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motive of this loan was tne relief of Ireland; its covert one, bank; Haberdashers Hall their court for adjustment of to strengthen parliament against the king; and it appears claims; Cloth workers' Hall for sequestration, and all the that the city sided with parliament, for it obeyed this enor- other halls of the great companies were offices for the transacmous demand with alacrity, and the sum was freely voted | tion of other government business. Weavers' Hall might at a common hall convened for the purpose at Guildhall. properly be denominated their exchequer. From this place Precepts were addressed to the several companies, and were parliament was accustomed to issue bills, about and before not apparently disputed, except by the Ironmongers' com 1652, in the nature of our exchequer bills, and which were pany, who paid their share by absolute compulsion, after | commonly known under the name of · Weavers' Hall having disputed the right of a common hall to bind the bills.") companies. In the following year (1643), the whole of
SECTION 9. the companies' halls were compelled to make periodical payments in aid of the parliamentary struggle against the
STATE OF THE COMPANIES SUBSEQUENT TO THE RESTORATION king, and in the autumn of the same year (on the approach
-PAGEANTS. of the royal army towards London), the parliament de In the festivities and rejoicings conseqnent on the Resto manded 50,0001. in addition to such payments.
ration, the City companies bore a conspicuous share. NotWoful was the condition of the City companies under withstanding the impoverished state to which they had been this incessant exaction, and loud were their complaints at reduced in the reign of Charles the First, they appear to the state to which they were reduced. The Ironmongers have recovered themselves sufficiently during the proteclamented their “sadd condicion," having formerly lent to torate to greet with some appearance of their former pomp divers lords and to the parliament such large sums that they and dignity the restored monarch. Such of the trade sociewere “disabled and impoverished, soe that they cannot ties as could afford it presented rich gifts; others offered finde any meanes to satisfy his lordship's desire.” The the most affectionate congratulations. They feasted the Grocers, equally dispirited, entered into a sad and serious monarch at their halls, and proudly enrolled his name consideration of the miserable distractions and calamities of among the members of the Grocers' company. But while this kingdom, threatening the ruin thereof by sickness and they were thus lavishing their hospitality, Charles appears famine, the certain attendants of an unnatural and bloody to have eyed the tokens of their yet remaining wealth with warre, which nowe reigneth in this kingdom," and in considerable longings for its appropriation to his own purtoken of their grief and abasement they resolved to forego poses. Gradually, but completely, the whole of the comall convivial meetings, and even to omit their annual elec- panies were brought into entire subjection to the crown, tion.
and the freedom which had been so manfully upheld in In order to furnish the supplies which were thus arbitra- former reigns, was completely yielded to the avaricious morily exacted, not only were individuals belonging to the narch. His first attack on their independence was in the companies completely impoverished, but all the fraternities second year of his reign, by passing an act for well-governwere obliged to sell or pawn their plate. The interest (in ing and regulating corporations, under pretence of which some cases a high one) promised on these loans, was also all freedom of action was soon destroyed. Notwithstandwithheld both by the king and the parliament, neithering this infringement of their liberties, the corporation and party being faithful to their engagements. The Ironmon companies, in 1665, built and furnished a fine new ship, for gers' company held out more pertinaciously than the rest the purpose of presenting to government. One of the papers against these exactions, and on one occasion when sum- | of the period contains the following announcement:~# 'l'his moned before the parliamentary committee, they used every Saturday my lord mayor and the rest of the remanent aldereffort to evade payment; but being solemnly informed by men went to Deptford to see their new ship, the Loyal the commissioners, “that the money was to preserve their London, and in what fitness she is; their care having been lives, their liberties, and the Gospel of Jesus Christ, which to provide and pay money from time to time to satisfie her was more deare than all the rest," the assistants attempted workmen, and found her so forward, that she seems only to to borrow 13001., but no man belonging to the hall would want anchors, and some of her last furniture.” lend, pleading their individual weighty taxes as an excuse; This was the year previous to that direful calamity, the the company, therefore, were finally obliged to sell all their great fire of London, which was most destructive to the plate.
halls of the companies, mostly situated in the very heart This career of exaction was followed by the dismantling of of the city. Those of the Leathersellers, Pinners, and a the companies' halls. Religious paintings, and other decora- few others, beyond the range of the conflagration, escaped, tions spared at the Reformation as harmless, were now in but all the rest were completely destroyed. By this dreadcluded in the list of superstitious objects, requiring to be ful calamity the companies' records were burnt, their plate banished or destroyed. The hangings of Merchant-Tailors' melted, and their city premises, from whence they drew Hall exhibited a pictorial history of John the Baptist; these their incomes, reduced to ashes. To crown their misforwere noticed as superstitious and offensive, and were even tunes, they were overwhelmed with a load of debt, (the contually defaced. The same course was pursued with the sequence of the compulsory loans they had been subjected other companies; and when at length it became the settled to,) which they had no means of paying. purpose of parliament to take away the king's life, the Under this accumulation of distress, their first steps were metropolis being filled with troops, the halls of the several to secure the melted plate, and to obtain an estimate of their fraternities, as well as the churches and other public build- | losses and capabilities. Seventeen days after the commenceings, were converted into barracks. The Merchant-Tailors' ment of the fire, the masters and wardens of the Merchantcompany had sufficient interest with General Fairfax to Tailors' company set themselves “to view the company's get freed from the nuisance. The general's warrant was as plate, melted in the late dreadful fire," and to treat with follows:-“Whereas inconvenience has been represented to * Mr. Taylor at the Tower, or any other person, about the me to fall out in case any soldiers are quartered at Merchant- refining of the same to the best advantage.” They also Tailors' Hall, and there being very many poor belonging to ordered that, “on account of the company's house being that company, these are to require you, on sight thereof, to burned,” all persons who received 6s. 8d. and 2s. 60. quarforbeare to quarter either horse or foot in the said hall; and terly, and were chosen by the wardens' substitutes, and paid hereof you are to be observant, as you will answer for the from the stock of the society, should be no longer paid their contrary. Given under my hand and seal, in Queen street, pensions, except those who were in great want.” The 28th December, 1648. Tho. FAIRFAX.” Directed, “To | Grocers' company also received particulars from their warthe Quartermaster, Centinels, and other Officers whom it dens “ of the company's plate melted in the hall, in the late may concern.” The company were so delighted with this violent and destructive fire, and of the melted parcels taken exemption from a general grievance, that they presented up and put together, with the company's urgent occasions the quarter-master with twenty pounds, and the individual for a supply of money: it was therefore determined that who brought the protection to them with ten shillings. the same plate (amounting to about two hundred pounds
After the annihilation of royal authority, the city became | weight of metal) should be sold and disposed of to the best the grand focus of the parliamentary government, as is advantage for the benefit of the company.'” They had abundantly testified by the numerous tracts and other re- also a schedule of the company's houses and rents read to cords of the period. “Guildhall was a second House of them, and “in regard to the shortness of the days, the disCommons, an auxiliary senate, and the companies' halls the tance of divers persons' abodes, and the danger and troublemeeting-places of those branches of it denominated com- someness of going in the dark amongst the ruins, not then mittees. All the Mercuries,' or newspapers of the day, allowing them time for debate and determination,” they abound with notices of the occupation of the companies' agreed to meet weekly. premises by these committees. Goldsmiths' Hall was their By extraordinary exertions, by subscriptions, and col
lections, and by the donations of wealthy individuals, the hundred attendants. A grand annual muster of the comwhole of the companies contrived to rebuild their halls in panies, called the “Marching Watch,” was of more ancient the course of two or three years, and by granting advan- | institution, and was forbidden by Henry the Eighth, on tageous léases to their tenants, their houses and premises in account of the vast expense attending it. The machinery various parts of the city soon rose from the ruins, and ad- | for all these pageants was provided by artificers regularly vanced with the new metropolis. Thus, as early as the year kept by the city at Leadenhall, from which place the pro1670, the old order of things was nearly restored, and the cessions always started. The bearers of lights on these companies began a new career. By the charters of James occasions, were called cresset-bearers, and are noticed as the Second, new privileges were conferred on the companies. The ancient mode of election by the commonalty was
Let nothing that's magnifical, superseded, the courts being thenceforth made self-elective. Or that may tend to London's graceful state, The old ordinances were re-modelled and ameliorated, but Be un performed, as showes and solemne feastes, their milder provisions even would be thought despotical in Watches in armour, triumphs, cresset lights, the present age.
Bonefires, belles, and peals of ordinaunce, . The officers of the several companies at this period had
And pleasure. See that plaies be published, much the same duties to perform as those which had be- | Mai-games and maskes, with mirth and minstrelsie, longed to their situations previous to the Reformation, except Pageants and school-feastes, beares and puppet-plaies. the chaplain, whose office it no longer was to sing daily
As the splendour of the companies' pageants increased, masses, and perform services for the dead, but to conduct
the lord mayor's show became the most attractive of all public worship according to the spirit of Protestantism, and to pray for the prosperity of the brotherhood. The chaplain
city sights. “Foists,” or barges, were provided, ornamented preached before the companies at their several churches,
with sea-nymphs, sirens, tritons, sea-lions, &c., and conwhere they had a portion of the church reserved for their
taining fireworks. use, as was the case at St. Martin Outwich, where the Mer
Yet one day in the year, for sweet 'tis voic'd, chant-Tailors had a gallery erected expressly for themselves,
And that is when it is the lord mayor's foist. and also accommodated the Skinners' company with sit Every kind of adulatory address was adopted on those tings in the church. The Fishmongers had an aisle set apart | occasions. When Sir Thomas Roe was the next lord for them in the church of St. Michael, Crooked Lane. The mayor, the Batchelors' company, whose patron was St. duties of the chaplain included common prayer on court John the Baptist, supplied a pageant, in which St. John days. The prayer used on these occasions by the Merchant and other similar personages were represented by youths, Tailors' company was a very excellent one, and is left on who spoke complimentary speeches, in praise of the mayor. record. The concluding address is as follows: “Good | St. John's speech began, “I am that voyce in Wilderness, Lord, keep this noble city of London, and defend it from w’ich ones the Jewes did calle," while another youth, allugrievous plagues and contagious sickness, that we may ding to the mayor's name, says, “Behold the Roe, the swift often in brotherly and true love assemble and meet together in chace,” &c. On some occasions, children and females to Thy glory and our mutual comfort in Christ Jesus; and, represented London, the Thames, the Country, the Soldier, merciful Father, bless this society and brotherhood, and bé Sailor, Nymphs, &c., as also Magnitude, Loyalty, and other present with us in all our assemúlies and councils, that we virtues, which were all supposed to appertain to the new may use them to Thy glory and the discharge of our duties. | lord mayor. Among water spectacles, one is mentioned in Bless and divert by Thy Holy Spirit all our actions and which the Grocers' company was emblematically repreendeavours, and give us grace faithfully and honestly to sented by “five islands, artfully garnished with all manner discharge the trust reposed in us, as well for our good of Indian fruit trees, drugges, spiceries, and the like; the friends and brethren deceased as any other way belonging to middle island having a faire castle especially beautified.” us, to the glory of Thy holy name, and peaceful comfort of The company to which the new lord mayor belonged, our souls, and good example and incitement of others." | always furnished, at its own cost, the scenic representations During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, many and actors connected with these shows. alterations had taken place in the different observances of When pageants were at their highest perfections, they the company. Elections were still preceded by the religious generally consisted of five principal pieces or machines, rite of going to the company's church, but a sermon was which are described as: 1. À triumphal temple with apsubstituted for the mass. Feasts had increased in splendour, propriate characters, flanked by persons riding on the and in the delicacies displayed at them, but they had lost animals, which formed the company's supporters, who bore other attractions. The side-boards were again loaded with shields or banners of their arms; or, perhaps, of a triumplate, and boys recited Latin verses; but sisters were no | phal chariot, as above, drawn by the like animals, their longer admitted. The election feasts and ceremonies had supporters, carrying either the company's patron saint, or revived, and various accounts are left of the usages con- an allegorical personage representing London, as the seat of nected with them. The master and wardens were crowned sovereignty, in either case with numerous proper attendwith garlands “ like the heraldic wreath,” except that ants. 2. A throne or scene, with allegorical personages, they were made of red velvet, and had pieces of silver fast alluding to the British monarchy and kingdoms, compriened on them, engraven with the company's arms. Caps sing poetical characters complimentary of the reigning of maintenance were used by the Skinners' company, in monarch's virtues. 3. An allegorical representation of the stead of wreaths or garlands, and these were set on the origin of the company's trade, or of their patron saint. 4. heads of the “most worshipfull” of the company with The principal pageant, otherwise called The Pageant of numerous ceremonies. The drinking cups' used on these Trade,” “The Factory of Commerce," or more frequently, occasions by the master and two wardens, were three large “The Company's Pageant," from its being a direct emblesilver cocks or birds, which on being unscrewed were found matical representation of the company's trade, in all its to be filled with wine.
various branches : and 5. A scene allusive to the benefit The style of the companies' pageants had varied consi- or riches procured by such trade, under the name of “The derably from the ancient usage, but reached their utmost | Palace of Pleasure,” “The Palace of Delight,” “The Arsplendour shortly before the great fire of London and a bour of Delights," and other such titles. few years after that event. Mr. Herbert remarks, that how. | The Ironmongers, in 1620, at the swearing in of their ever childish, and in some instances, ridiculous, some of mayor, exhibited at their trade pageant, a representation of them may seem to the present intellectual age, it will be “Lempion's forge, with Vulcan, the smith of Lemnos, at seen, in others, that occasionally much taste and ingenuity work, surrounded by his servants, in black hair waistcoats, were exercised, and that in almost all, particularly the and leather aprons. A fire blazed in the furnace, lightnings latter spectacles, an excess of magnificence was displayed, | flashed, thunders rolled ; and, at intervals, harsh music and which, if sights had not gone quite out of fashion with us, songs sounded praises to iron, the anvil, and the hammer.” would draw crowds even now. The “Maiden Chariot” is In 1685, at the inauguration of Sir Robert Jeffreys, the given as an instance of this magnificence. This splendid same company's pageant was a show representing Mount piece of machinery formed part of the pageant of the Etna, with Vulcan and the Cyclops at work, within a Mercers' company. It was twenty-two feet high, entirely | cavern at the base ; some at the forge, and others digging covered with silver embossed work; carried upwards of metals and minerals. Apollo descended with Cupids, and twenty superbly dressed characters, and was drawn by nine entertained them with music. Vulcan also made his speech white Flanders horses, three abreast, in rich trappings of to the lord mayor. In 1671, Sir George Waterman, besilver, and white foathers, each mounted by an allegorical longing to the Skinners' company, had amongst the papersonage, and the wholo accompanied by more than one geants at his show, a wilderness, consisting of a variety of trees, bushes, shrubs, brambles, thickets, inhabited and ancient patron and guardian of the company, in pontifica haunted by divers wild beasts, and birds of various kinds libus, in one hand a golden crozier, in the other his goldand colours. In the front of this scene were two negro boys, smith's tongs, with the devil beneath his feet. A large properly habited, and mounted upon two panthers, bearing goldsmith's forge faced the saint's throne, with fire, cruci. the banners of the lord mayor, and the company's arms. bles, &c., and a boy blowing the bellows. The representaSir Thomas Pilkington, of the same company, mayor intion of a goldsmith's shop full of plate, and artificers at 1689, varied this scene of a wilderness, called “The work in the various departments, with the assay-master Company's Pageant,” by introducing, in addition, to the making an assay, and work men hammering a massy piece wild beasts of the former show,"wolves, bears, panthers, of plate, to the sound of music, &c., filled up this pageant. leopards, sables, and beavers, together with dogs, cats, Several of the companies still possess remains of these old forez, rabbits, and which latter, the account says, tost up shows, particularly the Grocers' company. The scenes now and then into a balcony, fall off upon the company's were painted like those of the theatres, in distemper, and heads, and being by them tost again into the crowd, afforded the animals which drew the paurants were fabricated so great diversion."
like what are used there, that there is little doubt but that The Drapers' company, in 1679, at Sir Robert Clayton's they were the work of theatrical artists. show, introduced in their trade pageant characters repre- The last public event of any consequence in the history senting the twelve months of the year, and numerous other of the City companies, was their complete subjugation, in allegorical personages, richly dressed. The concluding 1684, to the power of the king, by means of the quo war. pageant exhibited a landscape of Salisbury Plain, “where ranto, or inquiry into the validity of the City charter. rustic shepherds and shepherdesses were feeding and folding Charles the Second, like his father and grandfather, early their flocks; and for the future exaltation of the Drapers' showed a desire to interfere with the government and prodelight, here were several trades met together, all pertinent | perty of these companies, and the result of the proceedings for making of cloth; as carders, spinners, dyers, wool- | just noticed, made him master not only of these, but of all combers, shearers, dressers, fullers, weavers, which were the corporations in England. The charter of the City was set without order, because the excellence of this scene did arbitrarily and illegally declared forfeited, and several of consist of confusion. Although their number and weight the companies, terrified by the proceedings against London, were too ponderous for all of them to work, according to surrendered their charters. The surrender of their charters their distinct arts and mysteries, yet they were here met in was, in most of the companies, preceded by a petition, their persons to rejoice and express their frolicks in dancing, stating their having been chartered and incorporated by jumping, tumbling, piping, and singing, and all such jovial | former royal grants, which conferred on them divers immuactions and movements of agility, as might express their nities, privileges, and franchises. That his sacred majesty joy and exultation in their compliments to the new lord having, “ in his princely wisdom," thought proper to issue mayor, and their service to the Drapers' company."
a quo warranto against them, they had reason to fear they The pageant of the Haberdashers, in 1699, when one of had highly offended him, and they therefore earnestly their company was mayor, is described as having “a stately
begged his pardon for what was past, and “to accept their chariot all enriched with embossed work of silver, driven humble submission to his good will and pleasure, and that upon four golden Catherine wheels, in which was seated St. he would be graciously pleased to continue their former Catherine, the original patroness of the honourable com charters, with such regulations for their future government pany of Haberdashers, the chariot drawn by two large as he should please." This, and other acts of servility on Indian goats, argent, being the supporters of the company." the part of the companies, were very agreeable to the moThis chariot was followed by a scenic exhibition consisting narch, and he was pleased to grant them another charter, of a very large stage, on which “were planted, almost all under such restrictions as he thought fit. These restrictions round, several shops, namely, milliners, hosiers, hatters, effectually destroyed all liberty of will and action in the cappers, and other branches of the haberdashery trade. companies, and permitted them to exist only during the Commerce sat in the rear of this scene, on a rich throne,
8 scene, on a rich throne, | royal pleasure. and descended as the lord mayor passed by, to make his! In the succeeding reign an attempt was made to influspeech. During the movement of this pageant, several ence the companies' selection of voters. James the Second papers of tobacco were given amongst the people.”
directed the lord mayor to issue precepts requiring them In 1694, the Cloth workers exhibited the Garden of to return "such loyal and worthy members as might be the Hesperides, with Jason and his golden fleece. “This judged worthy and fit to be, by the lord mayor and court of pageant,” says the prograinme, “is entirely applicable to aldermen, approved of as liverymen to elect members to the honourable Cloth workers, the fleece being a golden serve for the city of London at the approaching parliaone, morally so represented by virtue of the riches arising ment.” Mr. Herbert remarks, “that what made this more from the manufacture of the fleece. The dragon, being glaringly corrupt was, that most of the independent aldera watchful creature, intimates the caution, industry, and | men had been previously put out of their places, and comvigilance, that ought to secure, support, and preserve trade; | pliant tools appointed by the crown in their room." But whilst Jason, that gave the dragon a sleeping potion, and the arbitrary proceedings of this monarch were of short duso carried away the golden fleece, was in reality an indus ration; for at the news of the coming of the Prince of trious merchant, that equipped his ship, the Argonaut, Orange in 1688, James gave a hasty order in council, and by traffic and commerce carried off the golden fleece, preparatory to the passing of an act, whereby all restricnamely, the trade of the world.” After this came the tions consequent upon the judgment on the quo warranto chariot of Apollo, drawn by two golden griffins, (the com were repealed. Soon afterwards, à special court of lord pany's supporters,) mounted by triumphant figures; Apollo mayor and aldermen was held, pursuant to the grants himself, as the shepherd of King Admetus, rode in the for restoring the city charter, when an order was made chariot, and whilst addressing the lord mayor, “a rich | for restoring the liverymen of the several companies of figure of a rising sun, above ten foot in diameter, not seen the city to the state they had been in before such judgbefore,--and whose beams cherish both sheep and shep ment. The abdication of James confirmed their emancipaherd,-appeared above his head out of the back of the cha tion. The security of the city and its immunities and pririot, with all his beams displayed in gold."
vileges being deemed of great importance, on this joyful At the Vintners' pageant in 1702, the lord mayor was event, William and Mary not only passed a statute revers first saluted by the Artillery company, before whom stepped ing the quo warranto of the city, but enacting, as to assothe Vintners' patron saint, St. Martin, splendidly armed ciated bodies generally, that they should henceforth stand cap à pie, having a large mantle of scarlet; and followed
as they respectively were at the time of the judgment by several beggars, supplicating for alms, dancing satyrs, given be restored to all their estates, lands, tenements, &c., persons in rich liveries, halbeteers, and old Roman lictors. and that all charters, letters patents, or grants of the last two They all marched to St. Paul's churchyard, where the reigns, should be wholly null and void. saint severed his mantle with his sword, and delivered a Thus were tranquillity and confidence restored, and the portion to the mendicants.
privileges and rights of corporate bodies firmly established, One of the trade pageants of the Goldsmiths' company | so that the affairs of the livery companies rapidly improved. exhibited what was called The Goldsmith's Laboratory,
From that period to the present, their history has been of representing “a large and spacious workshop, of several too uneventful a nature to require much comment. artificers, distinct in their proper apartments, for the several operators in the mystery of the goldsmiths, containing forges, anvils, hammers, and other instruments of art, &c.” In the midst, on a rich golden chair, sat St. Dunstan, the Jous W. ParkER, PUBLISHER, WEST STRAND, LONDON,
CITY OF LYONS.
In the fifteenth century, several chapels were added to the nave, the last and most beautiful of which is that
built for Charles Cardinal de Bourbon, who was king of Among the public buildings of Lyons, the cathedral is France for four hours. This Charles, duke de Ven. the most remarkable. It is situated on the 'right bank dôme, cardinal archbishop of Rouen, and legate of of the Saône, and is dedicated to St. John the Baptist. Avignon, was born in 1523, put upon the throne in It has four towers, two of which flank the western 1589 by the Duc de Mayenne, and died in 1590. His front, and the other two, more massive, but shorter, brother, Pierre de Bourbon, son-in-law of Louis the form the transepts. They are terminated by a sort of | Eleventh, finished this chapel, which is remarkable for balustrade, on which is laid a modern Italian tiled roof, its ornaments, consisting principally of flowers and foli. a termination not at all in harmony with the character age of the most delicate sculpture. Amongst them the of the building. One of the largest bells in France is thistle, or chardon, is multiplied; and is intended to contained in one of the towers. The western front is form a pun or rebus in allusion to the cher-don which the the most recent part, not having been completed until king had made to Pierre in the gift of his daughter. the reign of Louis the Eleventh. It has three richly orna- This chapel was a few years ago restored and beautified. miented doorways, and over the central doorway a fine During the reparations the body of the Cardinal de circular window. This part is profusely decorated with | Bourbon was discovered clad in his pontifical robes, and curious bas-reliefs and statues, but they have suffered in a surprising state of preservation. much from the image-breakers of the sixteenth century. Before the Revolution, the cathedral enjoyed many
The cathedral most probably occupies the site of a high privileges. The chapter was composed of thirtylarge ancient Roman building, the ruins of which were two canons, who had the title of Counts of Lyons, with employed in its construction, as well as in the erection of the decoration of a gold cross, suspended from the neck the Pont de Pierre, and of other edifices. At low water by a red band. The Dukes of Burgundy, of Berri, and may be seen, about the piles of the bridge, large cornices of Savoy, the Dauphins, the Counts of Villars, and the and other ornaments of antique sculpture; and in some Kings of France, were the senior canons: when any of of the houses near the cathedral, there still exist large these royal and noble personages were at Lyons, they blocks of stone, such as the Romans commonly em- | wore the peculiar costume of the canons of this cathedral. ployed, as well as the remains of inscriptions and frag- The authority and supremacy of the Archbishop of ments of columns and pedestals. A street near the Lyons, formerly extended over all the churches of the cathedral is called Rue Tramassac, a name said to have vast countries between the Alps and the Rhine. The been derived from the words retro massum; that is, sees subsequently established at Treves, Arles, Narbehind the mass of the temple.
bonne, and Rouen, were submitted to his jurisdiction, The see of Lyons, the religious metropolis of the whose primacy has been recognised in many councils, Gauls, ascends to the era of the primitive church, its and the title of patriarch, which has long been claimed founders having been St. Pothinus, an Asiatic Greek of by him. the second century, and St. Irenæus. They were both In the service of the cathedral many ancient usages disciples of the apostles, and suffered martyrdom here. are retained; amongst others, yellow or native wax is
It appears that, so early as the seventh century, a alone used for the tapers, and no instrumental music is church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, existed here. | allowed. The plain chanting is said to be as beautiful
This church was several times destroyed and re-esta- as it is remarkable. blished. Under Charlemagne it was repaired, and three Adjoining the cathedral is the ancient archiepiscopal centuries after, it was constructed according to the pre- palace, which seems to be of the ninth century. It sent plan. The cloister was surrounded with thick contains some fine rooms, but little exterior beauty, walls and towers like a citadel.
According to popular tradition, Becket lodged here; The greater portion of the cathedral is of the age of but as it is not known with certainty that he visited St. Louis ; but though Gothic, the attentive observer Lyons, though Anselm did, the names of the two will remark some curious imitations of Roman orna. | archbishops may have been easily confounded. Several ments, particularly in an incrusted band or frieze of red anthems and hymns now sung in the cathedral, are said and white marble, composed of masques and foliage, to have been composed and set to music by Becket. copied from the antique with considerable exactness, The church of St. Irenée (Irenæus), is an uninterrunning round the principal apse. The painted glass esting modern building, erected on the grave of that windows are remarkably fine. The centre tower. which saint and martyr, and upon subterranean vaults, in opens into the cross, contains a rose window, which pro which St. Polycarp preached at the age of eighty-six, duces a peculiarly good effect. In a side aisle, on the and where, it is said, the early Christians met for floor, stands the once celebrated clock, constructed by prayer, and were afterwards massacred to the number, Nicholas Lippius, of Basle, in 1598. It was augmented it is said, of nine thousand, by order of Septimius by Nourrisson, in 1660, and again by Charmy, in 1780. Severus, A.D. 202. In the midst of this crypt, which It contains a perpetual calendar, which indicates the is an ancient Romanesque building, resting on plain century, the year, the day, the hour, the minute, and the columns, is a sort of well, down which the bodies were second. Below is an astrolabe, which shows the course thrown, until it overflowed with their blood. A recess of the sun, and the phases of the moon. In the upper | is now shown which is said to contain the bones of the part are many figures, which move to the melody of one martyrs. of the hymns peculiar to this cathedral. Some of the One of the most curious antiquities of Lyons, is the figures move at more distant intervals, so as to indicate church of Aynai, a name said to be derived froin all the saints' days in the calendar in succession. One Athenas. It is situated a little out of the town, on the of the dial-plates is of an oval form, the hand of which, long point of land which divides the Saône from the marking minutes, becomes longer or shorter, according Rhone. This remarkable monument, both of Pagan to its position within the oval.
and Christian antiquity, has been thus described. The The interior of the cathedral is described as being of centre of the cross is supported by four ancient granite a simple but striking architecture. “ The clerestory columns, supposed to have belonged to the altar erected presents an interesting series of windows, giving, in at the confluence of the Rhone and the Saône, (which order, the gradations from plain lancets and circuits, originally met close to this church,) in honour of without foliation, or even a containing arch, to the per- | Augustus, by the sixty nations of Gaul. In the reprefect mullioned window with flowing tracery-a good sentation of that altar existing on medals, there are only lesson for the student."
two, placed on either side of the altar, each supporting