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into the kitchen, and the door of which, towards the | SOME ACCOUNT OF LANCELOT ANDREWS, garden, was usually left open. . The passage was fifteen
BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. or eighteen feet in length, and the bell-wire nearly at the
A.D. 1555 To 1626. extremity, towards the kitchen. The farmer and his
This eminent divine, equally celebrated for his virtues wife were so much pleased with the sociability and con
and his universal learning, was born in London in 1555, fidence of their new inmates, that they not only allowed
and received the rudiments of his education at the freetheir muddy domicile to remain unmolested, but took care that free ingress and egress should be always
school of the Company of Coopers, in Ratcliffe Highway; afforded through the garden door.
from thence he was removed to Merchant-Taylors' The nest was com
School, where he made a great proficiency in the learned pleted, and a brood of young swallows reared, which
languages under Mr. Mulcaster, who recommended him took wing. In the autumn of the same year, the farmer
to Dr. Watts, canon-residentiary of St. Paul's, and returning from shooting, with his gun loaded, thought
archdeacon of Middlesex, who had then lately founded lessly discharged it at a swallow, which he killed. The
some scholarships at Pembroke College, Cambridge, the circumstance passed unnoticed until the next summer, when, from the absence of his old favourites, it occurred
first of which he bestowed on young Andrews. After
| he had taken the degree of bachelor of arts, he was to him that the poor bird so wantonly killed, must have been one of them.
chosen fellow of his college; in this situation he conThe year following a pair of birds, the offspring
tinued four years, applying himself chiefly to the study
of divinity; at the usual time, he commenced master of perhaps of the former occupants, were observed at the
| arts, and was then chosen catechist of the college, old haunt. They first attempted to fix their nest to a
which gave him an opportunity of reading lectures on cupboard-door, immediately over the door leading into the
the Ten Commandments on Saturdays and Sundays, to kitchen; and the farmer's wife, fearing it might be shaken down from the closing and opening of the door, drove a
which great numbers resorted from the other colleges, nail beneath, to secure it in its position. However, the
and likewise young gentlemen and clergymen from the swallows did not approve of this interference: they for
neighbourhood; and as he possessed a graceful address sook their nest, and commenced a second over the kitchen
and a fine delivery, these, added to his abilities, procured door; but this they could not secure. The thought
| him great reputation; the fame of which being circulated now struck the farmer, that if the nest of 1830, which
by those who attended his divinity lecture, soon reached still remained on the bell-wire, were removed, the birds
the ear of Mr. Hugh Price, the founder of Jesus Col. would adopt the old situation. This was accordingly
lege, Oxford, who, without his knowledge, appointed him done. The pair immediately profited by the farmer's
one of his first or honorary fellows of that house. suggestion; a nest was completed, and an egg deposited,
It was his custom, after he had been three years at in the short space of four days from the commencement
Cambridge, and he continued it as long as he resided at of the new work. While the business of incubation was
either of the universities, to make an annual visit to his going on, the farmer's sheep-shearing was accomplished,
parents at London, and his father having previous and the usual supper given to the labourers in the kitchen;
notice, by his desire, used to prepare a private tutor, to but notwithstanding the confusion and smoke, and the
instruct him in some branch or other of the sciences or constant opening and shutting of the door, the parent
arts, not taught in the universities; so that within a few bird never moved off her nest. The haymaking feast
years he had acquired the elements of all arts and arrived, when the young birds were hatched; and again,
sciences, and a competent knowledge of the modern lanamid the noise and confusion, the old swallows unremit
guages. He performed his journeys on foot, till he was tingly waited upon their offspring. The nestlings took
a bachelor of divinity; and he professed, that even then flight, but until the period arrived for migration, they
he would not have rode on horseback, but to avoid the
imputation of walking merely to save charges. He constantly returned to the passage for the night. At the beginning of the evening they perched on the edge
never loved or used any games or ordinary recreations; of the nest, and, as the night advanced, as if for addi
his common exercise and amusement was walking, and tional warmth, they sank down into the interior.
he assigned the noblest reason for preferring it to all
As the season advanced, and they became full feathered,
others; frequently declaring to his companions and they deserted the nest altogether, and perched on the
friends, that to observe the grass, herbs, corn, trees, bell-wire. Here they perched during the conviviality of
cattle, earth, waters, and heavens, and to contemplate the harvest supper, perfectly regardless of the uproar,
their natures, orders, qualities, virtues, and uses, was to and here they were seen perched for their night's repose,
him the most exquisite of all entertainments. by the narrator of their history, when visiting Crux
His reputation increasing daily, he was not long withEaston, on an evening in the middle of September, 1832.
out a patron; for Henry, earl of Huntingdon, lord president of the north, with great judgment made choice
of him as his chaplain, to attend him in his progress THE GLADNESS OF NATURE.
through that part of England, where by his preaching, Is this a time to be cloudy and sad,
and private conferences, he became highly useful to When our mother nature laughs around;
Government, by converting a number of Roman CathoWhen even the deep-blue heaven looks glad,
lics to the Protestant faith, and among these, several And gladness breathes from the blossoming ground?
priests. There are notes of joy from the hang-bird and wren,
Such a seasonable service naturally recommended him And the gossip of swallows through all the sky;
to Sir Francis Walsingham, then Secretary of State, The ground-squirrel gaily chirps by his den, And the wilding-bee hums merrily by.
who procured him first a living in Hampshire, but being The clouds are at play in the azure space,
unwilling that such a promising genius should lie conAnd their shadows at play on the bright-green rale.
cealed in an obscure country village, resolved to provide And here they stretch to the frolic chase,
for him in London; and accordingly, by the strength of And there they roll on the easy gale.
his interest, Mr. Andrews was appointed vicar of St. There's a dance of leaves in that aspen bower,
Giles's, Cripplegate, and in a short time after, prebendary There's a titter of winds in that beechen tree,
and residentiary of St. Paul's; also prebendary of the There's a smile on the fruit, and a smile on the flower,
collegiate church of Southwell. And a laugh from the brook that runs to the sea.
Being thus preferred, he distinguished himself as a And look at the broad-faced sun, how he smiles,
diligent and excellent preacher, and he read divinity On the dewy earth that smiles in his ray,
lectures three days in the week at St. Paul's, during On the leaping waters, and gay young isles Ay, look, and he'll smile thy gloom away.
term time. Upon the death of Dr. Fulke, he was C. BRYANT
chosen master of Pembroke Hall to which college he
afterwards became a considerable benefactor. He was favours. He bestowed a valuable living on Dr. Ward, next appointed one of the chaplains in ordinary to Queen the son of his first schoolmaster, at the Coopers' school. Elizabeth, who took great delight in his preaching, and He also shewed every mark of personal esteem for Mr. promoted him to the deanery of Westminster, in 1601 : Mulcaster, his schoolmaster at Merchant Taylors' school, he refused a bishopric in this reign, because he would always placing him at the head of his table; and though not submit to the spoliation of the ecclesiastical revenue. pictures were but little in use at that time, after his In the next, however, he had no cause for such scruple, death, he had his picture placed over his study door. and having published an unanswerable defence of King He also provided for his son, to whom he bequeathed a James's book on the Rights of Sovereigns, against valuable legacy. He likewise inquired very carefully Bellarmine, he was advanced to the bishopric of Chiches- after the kindred of Dr. Watts, who first sent him to ter, and at the same time appointed lord-almoner. Pembroke Hall; and having found out a distant relaUpon the vacancy of the see of Ely, he was translated tion, he gave him great preferments in that college. to it in 1609; and the same year he was sworn of the The example of a good man has generally more king's privy council in England, as he was afterwards influence on the minds of youth than precept; we shall of Scotland, upon attending his majesty to that kingdom. therefore extend this article, though we should be liable
When he had sat nine years in the see of Ely, he was to the imputation of tautology, by adding the following translated to that of Winchester, and also appointed character of him, contained in the dedication of his serdean of the royal chapel; and to his honour it is re mons, published under the joint care and inspection of corded of him, that these preferments were conferred the Bishops of London and Ely: “ The person whose upon him without any court interest, or solicitations on works these are, was from his youth a man of extraordinary the part of himself or his friends : it is likewise observed, worth and note; a man, as if he had been made up of learnthat though he was a privy councillor in the reigns of ing and virtue, both of them so eminent in him, that it is James the First and Charles the First, he interfered hard to judge which had precedency. His virtue, which
we must still judge the more worthy in any man, was very little in temporal concerns ; but in all affairs rela- comparable to that which was to be found in the primitive tive to the church, and the duties of his function, he bishops of the church; and had he lived among those anwas remarkably diligent and active.
cient "fathers, his virtues would have shined even among After a long life of honour and tranquillity, in which those virtuous men. And as for his learning, that was as he enjoyed the distinguished esteem of three successive well, if not better known abroad, than respected at home. sovereigns, the friendship of all men of letters, his con And, take him in his latitude, we, which knew him well, temporaries, and the veneration of all good Christians, knew not any kind of learning to which he was a stranger, this learned and pious prelate died at Winchester House, where he wrestled with an adversary; and that Bellarmine
but in his profession admirable. None stronger than lie, in Southwark, in September, 1626. He was interred in felt, who was as well able to shift for himself, as any that the parish church of St. Saviour, where his executors stood up for the Roman party. None more exact, more erected to his memory a handsome monument of marble judicious than he, where he was to instruct and inform and alabaster, on which is an elegant Latin inscription, others; and that, as they knew who often heard him by one of his chaplains. Milton also wrote a beautiful preach, so they may learn who will read this, which he elegy on the occasion of his death, in the same language, hath left behind him. And yet this fulness of his material which is one of the earliest productions of that immortal learning left room enough in the temper of his brain for bard, for he was but seventeen years of age when Bishop selves: so that his learning had all the helps language could
almost all languages, learned and modern, to seat themAndrews died. Dr. Fuller observes, that King James had so great an
afford; and his languages learning enough for the best of
them to express. This judgment, in the mean time, so comawe of, and veneration for, Bishop Andrews, that in his manding over both, as that neither of them was suffered presence he refrained from that mirth and levity in which idly or curiously to start from, or fall short, of their inhe indulged himself at other times. His reputation, as tended scope. So that we may better say of him, than it a learned man, was well known in foreign countries; for,
was sometime said of Claudius Drusus, 'he was of as many, as he understood a great variety of languages, at least and as great virtues, as mortal nature could receive, or infifteen, and was conversant in the Oriental tongues, he dustry make perfect.” was engaged in an extensive correspondence with all
[Abridged, chiefly, from the British Plutarch.) the literati of Europe.
He was very careful to prefer men of abilities and WRITING BY CIPHER; OR, SECRET good moral characters to the ecclesiastical benefices in
WRITING his gift; and that he might be enabled to form a better
I. judgment of those who were the objects of his choice, | Among the subjects to which the ingenuity of persons he sent for clergymen who had acquired renown for in different countries and ages has been directed, that of piety and learning, and who were unprovided for, de- writing by cipher, or secret writing, is one which has frayed the expenses of their journies, entertained them scarcely come under the notice of the mass of society. hospitably, and if in his private conversations with them In general, if a necessity for writing exists, no attempt they answered the good report given of them, he be at secresy is made, except that which results from the stowed livings upon them as they became vacant. As sacredness of a seal, the breaking of which is (in his fortune increased, so did his liberality and charity; England, at least,) regarded in a most dishonourable and he particularly delighted in releasing prisoners con- light. In the thousands of letters which pass from one fined for small debts, or the gaoler's fees; a charity of part of England to another, and the conveyance of the most humane and beneficial kind, as well to the which is under the direction of the government, a seal individuals as to society. Another circumstance con or wafer is deemed a sufficient security against the cerning his charities deserves our notice: he gave strict perusal of the contents by any except the party to charge to such of his servants as were intrusted with whom each letter is addressed: the contents may, perthe distribution of his bounty, that they should not haps, be hostile to, or even subversive of, the governacknowledge from whence this relief came; but directed ment; yet the seal offers a barrier which is not passed, that the receipts they took, as vouchers for the faithful except occasionally by individuals who have a thirst for discharge of their trust, should be signed by the persons prying into the affairs of others. relieved, as received from an unknown benefactor.
But in the busy scenes of political life, this is not Another social virtue, for which this prelate has been always the case. From the time when the different justly admired, is gratitude, of which he had so warm a nations of Europe began to interfere in the settlement sense, that it extended to acts of kindness even to of each other's disputes, (and which may be dated from the relations of those from whom he had received any the expedition of Charles the Eighth to Naples, at the
end of the fifteenth century,) foreign courts have main communication upon the edges of tne strip of parchtained a political correspondence with each other; and ment. When this strip was taken off the staff, the as the letters formning this correspondence have been written characters must evidently have had a broken frequently of such vast import as to decide the fate of and illegible appearance. The scroll was sent to the nations and empires, a strong temptation was held out officer; who, on receiving it, wound it round his staff, to the crafty and unscrupulous, to gain possession, by so as to connect the broken letters, and render their surreptitious means, of the contents of the letters. purport legible. This contrivance was used by the The more stormy and unsettled the state of affairs, the Athenians and the Lacedemonians, in the time of Alcimore likely was this breach of honour to occur. It is biades; and the secresy of it depended on this circumwell known that great ingenuity is often shown in stance, that the diameter of the staff, by which the opening a letter without damaging the seal; and there deciphering could be effected, was known only to the is no doubt that some of these modes were often government and to their officer; but it has been obobserved by unscrupulous politicians. But more fre- served that “this method would not be a sufficient quently the bolder and more decisive plan was adopted, security against detection in the present sharp-sighted of intercepting a letter, and retaining it at once, by age." which its contents became known to one who could
Æneas Tacticus is said by Polybius to have collected frustrate the objects of the writer. If political moral- twenty different modes of writing, which could only be ity could once sanction this course, (and we are not here understood by those who were in the secret, and which discussing how far it may be justifiable in certain cases,) were in use in his own time, or anterior to it. Some of it is evident that the security of a seal is nullified; and these appear, to modern eyes, not very difficult of soluthe only course left is to write in such a secret language tion. One consisted in placing dots instead of vowels, as shall only be known to the writer and his corre the latter being represented by one, two, three, four, or spondent. Here, then, we see the principal cause which five dots, respectively; as follows: led men to invent a written language to answer parti
D:.::N:::S...::S P.:: LCH · R, cular circumstances; and we shall find that this custom
for DIONYSIUS PULCHER. has been acted on to such an extent, as to form a page Another method which he describes, is to send a book in the history of most civilized mations. We have said
or epistle, on any common subject; and mark with a dot, that the end of the fifteenth century was the period or some other symbol previously agreed upon, such when the nations of Europe entered extensively into words as will, collectively, express the concealed senti. diplomatic arrangements, and when, consequently, let- ment or information; this we may illustrate by the ters began to pass frequently from one sovereign state following passage:to another; but long before this, the turbulent state of domestic politics in most countries had led to the em
The art of corresponding by visible signs may be supposed ployment of secret writing, sometimes with a good, at
to have existed before the introduction of writing, and might others with a bad object. Mr. Blair, in his elaborate have been practised by gestures or motions of the body; since inquiry into secret writing, has collected the secret infants are able to express themselves in this way, before they. alphabets, or ciphers, used by Pharamond, in the fifth have acquired the faculty of speaking; but whether or not, century; by Charlemagne, in his private correspondence with his agents in the north of Europe; by Alfred the
the practice of holding secret communication by signs of this Great, or some of his agents, in Englaırd; by the nature, was carried to any great extent among the ancients, Archduke Rodolph of Austria, in the fourteenth cen
we are unable to say. tury; by Cardinal Wolsey, at the court of Vienna, in 1524; by Sir Thomas Smith, at Paris, in 1563; by Sir
Now, by reading the words which have a dash beneath Thomas Chaloner, at Madrid, in 1564; by Sir Edward
them, we have, “ The gestures of the body express the Stafford, also at Madrid, in 1586; and by many other faculty of holding communications by signs;" but if we persons.
read the words having a dash over them, we have, “ The In proportion as peaceful and commercial relations art of writing might have been carried to great extent exist between different countries, so will the necessity among the ancients." The reader will at once see in
what for the employment of secret writing cease ; but we
manner this plan might be carried out; using, believe that there are still
, attached to the diplomatic instead of dashes, small dots, placed between the letters offices of many of the European courts, persons who, in a way almost imperceptible. under the designation of decipherers, study the modes
A plan somewhat analogous to the one last described, of secret writing; not only such as are adopted by their
was suggested by Baptista Porta, and has we believe own courts, but all which may come under their notice. been acted on in some diplomatic circles ; viz., to take We will now,—without alluding to courts or to indivi
a certain book, (if a rare one, the better,) of which each duals, more than may be necessary,—endeavour to con
party has a copy, and to select from that book the vey an idea of the principles on which the various words which will express the meaning to be conveyed. modes of secret writing have been founded, some of These words may be designated by figures, expressing which are marked by great ingenuity: some persons, the word in that line, or else expressing the distance of
either the page of the book, the line of the page, and indeed, have dignified this art by the name of a science, under the various titles of cryptology, cryptography, the word from the beginning of the book. We will
, as polygraphy, steganography, &c.
before, illustrate this by an example. One of the earliest specimens of concealed or secret
Suppose Addison's Spectator be agreed on, and a writing, of which we have any knowledge, was the message is sent in the following form :
“112. scytale, used by the Greeks, four centuries before the Christian era. When the state authorities sent out a
1, 2, 4, 5, 11, 12, 24, 28, 30, 37, 48, 74, 114, 115, 116.". fleet or an army, they prepared two cylindrical pieces The correspondent turns to the 112th number of of wood, similar to each other in length and in dia- the Spectator, which is an Essay on a Country Sunmeter; one of these was kept by the government, and day, but which might be made to express a very diffethe other was given to the admiral or general in com- rent sentiment, if only part of the words were used : if mand. When the government had any orders to com
the words be taken in the order of the above numbers, municate to their officer, they took a long narrow slip the sense would be, “I am very well, and think it best of parchment, and rolled it round the cylindrical staff that the people meet the whole week.” We refer to a or scytale, in a spiral form, one fold closely joining to well known work in this instance, in order that the another, but not overlapping; and then wrote their method may be more readily understood.
Another method described by Æneas Tacticus, was and 2,-as, A 11111, B 11112, C 11121, D 11122, that of passing a thread through holes in a tablet; the and so on. order of the threads expressing any alphabetical cha The methods to which we have just alluded are not racters previously agreed on, conveying the meaning of only specimens of what has been suggested: they the party using this contrivance. The same device have often been put in practice, in one form or other. admits a variation in many different ways: for instance, For instance, Dr. Wallis has preserved an account of a a piece of string may be taken, and knots tied in it at letter, written from Charles the First to his son; which stated intervals, the lengths of the intervals being, by begins, “I thought that,” and proceeds with groups of previous compact, made to represent certain words, numerals, each group being a symbol for a letter or a letters, or other symbols. This also might be effected word. Many such letters appear to have been written by marking the points of division on the string with ink, during the troubles of that unfortunate monarch ; and instead of tying knots.
Dr. Wallis, who deciphered many of the intercepted One of the most curious contrivances of the ancients letters, thus speaks of the method of secret writing by on this subject, was that which is attributed to Hystiæus, numerals :—“I do scarcely believe that it will be an as mentioned by Herodotus, While at the Persian easy matter to contrive a way more intricate than the court, he sent to Aristagoras in Greece, a servant figure-cipher ordinarily now in practice, with the like affected with weak eyes; but before he sent him, Hys- convenience for use; and, if any affect some more pertiæus, pretending that the hair must be shorn, and the plexed than these, I doubt not but his supposed better head scarified, before a cure could be made, caused the way will be equally obnoxious to discovery; or else will hair to be shorn, and wrote a secret message on the be extremely tedious in use, both to him that writes by bald pate of the servant, keeping him afterwards in con it, and to him that is to read it, that it will not admit of finement until the hair grew again. On going to Aris- any tolerable dispatch.” tagoras, the servant was directed to submit himself to a A great deal has been said and written on the possisecond operation, in order to make the cure complete: bility of forming a musical cipher, that is, one in which this operation consisted in a second shaving of the ser the successive notes of the scale shall represent the vant's head, by which Anaxagoras was enabled to read letters of the alphabet. Sanguine, and even extravathe secret message. * By which relation,” says Bishop gant, opinions have been formed on this point; one Wilkins, in his Secret and Swift Messenger, "you may writer dilating on the advantage of two persons being see what strange shifts the ancients were put unto, for able to converse on two violins; or of one sending a want of skill in the subject that is here discoursed of.” sheet of music paper to the other, containing, under the
An extensive class of secret ciphers is formed by guise of musical notes, a hidden sentiment or commuthose in which each letter is rendered by one or more nication. Mr. Thicknesse in this manner expressed, numerals. Polybius contrived a method of expressing by musical notes, two lines of Goldsmith's Deserted telegraphic signals by torches arranged in a certain Village:order ; but after his time the same principle was applied Near yonder copse, where once the garden smiled, to writing, in the manner explained beneath.
And still where many a garden-flower grows wild.
But this method was subject to the defect of pro1 2 3 4 5
ducing notes which had no sort of melody or harmony a f 2 1
among them; so that their utter nonsense, in a musical 6 g
point of view, would at once show that concealment was 4
intended; whereas a really good cipher would conceal KP
the concealment, if we may use such an expression. To
remedy this defect, therefore, Mr. Thicknesse proposed Now, to use this key, each letter is expressed by the to select any well harmonized piece of music, consisting figure above it and the figure at the side, the former of treble and bass, turning down the tails of all such preceding the latter: thus, m has 3 above it, and 2 at notes as might be selected to express the hidden meanthe side; its symbol is therefore 32. By the use of this ing, and turning up those of all the other notes. In key, the following numbers,—52,15 41,15,42,24,43,23 this
what we may term a musical version 12,54 21,11,33,24,34,15 11,34,14 14,24,43,15,- of the lines :11,43,15, will be found to express the words, “We
All that of love can be expressed, perish by famine and disease." Another numeral me
In these soft numbers see. thod, more calculated for audible or visible symbols But there are many defects in a musical cipher of than for writing, arises from the twenty-seven diffe, this kind, which would prevent it from being of much rent modes in which three things may be arranged use: it would require a great range of notes, a tolerable in groups of threes, in the following manner: sup: knowledge of music both in the writer and in the pose there were three audible instruments of different reader, and a tedious expenditure of time in expressing a kinds, -a drum, a fife, and a trumpet; three notes on
very few words. the drum might represent the letter A; two on the We have still to describe those ciphers which have drum, succeeded by one on the fife, would represent B; been most used in practice; viz., the substitution of one two on the drum and one on the trumpet, would be C: letter for another, on certain well-understood principles: the various ways in which three notes might thus be and those which are expressed by dots; as also the sounded will be found to be twenty-seven, which would modes of secret writing by the employment of what are represent the twenty-six letters of the alphabet, toge termed sympathetic inks. ther with another symbol to indicate the ending of a word. Three different notes on the same instrument, flags of three different colours, or torches yielding light The most difficult province in friendship is the letting a
man see his faults and errors, which should, if possible, be of three different colours, might obviously be used for
so contrived, that he may perceive our advice is given him, the production of the symbols, if intended, as was ori
not so much to please ourselves as for his own advantage. ginally the case, for military and naval signals. But The reproaches, therefore, of a friend, should always be when applied to secret writing, each letter would be strictly just, and not too frequent.--BUDGELL, represented by three numerals: thus, A 111, B 112, C'113, D 121, and so forth. This method is, however, The advantage of living does not consist in length of days, more complex than that of Polybius; and is in its turn but in the right improvement of them.-MONTAIGNE. exceeded in complexity by another contrivance in which each letter is indicated by repetitions of the numbers 1 John W. PARKER, PUBLISHER, WEST STRAND, LONDON.