrine of St. Jolin of Beverley. tracery. The window has a crocketted pediment with a The monuments in Beverley Minster are few in numfinial, and on the gable a foliated cross.
There is rea
ber, but several of them are extremely beautiful. That son to believe, that this front was originally lighted by called the Percy Shrine in particular, excites the admirtall narrow lancet-headed windows. The south side of ing attention of visitors. It consists of a pedestal, surthis church closely corresponds with the north, and mounted by a magnificent canopy, terminating in a throughout the building a degree of uniformity prevails, beautiful finial. In the spandrils of the pediment are which is seldom met with in ancient churches, and only angels worshipping. Within the pediment is a rich surpassed by Salisbury Cathedral. The porch on the arch, in the spandrils of the pediment of which are four south side is, however, far simpler in its construction armed knights, holding four shields. On the top of the than that on the north, being a simple pointed arch finial of the arch is a figure emblematic of the Deity, covered with an ogee-formed canopy.
with the right hand in the attitude of benediction on the The interior of this magnificent edifice, exhibits one head of a lady, (Maud, countess of Northumberland,) of our most interesting specimens of pointed architec- who is held in a sheet by angels on each side. Numerture. The nave comprises eleven pointed arches, and ous figures of knights, &c. ornament this splendid tomb, the pillars are composed of eight slender cylindrical and the monument has been pronounced a model of shafts. The choir is rich in superb carving and orna ancient art, where every effort that sculpture and mental work, and is universally admired on this account, masonry could combine, is displayed in one great excelas well as for its noble monuments, variegated marble lence. "In a chapel, usually called the Percy Chapel, is floor, and magnificent east window. The stalls are the monument of Henry, fourth Earl of Northumberforty-two in number, and the seats which are all of land, slain near Thirsk, in 1489. Several other monuequal height are so contrived that they can be raised or ments of less note, also adorn this venerable edifice. let down at pleasure, like the leaf of a table. The under part of each leaf, which is visible when the seat is turned up, contains some allegorical design, of which Benevolence is always a virtuous principle. the meaning is now lost. They may possibly,” says tions always secure to others their natural rights, and it Mr. Allen, “be the work of some of the residentiaries, as on liberally superadds more than they are entitled to claim.. the seventeenth stall from the east end on the north side is | Cogan. inscribed Clericus et Faber, and if this judgment be correct, each design might contain some sly allusion, either direct or implied, to the habits and propensities of the person then in
THE PRINCE OF WALES'S FEATHERS. of this badge. The popular tradition of three feathers
having been the crest, arms, or badge of John, king of Bohemia, rests upon the authority of Camden, who says in his Remains, “ The victorious Black Prince his [Edward's] sonne, used sometimes one feather sonietimes three, in token, as some say, of his speedy execution in all his services, as the posts in the Roman times were called pterophori, and wore the feather to signifie their flying post haste; but the truth is, he won
them at the battle of Cressy from John, king of BoheCHODIEN
mia, whome he there slew.” It is remarkable that this circumstance should have been completely overlooked by Froissart, Walsingham, Knighton, and all the cotemporary historians, thus resting on Camden's statement alone, who does not give any authority for that which he states as a fact.
Respecting the adoption of this crest by the Black
Prince, Mr. Nichols offers an hypothesis that appears ANCIENT FORM OF THE PRINCE OF WALES'S FEATHERS. likely to be near the truth. Although the feathers of From tho shield on the Monument of Edward the Black Prince, in the the ostrich were not worn as a badge by the kings of Chapel of the Holy Trinity, Canterbury Cathedral.
Bohemia, the bird itself was so. It is noticed by Mr. The origin of the heraldic device borne by the Princes Willement, on the authority of Thiel, that a white of Wales, is explained by the historians of England, in ostrich issuing from a crown, and holding in its beak a terms that are well known to most readers. Edward horse-shoe, is the proper crest of the kingdom of Hunthe Black Prince having on the field of Cressy gained gary. The Bohemian ostrich, instead of rising from a a remarkable victory over the French, and slain John, crown, stands erect, collared, and chained, with a nail in king of Bohemia, adopted, it is said, the crest of that his beak. The nail and the horse-shoe in these cases monarch, consisting of three ostrich feathers, with the were probably added to illustrate the fabulous powers motto, Ich dien (I serve), and which crest and morto of digestion attributed to this bird, and which were suphave ever since been used by the heirs apparent of posed to be emblematic of the warrior's appetite for the England.
cold iron of the battle field. The German name for an Now it appears from the investigations of the learned, ostrich (strauss) was also used to signify a fight, comthat this is not the fact. Among others, Mr. Nichols, bat, or scuffle, which would increase the aptness of the in his researches on the subject of heraldic devices, device to the warrior's purposes. This device of the states, that the popular account of the origin of this de- ostrich is seen upon the effigy of Anne, wife of Richard vice is not the correct one; for neither did John, king the Second, in Westminster Abbey. Her bodice is of Bohemia, bear a crest of ostrich feathers, nor were
covered with a flowered pattern, with the letters R. and plumes of feathers einployed earlier than the reign of A. crowned. Her gown is ornamented in a similar Henry the Fifth, and then only as portions of costume, manner, but the largest figures of the pattern are the and not as personal crests. The crests of John, king badge of the ostrich, collared and chained, and holding of Bohemia, and of his son Winceslaus, are shown by in its beak a nail. Camden notices this in the following their seals to have been, not the feathers of an ostrich, terms: “His wife Anna, sister to Winceslaus the Embut the entire wings of a vulture. An old Flemish perour, bare an ostrich, with a nayle in his beake." poem likewise describes the crest of John, king of Now the Bohemian king, from whom the Black Prince is Bohemia, to have been two wings of a vulture be said to have copied his device, was paternal grandfather sprinkled with linden-leaves of gold.
to Queen Anne, and may reasonably be supposed to Twet ghiers vlogelen daer aen geleyt.
have borne the same device. This device would have Die al vol bespringelt zyn
given him the warrior's title of "the ostrich," and Mr. Met linden bladeren guld fyn ;
Nichols thinks, that the prince may therefore possibly Deze es, als ich mercken can,
have adopted the feather of that bird as a trophy. But Van Behem coninck Jan.
there is reason to believe, that the device in question The Black Prince, therefore, did not adopt the crest was borne by our English princes previous to the time of his humbled enemy, and it remains to account of the Black Prince, and if this be the case, the whole for the choice he made of a new device. It appears, story of its derivation from Bohemian princes is negathat the prince himself wore a single feather only; but tived at once. this was really that of an ostrich, as there is suffi It is asserted that a single ostrich feather was borne cient evidence to prove. Ostrich feathers were likewise as a badge by King Edward the Third, by all the embroidered on his tapestry and hangings, as on those brothers and descendants of the Black Prince, and by of successive Princes and Princesses of Wales. In Thomas de Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, who must 1375, the Black Prince bequeathed to his son Richard either have borne it by grant from Richard the Second, his hangings for a hall, “ embroidered with mermen, or in consequence of his descent by the female side from and a border of red and black impaled, embroidered Thomas de Brotherton, fifth son of Edward the First. with swans, having lady's heads, and ostrich feathers.” The Harleian MS. No. 304, informs us that In 1385, Joan, princess of Wales, bequeathed, "To my The ostrich fether, sylher, and pen, gold, is the King's. dear son, the king, my new bed of red velvet, em- The ostrich fether, pen, and all, sylver, is the Prince's. broidered with ostrich feathers of silver, and heads of The ostrich fether, gold, ye pen, ermyne, is the Buk of leoparıls of gold, with boughs and leaves issuing out of Lancaster's. their mouths."
The ostrich fether, sylver, and pen, gobone, is the Duk On a seal appended to a grant of Prince Edward to of Somersett's. his brother John of Gaunt, dated 1370, twenty-five years after the battle of Cressy, Edward is seen seated lowing observations, but does not give his authorities :
Rundle Holmes, (MS. Harl. 2035,) makes the fol. on a throne, as a sovereign prince of Aquitaine, with a single feather and a blank scroll on each side of him. ostrich feathers, which they used upon all their warlike
“The ensigne of the auntient Britaines or Welsh was three The same badge occurs again upon a seal of 1374. A colours. But when they were subdued and brought under single feather was therefore doubtless the earliest form the Saxon-English government and lawes, and that the
king of England's eldest son was made the hereditary ermine, the stems and labels, or. Even the illegitimate Prince of Wales, the prince still retained the badge of the line of the prince continued the use of this badge, for feathers, adding thereunto the prince's crown, with the motto Ích dien, which is as much as to say, 'I serve;'
on the stall-plate of his grandson, John Beaufort, duke signifying thereby, that though he be a prince in his own
of Somerset, in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, there is, country, yet he is but a subject to the crowne of England.”
on each side of the helmet, an ostrich feather. Again, In another part of the same manuscript it is added, “ But
appears that the junior sons, as well as the eldest son this much let me inform you, that this bearing was after of Henry the Fourth, exhibited the feather as part of altered by the valiant Edward, prince of Wales, who, after their insignia. At the coronation feast of Henry the the battle of Cressy, wherein he slew the king of Bohemia, Sixth, there was introduced in the second course, a and tooke the crown from his head, added the same to his "frytour, garnished with a leopard's head, and two three feathers, with the motto aforesaid, which the princes
ostrich feathers.” Stowe remarks that in 1471, when of Wales of the English line, have ever since so borne it.”
Edward, afterwards King Edward the Fourth,) landed From the numerous accounts with which different at Ravenspur, in Yorkshire, in order to proclaim King writers have endeavoured to supply the lack of informa Henry, he wore the ostrich feather as part of his tion respecting this badge, we glean little else than that livery, and at the battle of Barnet, the fluctuating Warthe whole affair is dubious, and will probably ever wick wore, as his cognizance, the same emblem. It is remain so.
After all, this crest and motto may have recorded, that previous to the coronation of King Richard been adopted, the former as a mere matter of taste and the Third, Sir Thomas Tyrrel, master of the horse, fancy, the latter in allusion to the filial duty for which received “sixteen yerdes of velvet, white and grene, the Black Prince was so remarkable. Or some passing bordered with eight yerdes of crimson clothe of golde, occurrence of a very trivial kind, may have suggested garnysht with ostriche feders.” the adoption of the feathers, in the same way that vari On the monument of Arthur, prince of Wales, in ous devices of that period found their origin. Indeed, Worcester Cathedral, the feather is introduced, either it is highly probable that some pacific event, and not singly, or two together; in some instances, the plume of any martial achievement, gave rise to this particular three is united by one scroll, but no coronet. crest, for on reading the minute directions given by the Edward, prince of Wales, son of Henry the Eighth, Black Prince concerning his funeral, we find him or used the badge, but introduced the prince's coronet, daining that on the arrival of his corpse at Canterbury, through which the plume of three ostrich feathers it should be preceded by two men on armed chargers, passed, and beneath was a label, with the motto Ich one of whom was to be for war, bearing the entire dien. Henry, eldest son of James the First, followed arms of the prince ; the other for peace, bearing the the examples of his predecessors, but sometimes placed badge of ostrich feathers. The prince also directed that the feathers on a golden sun. around his tomb there should be twelve escutcheons of The shield of the Black Prince, as represented in our “laton," each of the breadth of a foot, six of which were wood-cut, adorns the sides and ends of his monument in to be of the arms entire, and the other six of ostrich Canterbury Cathedral, alternately with other shields feathers; and that upon each escutcheon should be bearing his entire arms. written, “ that is to say, upon those of our arms, and upon the others of ostrich feathers, Houmont,” (high
A little orb, spirit.). It is a curious fact, that in these directions, the Attended by one moon, her lamp by night, motto Ich dien (or diene according to the original ortho With her fair sisterhood of planets seven, graphy) is not mentioned ;, and it is not less remark Revolving round their central sun; she third able, that this latter motto has nevertheless been placed
In place, in magnitude the fourth. That orb,
New made, new named, inhabited anew,in every instance with and over the feathers on the
Though, whiles we sons of Adam visit still tomb, and the word Houmont only over the shields of
Our native place, not changed so far but we
Can trace our ancient walks, the scenery The German motto, first seen on Prince Edward's Of childhood, youth, and prime, and hoary age, shield at Canterbury, may have either originated or But scenery most of suffering and woe,given currency to the belief of the Bohemian origin of That little orb, in days remote of old, the feathers. Camden, however, incorrectly calls the
When angels yet were young, was made for Man,
And titled Earth, her primal virgin name. motto Old English, and says that the prince himself
Created first so lovely, so adorned adjoined the motto Ic dien (thegn), that is, I serve ;
With hill, and dale, and lawn, and winding vale, according to that of the Apostle, “ The heir, while he is
Woodland and stream, and lake, and rolling seas, a child, differeth nothing from a servant.” Now, on the Green mead, and fruitful tree, and fertile grain, other hand, it may be said that the King of Bohemia did And herb, and flower; so lovely, so adorned feudal service to the King of France, as Count of Lux With numerous beasts of every kind, with fowl embourg, at the battle of Cressy; and therefore the Of every wing and every tuneful note, 1
And with all fish that in the multitude motto might have been his, as there appears. no reason for Edward's selecting a German motto to express his
Of waters swam; so lovely, so adorned,
So fit a dwelling-place for man, that as own service to his father. The crest of the king of
She rose complete at the creating word, Bohemia was indeed an entire wing or pinion of an
The morning stars, the sons of God, aloud eagle or vulture, as may be seen on his seal engraved in Shouted for joy; and God, beholding, saw Olivarius Vredius; but it is also true that in the same The fair design, that from eternity work there are crests of wings or pinions surmounted
His mind conceived, accomplished, and, well-pleased, by distinct feathers, and one such might have been
His six days' finished work most good pronounced, adopted by the Black Prince as a symbol of triumph.
And Man declared the sovereign prince of all.–POLLOK. Yet if this was the fact, it surely would have been noticed by contemporary historians.
The intellect of the truly wise man is like glass; it admits Whatever may have been the origin of this badge, it
the light of heaven, and reflects it. is certain, as we learn from Willement, that the feather
He who amuses his guests by satirizing their friends, pays is introduced on the seal of Thomas, duke of Gloucester,
a poor compliment to the understandings which selected brother to the Black Prince; and on those of his
them. nephews, Edward, duke of York, and Richard, earl of Cambridge. Over against the tomb of John, duke of It is with flowers, as with moral qualities; the brightLancaster, in old St. Paul's, were, as well as his personal coloured are sometimes poisonous; but, I believe, never arms, a shield, sable, charged with three ostrich feathers, ! the sweet-smelling.–Guesses at Truth.
WRITING BY CIPHER; OR, SECRET (43 24324324 324 324324 3243 24 32432 4324324324 32432432 WRITING.
\In learning the useful part of every profession, moderate
432432432 4324 3243243 II.
abilities will suffice.) Having, in the former paper on this subject, spoken This furnishes a key for putting the communication into chiefly cf those ciphers in which letters are expressed cipher; by placing, instead of any particular letter, that by numerals, we proceed to describe those in which one in the alphabet which is removed from it, by a disdots are used, and also those, in which one letter is tance equal to the number placed over the letter. Thus, made to express another.
commencing with the first word, instead of i, use the Dots may be combined in any desired form, so as to fourth letter beyond i in the alphabet, which is in; represent letters. For instance; if each letter be ex instead of n, use the third beyond n, which is q; and so pressed by four dots, it would not be difficult so to on, being always guided by the figure which happens to arrange those four, as to make them assume, in succes be over the letter. The sentence then assumes the sion, twenty-six different positions, so as to serve for form: the twenty-six letters of the alphabet. The two cor Mq nidtrlpk wji xuiiwp scvw qj hxiua tuqjhuwlqr, respondents previously agree on the particular position pqhhtewg eekplomha alnp vwjkkgh. which shall represent all the different letters; and the
The peculiar feature in this cipher is, that the same writing, as well as the perusal, of 1 letter written by letter is not always expressed by the same substitute ; means of the dots, becomes tolerably easy, though slow. thus, in the above example, the letter e is expressed, in A mode was suggested by Bishop Wilkins, of combining different places, by the letters g, h, and i; a, by c, d, points, lines, and geometrical figures together, which and e; and so of the others; and the particular symbol were to be read by means of a graduated scale. The employed at any particular place, can only be known by width of the paper was supposed to be divided into knowing the key employed, viz. 432. twenty-six equal parts, and the symbol for each letter was to be put at a certain distance from the left margin deemed so intricate, as to defy the ingenuity of any
Lord Bacon devised a singular cipher, which he of the paper: suppose that the letter & were to be at decipherer, and which he illustrates, by showing that one inch from the edge; then, if a point, the end of a line, or an angle of a geometrical figure, were found at and simple instruction, “Fly.” The method is as fol
the words, “Stay till I come to you," imply the short that distance, the point, end, or angle, would be inter- lows:-Each letter is expressed by a combination of preted to mean g. The reader will readily understand, five letters, a's and V's, four of one and one of the other, that this plan admits of almost infinite diversity; for, three of one and two of the other, &c., by which twentyhaving expressed the requisite letters by neans of dots, six combinations can easily be produced. In this comlines
may be drawn from dot to dot in a great variety plex alphabet, the word fly is expressed by the folof forms, without deceiving the reader to whom the communication is addressed, since he looks to the angles lowing combinations, aabab, ababa, babba. Now, as there only of the figures, for an interpretation.
are only two different letters here employed, the cue, as Another plan is, to use some of the very numerous to which is to be taken, is easily afforded by using a characters which are found among the types in a print- mixture of Roman and Italic letters, in the specious ing office, such as asterisks, dashes, algebraical and sentence written: thus, “Stay till I come to you;" here, astronomical symbols, Saxon or Greek letters, &c., and the letters a, t, h, i, o, e, t, are in Italics, and are all to giving each an arbitrary signification, to express thereby be interpreted b; whereas, the other letters, being in all the letters which will serve to form the communica Roman type, are interpreted a. The a's and b's being tion. But as these types are not easily imitated by the thus procured, they are next separated into groups of pen, the method is only adapted for a printed cipher. five; thus: Stayt illic ometo you; and by making the
The employment of the common letters of the alpha- Italic letters into b's and the Roman into a's, the three bet in a secret form, may be varied, and, indeed, has groups, (omitting the remaining three letters,) will give been varied in practice, in a number of ways. One of those combinations of a's and b's signifying FLY, the most obvious, is to make each letter express the Bishop Wilkins and Mr. Falconer deemed this mesense of another letter removed a certain distance from thod of Bacon's one of the best that had been devised; it in the alphabet. If it were agreed, for example, that but Mr. Blair considers it too operose and slow of exea should be represented by b, 6 by c, c by d, and so on, cution, for public business: it has, however, this adeach letter being expressed by that which follows next vantage, that if cleverly done, it is not only difficult to to it in the alphabet, the following sentence,
detect, but may even give rise to no suspicion that the The modes of secret writing are very numerous,
written sentence is really a cipher, since any sentence, would assume the form
on any subject, may be substituted for another, provided
the substituted sentence contains five times as many Uif npeft pg tfdsfu xsjujoh bsf wfsz ovnfspvt;
letters as the real one. a barbarous jargon, which can only be interpreted by A similar principle to that just explained, may be those who are privy to the key or plan agreed upon. varied in many ways, by making a combination of two, Instead of being the next following one, the substituted three, or four letters, represent a given letter, according letter might be the second, third, fourth, &c., in order, all to a system previously agreed on; but these we need equally producing an incomprehensible effect, but being not illustrate, since the reader will easily imagine how it more difficult, as the substituted letter is further re
may be done. moved from the real one. Julius Cæsar and Augustus One of the Earls of Argyle, who was concerned in employed ciphers of this kind; the former adopting that the Scottish rebellions of the last century, employed a in which the substituted letter is three places behind the cipher, in which the correct words were written at full real one; that is, d used for a, e for b, and so on. length; but a number of unimportant words were inter
This last-mentioned method has been varied in a posed between them, so as to make the whole utter very ingenious manner, so as to render the detection of nonsense: the significant words were placed in pairs, the meaning infinitely more difficult, to those who are and fourteen non-significant words, or nulls, inserted ignorant of a particular key employed by the writer. between each two pairs; ard by this rule the correLet this key be 432: the writer pens his communication spondent was enabled to pick out the sense. By a little in the usual way, and over the letters, places as many cleverness in composition, this method might be made repetitions, as may be necessary, of the figure: 432; free from suspicion: if the interposed words were so
chosen, as to make good sense with the proper words,