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a statue of Victory; but these lofty columns, each of a | the guillotine was erected, and actively kept at work, , single shaft, having been cut in two, now form the four and although the square became flooded with human supports of somewhat low proportions to the central blood, its operation was too slow for the Terrorist chiefs, lanthorn. Each piece is about thirteen feet six inches who therefore resolved to mow down the wretched prihigh. The measurements of the diameter of the sec soners by musketry and
shot. Nearly six thou. tions in each pair, show how they were joined. Their sand victims perished, including those who fell in the capitals, an imitation of the Corinthian, are mediæval. defence. The original capitals were Ionic. The church, as a Lyons suffered horribly during the Revolution. The building, was in existence before the year 937. Its siege of Lyons was undertaken by the National Confoundation, as a monastery, was much earlier, it having | vention, to punish and bring back to their side the peobeen assigned to St. Badoul in the fourth century. It i ple of Lyons, who, irritated by the vexations and was destroyed by the Saracens in the eighth, and the horror-stricken by the tyranny of the revolutionary present edifice was begun in the tenth century. The club, had risen up in arms against them, and made prioutside is ornamented with a sort of mosaic of red soner, tried, and executed their president, the infamous brick, or tiles, inserted into a whitish stone. The Challier.
Sixty thousand troops, with one hundred western tower has a pyramidal roof, and a smaller pieces of cannon, were collected against this devoted quarter pyramid at each angle. Beneath the sacristy town, whose defence was intrusted to ten thousand of her are the dungeons in which Pothinus and Blandina were citizens, under the command of Count de Précy. The immured previously to their mariyrdom. “The suf- wealthy merchants and land-owners devoted their forferings of these witnesses for the truth, rest upon a docu- tunes to the cause; women and children caught the ment of great authenticity, The Epistle of the Churches of spirit of resistance, and cheerfully resolved to hold out Vienne and Lyons to the Brethren in Asia and Phrygia. to the last. After an heroic resistance of sixty-three Pothinus, chosen bishop of Lyons, and then ninety years of days, during which they endured a shower of eleven age, was sent back into this dungeon, where he expired thousand red-hot shot, and twenty-seven thousand after two days' confinement. converted slave, greater tortures were reserved. After being shells; after all the surrounding heights had been scourged and exposed to the fire in an iron chair, she was gained by the enemy, and death and famine arrested the exposed to the beasts in the amphitheatre. These events power of further resistance, the town was yielded on the took place during the persecution under Marcus Antoninus, 9th of October, 1793. The chief defenders had already the implacable enemy of Christianity, A.D. 177.". These quitted the place and retreated towards Savoy, but they dungeons are situated below the bed of the adjoining were overtaken and cut to pieces, or dispersed by the river; they are most gloomy cells, without light or air; hostile cavalry. About fifty, however, including the and the apertures by which they are entered, are so low, Count de Précy, escaped. that they must be crept into upon hands and knees. On the capitulation, it was decreed by the National They adjoin a crypt which, up to the time of the Revo- Convention, in order to humble the pride of the Lyonlution, was used as a chapel.
nais, that their city should be destroyed. During five It has been already noticed that the ancient name of months, a fearful list of cruelties was perpetrated under Aynai is Athenacum. It is generally supposed to have the direction of Couthon, Collet d'Herbois, and Maigbeen built upon the site of the Athenæum, founded by net. The demolition was carried on by a mob of disCaligula, the buildings of which included the Augustan charged workmen, and others of the lowest classes. altar already noticed. “It was a school of debate and Lyons was reduced to a heap of ruins; the expense of composition, in which pleaders competed for the prize. merely pulling down amounted to 700,0001. sterling. Great honours were bestowed upon the successful compe- | The decree which thus doomed Lyons to destruction, titors; but those who failed were liable, according to the also enacted, that a column should be erected on its statutes of the imperial founder, to the most severe and humiliating punishments,-to be chastised with ferula or
ruins, to bear these words:thrown into the river, and to obliterate their own compo
Lyons fit la Guerre à la Liberié, sitions by licking them out with the tongue; hence, even
Lyon n'est plus. the most gifted, would approach the altar with trepidation.”
(Lyons made war against Liberty, There are other remarkable churches in Lyons which
Lyons is no more.) deserve the attention of the student. That of St. The Convention even gave a new name to the city, Nizier, built by a citizen of the name of Renouard, who that of “Commune affranchie.” began it in 1300, and finished it before 1315, is in The consequence of these acts of barbarity on the stanced as a splendid example of the flamboyant Gothic. commerce and manufactures of Lyons was most disasThe church of St. Pierre has a curious Carlovingian trous. In 1806, the number of inhabitants was estimated portal, in perfect preservation; and the church of the at less than ninety thousand, only half its population at Cordeliers is spoken of as strikingly monastic.
the time of the fatal sicge. Of the public buildings that The Hotel de Ville, or Town-hall
, is perhaps the finest sustained damage from the bombardments, the Library is building in Lyons. It was erected from 1447 to 1455. most to be regretted, its losses being in many cases irreIts lofty roofs and bold projections make it not unworthy parable to literature. The roof was beaten down, and of the ancient consulate, who, before the Revolution, were large heaps of the books and MSS. were buried in the a most influential and useful magistracy. The Palais rubbish. During the reign of the Convention, many des Beaux Arts, or Museum, occupies the ancient con were carried to Paris, and others were stolen. The vent of St. Pierre. It contains some very remarkable Library was turned into a barrack, and the National specimens of Roman antiquities; such as a taurobole or Guard lighted their fires, and boiled their coffee, with square altar, five feet high; the bronze tablets con the volumes, which they preferred to any other combuslaining the speech made by Claudius, as already noticed tible. in our former article; a very fine mosaic pavement re The Picture Gallery contains some good pictures by presenting the games of the circus, in which the spiria the old masters. A School of Design is established here, and the gates whence the chariots started for the race as well as an Academy of the Fine
Arts. The Museum are fully given, was found at Aynai, in the year 1800. of Natural History is creditable by its extent, and most Several other pavements were found, including one of useful and instructive by its excellent systematic arOrpheus and the beasts, the colours of which are very rangement, according to orders, families, and genera. brilliant; with many other sepulchral and other inscrip- The charitable institutions of the city are numerous. tions.
Silk is the staple manufacture of Lyons; and in the The Hotel de Ville and the Museum are in the extent of it this city surpasses every other in Europe. square called the Place des Terreaux. Here, in 1794, In variety of design, in taste, in elegance of paitern, and
in certain colours, the manufacturers have a superiority NATURAL HISTORY AND MANAGEMENT over the English. They can work twenty-five per cent.
OF CAGE-BIRDS. cheaper, but the hand-loom weavers are nearly as badly off as those of Spitalfields. There are no large factories here; the master, instead of having a certain number of workmen constantly employed in his own premises, merely buys the raw material, and gives it out to be manufactured by the weavers, dyers, &c., at their own houses. The patterns are produced by draughtsmen, (generally a partner of the master manufacturer,) and the laying or preparing of the pattern is the province of another artist. Mr. Murray, in his excellent Handbook for Travellers in France, states that, thirtyone thousand silk looms are employed in Lyons. The silk weavers are bodily and physically an inferior race; half the young men of age for military service being exempted, owing to weakness or deformity.
The fortifications of Lyons consist of a number of detached forts, crowning the heights of St. Croix and
The Song-Thrush (Turdus musicus, Linn.) Fournières on the right bank of the Saône, and of Croix Rousse above the suburb of that name, and the
Sing on, thou sweet mavis, thy sang to the e'ening, circuit is completed by seven other forts, built round the
Thou'rt dear to the echoes of Calderwood glen. faubourgs. They originated in the fearful insurrections of the workmen and others, which took place in The song-thrush is one of our most melodious birds, July, 1831, and 1834, and are at least as much designed and enlivens the woods with its rich and yaried strains to repress intestinal revolt, as to withstand invasion during the whole summer. It is one of the smallest of from without. In 1834, the artisans formed unions for British thrushes, is indigenous to our country, and mutual protection, (as it is so fallaciously termed,) and abundantly distributed throughout the kingdom. In called themselves Àutuallistes; a reduction of wages Scotland it is called the mavis, and by this name it is occasioned a general “ strike;" several acts of disorder frequently designated in poetry. were committed, and some of the rioters were arrested.
Hark, how the air rings! The determination of the authorities to bring these
'Tis the maris sings ; rioters to trial, led to an insurrection. The rioters for
And merrily, merrily sounds her voice, tified themselves with barricades, took possession of the
Calling on valleys and hills to rejoice;
For winter is past, suburbs, and the place was contested for two days.
And the stormy blast They had expelled the military, and it was necessary to
Is hast’ning away to the northward at last. raise an army to put them down. No less than two
Minstrelsy of the Woods, hundred of the military were killed, and a much larger In placing the thrush among cage-birds, it is not innumber on the part of the insurgents. The part of the tended to recommend its capture for this purpose. In city chiefly occupied by these artisans, is the faubourg the heart of cities, indeed, where the natural song of the of La Croix Rousse," a moral volcano teeming with bird can never be heard, perhaps it is excusable to deturbulence and sedition. The principal fort has been prive it of liberty, for the sake of the heart-cheering so constructed that its guns entirely command this fau- strains which, even in such situations, it pours forth to bourg, and could, upon occasion, level it with the dust, gladden the spirits of the pent-up throng ; but in situawhile a fortified barrack separates it at will from the rest tions where its song may be heard from every copse and of the city.
hedge-row during summer, it seems a gratuitous piece of
cruelty to make it a prisoner. The Isola FARNESE is a most romantic rising ground with that few persons can be unacquainted with its appear
This bird is so familiar in all parts of the country, eliffs and streams round it, and presents to view a sweet quiet-looking hamlet, with an inn, and a fortress of the
It is about nine inches long, the stretch of the Middle Ages, now belonging to a princely family of Rome. wings being thirteen or fourteen inches; the weight The inhabitants are all shepherds and vine-dressers, and to about three ounces. The whole of the upper part of us were very civil. About three weeks afterwards, forty of the body is olive brown; the under part cream colour, them were taken up as leagued banditti, and brought to darkest on the breast, and mottled with triangular dusky Rome. The master of the inn was one of their leaders, spots. The difference in appearance between the male and is said at times to have given his guests human flesh and female bird is very slight, and not sufficient to strike to eat, -detected by a young surgeon, who found a finger in his plate; and the landlord who came out to us at any but an experienced eye. Fossa, was captain of the band. We thanked God for our
In Britain the song-thrush is a resident bird, merely safety, for it was late in the evening, and had they attacked coming nearer our dwellings, or removing from one disus, we should have made but a poor defence. We might trict to another, in severe weather; but on the Continent zasily have fallen into their hands, for an accident happened it is much more migratory in its habits, and large flocks to our carriage driving from Isola to the high road. We
are seen assembling in autumn, preparatory to their debecame separated from our party, and had far to walk, parture for other regions. In summer, the north of during which time we were met in a narrow lane by several mounted Contadini, covered with togas, and armed
Europe presents particular attractions to this bird, for with long iron-shod poles, who stared at us with surprise. there, a great portion of the surface, beyond the pine We did not, however, know our real danger, and only felt forests, is covered with extensive brakes of juniper, the uncomfortable. They rarely touch the English, for three berries of which are ripe in summer, as they come to reasons: first, because they fight before they yield; secondly, their full size the preceding season, and have only to they never carry money except on a journey; and, thirdly, ripen during the last year they are on the bushes. These the whole body make such a fuss, should one of their close bushes, protected by spines, afford a safe and concountrymen be injured, that it always threatens destruction venient nesting-place for thrushes, with the advantage to the bandits. Isola has formerly been a burying-ground, both Etruscan and Roman, but the tombs are all rifled: of a supply of food close at hand. When the snow The rocks are perforated in every direetion, and here may arrives, which it does very suddenly, and in great quanbe seen columbarii and sepulchral chambers without num-tity, the birds are driven southwards to more favourable ber, and of every form.-Mrs. Gray's Sepulchres of Etruria. climates. So abundant are these birds along the south
ern shores of the Baltic, that it has been stated that best opportunity of observing the destruction of snails little short of two hundred thousand have been captured effected by these birds. At that season, as it is well and sold for the table in the course of one season. known, snails nestle by hundreds under hedges, and When the journeys of these birds are very extensive, along the foundations of walls, especially in districts they only rear one brood in the year; but in England it where vegetables are extensively cultivated. A sort of is well known that they produce two, and in some cases transparent curtain effectually excludes the air from the three broods in the year.
interior of the shell, and in this state snails lie dormant The nest of the thrush is a compact structure, formed until the arrival of the spring. But the thrush and the externally of moss and fibres, and strengthened by an blackbird, retreating from the more bleak and exposed internal plastering of mud. It is generally situated in districts, come down to the gardens and cultivated lands, the midst of a thick hedge or bush. The eggs vary in and in open weather are very assiduous in their search number from three to six, and are of a pale bluish-green after these dormant snails, which they destroy in great colour, with small spots of rust colour and black. During numbers, and thus do a most essential service to the the hatching of the young, the male bird is very atten early spring crops. tive to his mate, and shares her assiduity in seeking The following interesting fact, in reference to the food for their offspring. The social disposition of these thrush, is related by Mr. Knapp, in his Journal of a birds is shown by their often choosing a place for their Naturalist: nest almost within sight of the windows of a country re We observed this summer two common thrushes fresidence. Instances have indeed occurred of a still nearer quenting the shrubs on the green in our garden. From the approach. Dr. Stanley mentions that, a short time ago, slenderness of their forms and the freshness of their plumage, in Scotland, some carpenters working in a shed adjacent we pronounced them to be birds of the preceding summer. to a dwelling house, observed a thrush flying in and out,
There was an association and friendship between them that which led them to seek out the cause. To their surprise ailing, or feeble from some bodily accident, for though it
called our attention to their actions. One of them seemed they found a nest commenced amongst the teeth of a hopped about, yet it appeared unable to obtain sufficiency harrow, which, with other implements of husbandry, was
of food. Its companion, an active sprightly bird, would placed upon the joists of the shed, just over their heads. frequently bring it worms or bruised snails, when they The carpenters had arrived soon after six o'clock; and mutually partook of the banquet; and the ailing bird would at seven, when they found the nest, it was in a state of wait patiently, understand the actions, expect the assistance forwardness, having been the morning's work of a pair
of the other, and advance from his asylum upon its apof these indefatigable birds. They continued their work proach. This procedure was continued for some days; but
after a time we missed the fostered bird, which probably throughout the day, and when the workmen arrived on
died, or by reason of its weakness met with some fatal accithe following morning, they found the female seated in dent. her half-finished nest, where she had laid one egg. The thrush is very early in song, commencing in When all the eggs were laid, the male bird took his favourable seasons towards the end of January, and as share in hatching them, though he did not sit so long as there are two or three broods in the year, the song the female. In thirteen days the young birds were out continues till the beginning of October; or, at least, of their shells, which the old ones carried off. They thrushes are always to be heard between these periods, then brought an abundant supply of snails to their though the same bird may be mute during a portion of young progeny, breaking the shells by a sharp knock on the time. the tooth of the harrow, and catching the snail without The song of the thrush is a very delightful one, and ever letting it fall. Sometimes they brought worms, ( is commenced earlier in the morning, and continued later butterflies, and moths. As is usual with most birds, the in the evening, than that of most other birds. Neville old ones constantly carried off the excrement of the Wood speaks of the song-thrush as a polite bird, beginyoung ones, that it might not accumulate in the nest ning the affairs of the day with a “good morning,” proAs the family grew, and became more rapacious, the claimed in its loudest tone, and duly answered by its asentrance and retreat of the old birds through the door sociates; and, late in the evening, sending forth farewell was so rapid that it could scarcely be seen, but was only notes, and bidding “good night," as it were, to its comknown by the sound, as they darted over the heads of panions. “ When one individual shouts out this farewell
from his airy bed, he is answered on all sides by a dozen Thrushes feed chiefly on slugs, worms, and snails, of of others, and then for a few minutes deep silence reigns which latter, especially, they destroy such numbers, that in the woods, until, all vulgar songsters having ended they deserve to be held in especial esteem by gardeners, their tales, the brake nightingale commences his. and to be forgiven, if, when there is a scarcity of this Another notice of the song of this bird, and of the kind of diet, they make free with the lesser fruits of the utility of thrushes in destroying snails, the pests and garden. It is amusing to watch the proceedings of enemies of our gardens, is too interesting to be omitted. several of these birds, as they scour the new-mown lawn It is by the eloquent author of The Feathered Tribes early in the morning in search of food. *Watch,” says of the British Islands. the writer above named, "an old thrush pounce down on a lawn moistened with dew or rain. At first he stands
The song of the thrush is unquestionably the finest of motionless, apparently thinking of nothing at all
, his eye clearness, though not in variety, to that of any of the war
any of our permanent wood songs, and superior in power and his car on one side, makes a glancing sort of dart with his blers. But the very abundance of it, perhaps, makes it less head and neck, gives, perhaps, one or two hops, and then prized than it should be. The nightingale, heard in the stops, again listening attentively, and his eye glistening the summer's night, may have more of the lusciousness of
groves, and during the soft and balmy stillness of with attention and animation. His beak almost touches the ground, he draws back his head as if to make a deter- feeling of rustic vigour, enjoyment, and endurance about the
romance about it; but there is a bold, natural, and free mined peck. Again he pauses, listens again, hops, perhaps, thrush, which gives it a more home and hearty interest in once or twice, scarcely moving his position, then is once more motionless as a stuffed bird. But he knows well bird of passage, whatever may be its charms while it stays.
all parts of the country, than can be possessed by any mere what he is about. For, after another moment's pause, The thrush is especially one of the birds of plenty; its having ascertained that all is right, he pecks away with blithe and varied song is never heard amid desolation; and might and main, and soon draws out a large worm, which his fine sense of hearing had informed him was not far off
, if you hear a thrush, you have not very far to go before you
come to a human dwelling. Where its animal food, which and which his hops and previous peckings had attracted to the surface, to escape the approach of what the poor worm
it at all times prefers to that which is vegetable, fails, the
thrush may commit more devastations among the fruits thought might be his underground enemy, the mole.”
than many other birds; but when the snail-shells by the But it is during winter, perhaps, that we have the hedge-side are counted, and it is gravely considered how
THE CONSTANCY OF NATURE CONTRASTED
WITH TIIE CHÁNGES IN HUMAN LIFE. How like eternity doth nature seem To life of man,—that short and fitful dream. I look around me,-nowhere can I trace Lines of decay that mark our human race. There ara the murmuring waters—there the flowers I mused o'er in my earlier, better hours; Like sounds and scents of yesterday they come: Long years have passed since this was last my home ! And I am weak, and toil-worn is my frame, But all this vale shuts in, is still the same: 'Tis I alone am changed,—they know me not; I feel a stranger, or as one forgot. The breeze that cooled my warm and youthful brow Breathes the same freshness on its wrinkles now; The leaves that flung around me sun and shade, While gazing idly on thein as they played, Are holding yet their frolic in the air; The motion, joy, and beauty still are there. But not for me!-I look upon the ground, Myriads of happy faces throng around, Familiar to my eye; yet heart and mind In vain would now the old communion find. Ye were as living, conscious beings, then, With whom I talked ; but I have talked with men. With uncheered sorrow—with cold hearts I've met; Seen honest minds by hardened craft beset; Seen hope cast down, turn deathly pale its glow; Seen virtue rare, but more of virtue's show.-Dana,
THE SINNER. LORD! liow I am all ague, when I seek
What I have treasured in my memory! Since, if my soul make even with the week,
Each seventh note by right is due to Thee. I find there quarries of piled vanities;
But shreds of holiness, that dare not venture To show their face; since, cross to Thy decrees,
There the circumference earth is-heav'n the centre. In so much dregs, the quintessence is small;
The spirit and good extract of my heart
Comes to about the many hundredth part; Yet, Lord, restore Thine image,-hear my call. And, though my hard heart scarce to Thee can groan, Remember that Thou once didst write in stone.
A COMPARISON. The lapse of time and rivers is the same, Both speed their journey with a restless stream; The silent pace with which they steal away, No wealth can bribe, nor prayers persuade to stay. Alike irrevocable both when past, And a wide ocean swallows both at last; Though each resembles each in every part, A difference strikes at length the musing heart Streams never flow in vain : where streams abound, How laughs the land with various plenty crown'd; But Time, that should enrich the nobler mind, Neglected, leaves a weary waste behind.-CowPER.
completely these and their broods would have eaten all the early vegetables as they got above ground, and the strawberries and peaches as soon as they began to ripen, it is at least an undetermined question, whether the good done by the thrush may not far more than counterbalance the evil.
When kept in confinement, a very large cage is necessary for the health and comfort of the thrush, that it may be able to take exercise without injuring its feathers. If possible, the cage should be three feet and a-half long, and nearly as many high. Oatmeal, moistened with milk, is very suitable food for this bird: it may also be fed with a paste made with crumb of bread, rape-seed, or hemp-seed, bruised, and meat cut small. Grapes and other fruits are given by way of variety. A plentiful supply of water is required both for bathing and drinking. When these birds are taken old, it is very difficult to make them take their food, and many die in consequence. Their fondness for bathing in companies is thus noticed by Bechstein. They like to bathe in company, and assemble sometimes to the number of ten or twelve at once, by a particular call. The first which finds a convenient stream, and wishes to go to it, cries in a tone of surprise or joy, sik, sik, sik, siki, tsac, tsac, tsac; immediately all in the neighbourhood reply together, and repair to the place; they enter the bath, however, with much circumspection, and seldom venture till they have seen a redbreast bathe without danger; but the first which ventures is soon followed by the others, which begin to quarrel if there is not room enough for all the bathers. Water-traps are sometimes employed to take these birds, and this explains their circumspection, as noticed by our author.
With care and attention the thrush may be preserved in captivity for seven or eight years; it may even be taught to whistle many airs of the bird-organ; but few persons of taste would wish to substitute other strains for those with which it delights our ears in a state of nature. A CRAVING for sympathy is the common boundary line between joy and sorrow. Sudden resolutions, like the sudden rise of the mercury in the barometer, indicate nothing but the changeableness of the weather. One saves oneself much pain by taking pains, much trouble by taking trouble. The worst person one can think about, is oneself. I love to gaze on a breaking wave. It is the only thing in nature which is most beautiful in the moment of dissolution. To talk without effort, is the great charm of talking.– Guesses at Truth. “Love your neighbour as yourself,” and, “Do unto others as you would they should do unto you,” are Scripture commands, to be no more forgotton in language than in action. How often and how much is truth sacrificed to a good jest against another, and how many a sharp remark, which began in idle mirth, has passed from lip to lip, till it kindled an unkind feeling, and has irretrievably wounded the unlucky cause of it! It must, indeed, he a very strong love of truth, which will prevent a man's overstepping the exact fact with regard to the conduct of another, when by some exaggeration he could make a witty speech which is burning on his tongue. Yet “false witness" is more often exaggeration than a direct lie.-Truth without Prejudice.
It is a pleasure to stand upon the shore, and to see ships tossed
upon the sea; a pleasure to stand in the window of a castle, and to see a battle, and the adventures thereof below; but ne pleasure is comparable to standing upon the vantage ground of truth, (a hill not to be commanded, and where the air is always clear and serene,) and to see the errors, and wanderings, and mists, and tempests, in the vale below; so always that this prospect be viewed with pity, and not with swelling or pride.-Bacon.
Happy is he who lives to understand,
REMARKABLE SOUNDS IN NATURE. it could only be compared with a distant cannonade. II.
As the sand gradually settled again, the noise also graOn the east coast of the bay of Suez, about three hours' dually ceased. It is also stated by Seetzen, that the journey from Tor, in Arabia Petræa, is a low sandstone noise is often heard when animals run across the sand; hill, where at a particular spot is an insulated peaked | also, when the wind blows violently, or when loose rock named Nakuh, facing the coast, and rising to the masses of rock set the sand in motion. height of about one hundred and fifty feet. Travellers It has been surmised, that the murmurings of El report that a remarkable and penetrating noise proceeds Nakuh are by no means confined to the bosom of that from this place. The Arabians believe it to resemble the mount; that not only all elevated regions, but other tones of the Nakuh, i.e., a long narrow metallic ruler, tracts of land under favourably exciting circumstances, suspended horizontally in the Greek monasteries, and become, more frequently than our philosophy dreameth struck with a hammer for the purpose of assembling of, instruments on which nature delights to play " sounds the monks to prayer, a method which is now nearly ob- and sweet airs;" that hills and plains, the wilderness solete: hence also the tradition that a monastery is and the waters, are in her hands but as “harps whose miraculously preserved within the bosom of the hill. A chords elude the sight;" though whether this melody Greek was said to have seen the mountain open, and to be of “the air or the earth,” must remain a matter of have descended into the convent, where he found luxu- mystery, whereupon wisdom yet may ponder. rious gardens and delicious water; and in order to Those who are conversant with Alpine scenery, and afford proof of his descent, he produced some fragments in the habit of strolling amidst the recesses of these of consecrated bread which he pretended to have ob- mountainous regions, will readily bear their testimony to tained in the subterranean convent. The inhabitants of the power of avalanches for the production of those Tor likewise state that the camels are rendered furious awful concussions which so often rouse attention, rewhen they hear the sounds proceeding from this hill. echoing from every pinnacle and precipice; while, to the
M. Seetzen was the first European traveller who more gradual and gentle lapses of sheets of pulverized visited this remarkable spot. On the 17th of June, snow down the smooth inclined plains of lengthened 1810, he proceeded thither, accompanied by a Greek acclivities, may be referred the minor moanings which Christian, and a few Bedouin Arabs. About noon the rise and fall upon the ear, much resembling in character party reached the Nakuh Mountain. It presented upon the tones of El Nakuh. two of its sides two sandy declivities, so much inclined, Some of the most respectable authorities of antiquity that the white and slightly-adhering sand on its surface agree in assigning vocal powers to the statue of Memwas scarcely able to support itself; and when the non, at Thebes. Strabo asserts that he heard sounds scorching heat of the sun, or the smallest agitation, emitted; but without being able, as he says, to state disturbed the slight cohesion, it was seen to slide down whether they proceeded from the statue or the base, the two slopes.
and that, although they certainly did appear to him to With great difficulty the travellers climbed up the issue from the one or the other, yet he would rather sandy declivity to a height of between seventy and eighty believe they came from the bystanders, and was altogefeet, and rested beneath the rocks where persons are ther an imposture, than conclude that stones ranged in accustomed to listen to the sounds. But in the very such and such a manner were capable of yielding sound. act of climbing, M. Seetzen heard a sound from beneath | Pausanias, who saw the mutilated remains of the statue his knees, and was hence led to think that the sliding when the lower part alone remained on the pedestal, of the sand was the cause of the sound, and not the speaks of it as a fact of which there could be no doubt, effect produced by the sound. He compares the sound and compares the sound to the breaking of the strings of to that of a humming-top, rising and falling like that of
Pliny, in enumerating the various Egyptian an Eolian harp. Thinking that he had discovered the marbles, mentions this Memnonian rock as possessing true cause of the sound, he climbed to the highest rocks, the singular quality of cleaving or cracking under the and sliding down as fast as possible, endeavoured with influence of the morning sun.
Juvenal alludes to it in the aid of his hands and feet to set the sand in motion. bis Fifteenth Satire:The effect answered to his expectations, and the noise Where broken Memnon sounds his magic strings; produced was so loud that the earth seemed to tremble. and Tacitus states that Germanicus, in his progress up
In the year 1818, Mr. Gray, of University College, the river Nile, was witness to the circumstance. Oxford, visited the Nakuh, but has not added much to Notwithstanding all this evidence, the sounding statue the information furnished by M. Seetzen. He describes of Memnon might have been an imposture, originating, the sound as being first a low murmur beneath his feet, however, partly in a natural cause.
The imposture which, as it became gradually louder, changed into pulo consisted in magnifying simple sounds, produced by sations so as to resemble the striking of a clock, and at natural causes from a stone, into intelligible words, and the end of five minutes, the vibrations were of sufficient even into an oracle of seven verses. That sounds were energy to detach the sand. He considers the grating produced from this identical statue, has been confirmed of the sand not as the cause, but as an effect of the in modern times by Sir A. Smith and others. That sound, and from the existence of hot springs in the gentleman visited the statue before sunrise, and at six neighbourhood, he maintains that the sound must be of o'clock heard very distinctly the sounds in question. volcanic origin.
He states that the sound does not proceed from the staIn the year 1823 Professor Ehrenberg visited this tue, but from the pedestal, and expresses his belief that remarkable place. He ascended from the base of the it arises from the impulse of the air upon the stones of h:ll over its sandy cover, to the summit, where he ob- the pedestal, which are arranged so as to produce this served the sand continually renewed by the weathering surprising effect. That some similar phenomenon had of the rock; and satisfied himself that the motion of been detected in masses of insulated stones, is a supposithe sand was the cause of the sound. Every step taken tion greatly strengthened by the testimony of Humboldt, by him and his companion produced a partial sound, whose attention was drawn to some remarkable granite occasioned by the sand thus set in motion, and differing rocks in South America, which at certain times spontaonly in duration and intensity from that heard after-neously emitted sounds much resembling those attributed wards, when the continued ascent had set loose a greater to the colossal statue of Memnon, a circumstance well quantity of sand. Beginning with a soft rustling, it known to the natives, who, however, were at a loss for passed gradually into a murmuring, then into a hum- an explanation of the cause. “ The granitic rock on ming noise, and at length into a threatening of such which we lay,” says the illustrious traveller, " is one of violence, that had it been more continued and uniform, those where travellers on the Orinoco have heard from time