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without bounds, of every age and figure; some, feathered | thus employed, a confused murmur struck my ear, and on to the ground with flourishing branches; others, decayed turning towards a cliff backed by the woods from whence into shapes like Lapland idols. Even at noonday I thought the sound seemed to proceed, forth issued a herd of goats, we should never have found our way out.
hundreds after hundreds, skipping down the steeps: then “At last, having descended a long.avenue, endless per- followed two shepherd boys gambolling together as they spectives opening on either side, we emerged into a valley drove their creatures along; soon after the dog made his bounded by hills, divided into irregular inclosures where appearance, hunting a stray heifer which brought up the many herds were grazing. A rivulet flows along the pas I followed them with my eyes till lost in the windtures beneath, and after winding through the village of ings of the valley, and heard the tinkling of their bells die Walgau loses itself in a narrow pass amongst the cliffs and gradually away. Now the last blush of crimson left the precipices which rise above the cultivated slopes and frame summit of Sinai, inferior mountains being long since cast in in this happy pastoral region. All the plain was in sun deep blue shade. The village was already hushed when I shine, the sky blue, the heights illuminated, except one regained it, and in a few moments I followed its example.” rugged peak with spires of rock, shaped not unlike the Mr. Inglis also, in the summer of 1830, entered Tyrol by views I have seen of Sinai, and wrapped like that sacred way of the great plain of Bavaria, which he describes as mount in clouds and darkness. At the base of this tre- being very populous ; villages and farm-houses being scatmendous mass lies the village of Mittenwald, surrounded tered thickly along the line of road, and he every where by thickets and banks of verdure, and watered by frequent observed the evidences of industry and proofs of its reward springs whose sight and murmurs were so reviving in the in the cheerful countenances and respectable appearance of midst of a sultry day, that we could not think of leaving the peasantry: their vicinity, but remained at Mittenwald the whole On entering the Tyrol the scenery became finer and evening.
bolder; snow peaks began to appear, and the indications of “Our inn had long airy galleries, with pleasant balconies a high elevation were numerous. At a small mountain fronting the mountain; in one of which we dined upon village where the traveller halted to breakfast the scenery trout fresh from the rills, and cherries just culled from the was still more striking, and an extraordinary number and orchards that cover the slopes above. The clouds were variety of wild flowers covered the slopes and rocks by the dispersing and the topmost peak half visible, before we wayside. “I gathered abundance of that beautiful and ended our repast, every moment discovering some inacces- sweet-smelling flower, the fringed pink; the wild polysible cliff or summit, shining through the mists and tinged anthus; and the rose d'amour; the box shrub in flower by the sun with pale golden colours. These appearances formed in many places a thick underwood; large and beaufilled me with such delight and with such a train of tiful heart's-ease entirely covered some fields; and on every romantic associations, that I left the table and ran to an knoll and slope, and rocky nook, little companies of summer open field beyond the tents and gardens to gaze in solitude flowers—unknown to me by sight or name, were nestling,and catch the vision before it dissolved away.
enjoying sweet fellowship,-nodding to each other, -all “When all was faded and lost in the blue ether, I had silent, but all smiling. I gathered no fewer than thirty-two time to look around me and notice the mead in which I different species, thirteen of which are cultivated in the was standing. Here, clover covered its surface; there, crops English garden." of grain; further on, beds of herbs and the sweetest flowers. Åt Seefeld the road reaches the highest point of the An amphitheatre of hills and rocks, broken into a variety Tyrolean Alps which it traverses; the road now begins to of glens and precipices, open a course for several clear descend abruptly and steeply; at every few hundred yards rivulets, which, after gurgling amidst loose stones and frag- the traveller becomes sensible of a change, in temperature ments, fall down the steeps, and are concealed and quieted as well as in the aspect of vegetation; the fir tree is superin the herbage of the vale.
seded by some other forest trees; and the minute flowers “A cottage or two peep out of the woods that hang over that mark the more elevated regions disappear. At length the waterfalls; and on the brow of the hills above appears the magnificent valley of the Inn, traversed by its fine a series of eleven little chapels, uniformly built. I followed river, is seen stretched below, and soon after the pedestrian the narrow path that leads to them, on the edge of the enters Zirl, the first town of the Tyrol. eminences, and met a troop of beautiful peasants, all of the The dress of the peasantry first excites the attention of name of Anna, (for it was St. Anna's day) going to pay the traveller; he sees stockings without feet; hats tapering their devotions, severally, at these neat white fanes. There to the crown, something like Robinson Crusoe's; generally were faces that Guercino would not have disdained copying, with green silk bands, and green tassels hanging from the with braids of hair the softest and most luxuriant I ever crown at one side; the women with enormous white worsted beheld. Some had wreathed it simply with flowers, others caps, shaped also like sugar-loaves, and with dresses, underwith rolls of thin linen (manufactured in the neighbour- neath which there seems to be a hoop; but this appearance hood) and disposed it with a degree of elegance one should is occasioned by no fewer than ten petticoats, without which not have expected on the cliffs of the Tyrol.
number, an elderly woman is scarcely considered to be “When got beyond the chapel I began to hear the roar of respectably attired. a cascade in a thick wood of beech and chesnut that clothes The chief object in the vicinity of Zirl to attract the the steeps of a wide fissure in the rock. My ear soon attention of the traveller is the Martinswand, a gigantic guided me to its entrance, which was marked by a shed buttress of the Solstein mountain, descending in an abrupt encompassed with mossy fragments, and almost concealed precipice, many hundred feet high, to the margin of the by bushes of rhododendron in full red bloom. Amongst Inn, so as barely to leave space for the high road between these I struggled, till reaching a goat-track, it conducted it and the river. It owes its chief celebrity to an adventure me on the brink of the foaming waters, to the very depths of the Emperor Maximilian. That enthusiastic sportsman, of the cliff whence issues a stream, which dashing impetu- led away on one occasion in pursuit of a chamois among ously down strikes against a ledge of rocks and sprinkles the rocks above, unfortunately missed his footing, and the impending thicket with dew. Big drops hung on every rolling headlong to the verge of the precipice, was just able spray, and glittered on the leaves partially gilt by the rays to arrest himself, when on the brink of destruction, by of the declining sun, whose mellow hues softened the clinging with his head downwards to a ledge of rock in a rugged summits and diffused a repose, a divine calm, over spot where he could neither move up nor down, and where, this deep retirement, which inclined me to imagine it the to all appearance, no one could approach him. He was extremity of the earth-the portal of some other region of perceived from below in this perilous position, and as his existence,-some happy world beyond the dark groves of death was deemed inevitable, prayers were offered up at the pine, the caves and awful mountains, where the river takes foot of the rock by the Abbot of Wilhan as though for a its source ! Impressed with this romantic idea, I hung person in articulo mortis. The Emperor, finding his strength eagerly over the gulf and fancied I could distinguish a voice failing him, had given himself up for lost, and recommended bubbling up with the waters; then looked into the abyss his soul to Heaven, when a loud halloo near at hand arrested and strained my eyes to penetrate its gloom—but all was his attention. A bold and intrepid hunter named Zips, dark and unfathomable. Awakening from my reverie, I who had fled to the mountains to avoid imprisonment for felt the damps of the water chill my forehead; and ran poaching, had, without knowing what had happened, also shivering out of the vale to avoid them. A warmer atmo been drawn to the spot in clambering after a chamois. Sursphere that reigned in the meads I had wandered across prised to find a human being thus suspended between earth before, tempted me to remain a good while longer collecting and sky, he uttered the cry which attracted Maximilian's atdianthi freaked with beautifully varied colours, and a tention. Noticing the perilous nature of the case he was in a species of white thyme scented like myrrh. Whilst I was few minutes at the Emperor's side, and binding on his feet
his own crampons, and extending to him his sinewy arm, produced is about 100,0001. sterling, and the clear revenue he succeeded with difficulty in guiding him up the face of to the government is nearly 80,000l. the precipice along ledges where apparently even the cha A visit to the salt mines conducts the traveller through mois could not have found footing, and thus rescued him some striking mountain scenery. After leaving Hall, Mr. from a situation of such hopeless peril that the common Inglis says, “In less than half an hour I found myself at people even now attribute his escape to the miraculous the foot of the chain of mountains that bound the valley interposition of an angel. The spot where this occurred, to the north, and at the mouth of a narrow ravine, tranow hollowed out into a cave in the face of the rock, is versed by a furious torrent. A path leads up to the ravine marked by a crucifix, which though eighteen feet in height, towards the mines, which lie about eight miles further, in is so far above the high road that it is scarcely visible from the heart of the mountain. I have seldom ascended a thence. It is now rendered accessible by a steep and rather steeper path than this; or one more interesting from the difficult path, and may be reached in about half an hour's sublimity of the scenery that lay around. The grandeur walk from Zirl. The cave is seven hundred and fifty feet of the views and the ruggedness of the objects in traversing above the river, and the precipice is so vertical that a a gorge that penetrates so many miles into the recesses of plumb line might be dropped from it into the high road the mountain may be imagined; and perhaps it is better to below. It is traditionally stated that Maximilian rewarded leave all to the imagination than to attempt a description. the huntsman with the title of Count Hollooer von Hohen Enormous masses of overhanging rock seemed to be susfelsen, in token of his gratitude, and in reference to the pended above almost by a miracle; old pine forests hung exclamation uttered by him which had sounded so welcome upon the rugged cliffs; the torrent that rushed by was to the Emperor's ears as announcing that relief was at hand. here and there spanned by bridges of snow, while huge By the Emperor's pension list, still in existence, it appears unmelted avalanches lay in its bed; cascades tumbled from that a sum of sixteen florins was annually paid to one Zips a hundred heights, some close by the path, some heard at a of Zirl.
great elevation above, while peaks, some dark, some snowy, The above incident has been made the subject of a short many thousand feet high, almost closed over head, and poem, by Collin, one of Germany's most graceful poets. seemed to jut into the sky. At length, in the midst of
Having visited the Martinswand there is nothing in Zirl this wild scene, a cluster of houses was seen above, where itself to delay the progress of the traveller; he therefore the gorge loses itself among precipices; and where the torpasses on by the side of the river along the road to Inns rent has separated into a hundred tiny feeders, oozing from brück. On approaching this town the prospect is superb. the beds of snow. At this wild spot, stands the miners' “The valley of the Inn, from one to about three miles inn.” wide, is seen stretching far to the eastward covered with The traveller being clothed in a suitable dress, with a varied and luxuriant vegetation, thickly studded with staff in his hand, and preceded by lighted torches, follows houses, and traversed by the broad, rapid, and brimful the conductor into the mine. « The visit commences with river: high mountains, mostly clothed with wood, inclose a descent of three hundred steps, when one may fairly the valley on both sides, and nearly in the centre of it, believe himself in the bowels of the mountain. 'Tis a stands Inspruck, like the monarch of a small but beautiful strange empire one finds in these dismal abodes: life is a dominion. The peasants were in the fields, busy with their different thing when sunlight is withdrawn; and there is Indian corn, which is the staple produce of the valley, and an icy feeling falls upon the heart as well as on the senses all who have seen this beautiful plant growing in luxu- when we look around these dismal galleries, and dark walls, riance, and covering a wide expanse, will admit that a more dimly lighted by a few ineffectual flambeaux that convey captivating prospect is not easy to be imagined.” On cross truly the idea of darkness visible;' and scan the dark subing the bridge from which the town derives its name, the terranean lakes, whose extent and profundity the eye cantraveller finds himself in the capital of the Tyrol, which has not guess but by the plunge of a fragment of the roof, and already been described in the pages of this work*.
the dim glimmer of the lights; and hear the distant stroke
of the miner's axe, far in the interior of the caverns; and SECTION 4.
still more do we feel the difference between the world above From INNSBRÜCK TO KUFSTEIN.
and regions such as these, when we reach the solitary
miner, in some vast cavern, with his single candle, striking From Innsbrück, Mr. Inglis proceeded to Hall, passing his axe ever and ever into the dull wall: but along with through fine meadows, fields of Indian corn, and villages these feelings, astonishment and admiration are engendered charmingly situated in little amphitheatres at the foot of the at the power of man, whose perseverance has hollowed out mountains. Hall is described as being smoky and black, the mountain, and with his seemingly feeble instruments, bearing upon its front the appearance of great antiquity. -his human arms and little axe,-has waged war with the Gloomy old houses flank narrow winding streets; scarcely colossal works of nature.” one modern building is to be seen: the ancient wall, dark The results of the miner's toil
almost incredible. towers, and little gates, yet remain, as well as the deep No fewer than forty-eight caverns had been formed, each ditch, and recall to mind the wars of early times, of which from one to two acres in size; one of the galleries is three Hall was so often the scene. One of the gates bears an leagues in length, and to traverse all the galleries would inscription in which the year 1351 is distinctly visible. occupy six days. When these subterraneous caverns are
A large government salt-manufactory is situated at this formed, the miners detach fragments of the native salt from place, and has been in operation ever since the commence the roof and walls ;-and when the cavern is sufficiently inent of the fourteenth century. The native salt, at four filled with these, pure water is let in, which dissolves the leagues distance, after being dissolved in water at the mines, salt, and the solution is conveyed by conduits to. Hall as is conveyed to Hall, in little rivulets which flow in troughs already noticed. “ Occasionally a distant sound is heard, laid for the purpose, there to be reconverted into crystals. approaching nearer and nearer, which one might easily Nine cauldrons are employed, the five largest of them about mistake for the rushing of water: this is occasioned by the thirty-six feet in diameter. They are made of iron, and little chariots, which carry away rubbish to the mouth of have an opening at one side, by a joint, in order that they the ravine; the path is a railroad, and these little chariots may be cleaned out when necessary. The salt water, being fly along it with frightful rapidity. When the sound is previously heated, is admitted into the cauldrons to the heard approaching, it is necessary to retire into one of depth of eight inches; and is kept boiling during three the niches that are formed in the wall,- and the young hours, at the end of which time the solution has sunk about miners, seated in front of the chariots, seem, as they rush two and a half inches in depth; and a great quantity of salt by, like gnomes directing their infernal cars.' has been deposited. Each cauldron thus produces from The number of miners is about three hundred: the twenty to twenty-four quintals, (from 2000 to 2400 lbs.) so amount of wages is miserably small: they are paid accordthat one cauldron will produce, by the ordinary number of ing to seniority, the oldest get thirty kreutzers, and the boilings, one hundred and seventy quintals of crystallized youngest about half that sum. They work and rest four salt. The whole manufactory is capable of producing hours alternately. Sunday is a holiday, and the great feasts 120,200 lbs of salt per day. The value of the salt thus of the Catholic church are also observed. “ Interesting and
curious as a spectacle of this kind is, it is impossible to be * See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VIII., pp. 137 to 140, where the restored to the common sun and air,' without a feeling of reader will also find a sketch of the glorious struggle between the Tyrol. satisfaction; we are almost surprised to find how genial the ese and their trench invaders in the year 1809. In the first volume of the Saturday Magazine, p. 39, Mr. Latrobe's Summer Ramble in the
sunshine is, and how beautiful the sky,—and we drop with Tyrol is noticed, and in Vol. XIV., p. 28, a curious method of fishing in cheerfulness a mite into the poor miner's box.” the Tyrol is detailed.
Once more emerging from the dense cloud of smoke that
bung over Hall, our traveller breathed the clear, mountain leys, creeps over their declivities, and throws its mantle on atmosphere of the Innthal, or lower valley of the Inn. their summits.” “ Everything was bright and joyous: the sky bright, blue, From Schwartz the traveller has an opportunity of and cloudless; the mountains bright in the yellow beams of visiting the Achen-see, a small lake among the mountains. the morning; the trees and the grass were bright and glis- This is one of those many mountain gems that are seldom tering, for, although the sun had been two or three hours visited but by the eagle and the chamois, and whose waters risen, it had but newly risen upon the valley,—the country: are ruffled only by the mountain breeze, and by the leap people looked as joyous as health and independence could of the silent creatures that dwell beneath them. This lake make them; the birds were all at their song, making the air is about four miles long, and about one broad. Its outlet ring with their loud joyful notes, the cattle, even, looked is on the Bavarian side, the little streain that flows out of as if they enjoyed the splendour of the morning, -and the it crossing the Bavarian frontier at a few leagues from the clear sparkling river ran joyously on in harmony with all lake and falling into the Iser. Descending the steeps we the other harmonies of nature."
again enter the Innthal, and approach Rattenberg, a small After a charming walk our traveller reached the bridge old-fashioned town. bridge which leads across to the right bank of the river The Inn becomes navigable soon after leaving Schwartz ; on the side of which stand the church and cloister of and even from Hall it serves for the transport of light Volders. The situation of this church is singularly pictu- merchandise all the way to Vienna, a distance of at least resque, but there is nothing remarkable in the cloister. The five hundred miles. Salt is transported in considerable village of Volders consists of a little straggling street, and quantities from Hall; fresh butter made at Rattenburg, is does not contain even an inn to tempt the traveller to stay. sold in the market of Vienna on the fifth morning after The town of Schwartz is situated about two leagues and a it is churned; by the same conveyance chamois is sent to half further on. This is a respectable old market town, of the metropolis, where it bears a very high price; and cersome importance before the silver mines ceased to be produc- tain woollen manufactures and knit stockings, the produce tive. The mountain range that rises behind the town is of the lower Innthal, form part of the cargo. finely diversified. "I plunged at a venture into one of its The road from Rattenberg to Kufstein presents the travalleys, and then climbed its eastern acclivity, the upper veller with a fine succession of river and mountain scenery. part of which was bathed in gold. But I never reached The town of Kufstein lies close to the river, and immethe gilded line; gradually it rose, as I mounted; and before diately under an elevated rock, which is crowned by a I had half gained the point I had aimed at, the glorious little stronghold, and flanked by some batteries. A wild light of parting day flamed only on the highest summits. mountain range rises to the south,—and on the northern The sobor grey of evening, was around me on the moun- side towards Bavaria the more cultivated and lower country tain side; and deep twilight had gathered in the valley indicates the course of the river Inn, now a magnificent below. It was time to return to Schwartz, so retracing river. my steps, I descended the slopes, and in about an hour, I But we are again approaching the boundaries of the emerged from the mountains, with many pleasant recol- | Tyrol. A short journey to the north leads the traveller lections of lights and shadows yet lingering on the vision, into Bavaria, and to the south-east into Salzburg. We of solitude and stillness, and the small mountain sounds therefore retrace our steps to Innsbrück, to set out on a that are more akin to silence than noise, –and of all the fresh excursion, which will reveal more striking features thousand deep-felt, but inexpressible emotions, that are of Tyrolean scenery than have yet been exhibited. born among the eternal hills, when evening fills their val
POUSSIN AND HIS WORKS.
dered his abode in Paris disagreeable, and at length III.
drove him from it. Vouet and his party found them
selves neglected, and they brought all kinds of accusaWe left Poussin at Paris, enjoying the well-merited tions against Poussin respecting his style of painting and honours which the French court bestowed upon him. his method of directing the public works entrusted to Other distinctions were yet in store for him. The him; and although the king, the queen, and Cardinal king, wishing to mark in a particular manner his esteem Richelieu, continued to be friendly, yet Poussin was evifor the artist, appointed him his chief painter, the super- dently disgusted with the constant turmoil in which his intendent of all his galleries, and the director of the opponents contrived to keep him, as well as the employrestorations of the royal palaces. In addition to his ment which his patrons gave him. In another of his other works, he was required to furnish eight large letters he says : “ The employment given me is not so cartoons, which were to be executed in tapestry for the important, but that they take me from it to superintend royal apartments. To facilitate the prompt execution
new designs for tapestry. I wish they would give me of this work, Poussin was permitted to repeat on a larger something to do where lofty and noble designs could be scale some of his compositions already known, such as employed; but, to say the truth, there is nothing here “ The Manna in the Desert,” and “ The Striking of the that deserves staying long for.” Again, in another letRock.” He was also commissioned to adorn the great ter, he writes :-“ They employ me for ever in trifles, gallery of the Louvre, and to decorate that vast build- such as frontispieces for books; designs for ornamental ing according to his own taste.
cabinets ; chimney-pieces, bindings of books, and other Although the greater part of these projects could nonsense.” not be executed by one man, however great his industry In the midst of all this dissatisfaction, Poussin's and skilful his assistants, yet the presence of Poussin at thoughts turned fondly towards Rome, and he became at Paris was highly beneficial to French art. He furnished length so impatient to return to his family, that he apa large number of plans for restorations and decorations; plied for leave of absence, which he obtained on condihe introduced casts of some of the most beautiful works tion that he returned as soon as he had put his affairs in of antiquity, which seemed to him to be alone worthy of order. Before quitting Paris, he executed his picture in serving as models for sculpture and architecture; he which Time liberates Truth from the attacks of Envy, proposed to cast in bronze the colossal statues of Monte Hatred, and Malevolence, a memorial of the vexatious Cavallo, and to place them at the gate of the Louvre. contests in which he had been engaged, and of his sense In short, all that the liberal genius of Francis the First of the verdict of posterity in his favour. had conceived, Poussin was willing to execute. An
After an absence of two years, Poussin again entered artist of repute was sent to Rome to carry out the sug- Rome, towards the end of 1642. His return was welgestions of Poussin, and in a short time moulds, taken
comed as a sort of triumph. The favours which he had from some of the finest works of sculpture and architec- received from the French court seemed in the estimation ture in Rome, were sent to Paris, and careful copies of of many to exalt his talents; every one wished to see some of the most celebrated pictures in Italy were exe him, to congratulate him on his brilliant success; he cuted.
alone was the only one not dazzled by the favours of But by degrees, the enthusiasm which the presence fortune; that same philosophy which formed the basis of and plans of Poussin had excited grew cold; as it was his character, saved him from indulging in pride or vanity, natural it should do, when his patrons had no higher which perhaps every one but himself would have exfeeling than vanity to gratify. The favours which he cused. He found in his humble home an affectionate had already received excited the envy of his rivals in art, wife; he enjoyed the esteem of a few sincere friends, and and they constantly opposed his designs and thwarted this state of happiness, contrasted with the disagreeable his plans. His time was wasted in defending himself cabals of the court, rendered him averse to return to Paris. to his patrons, who could scarcely appreciate the merits
His first employment after his return was to fulfil the of the questions at issue; and who did not hesitate to engagements he had contracted in France. He finished waste his time in employments which were beneath him. the “ Sacraments" for M. de Chantelou, a series of He was ordered to design frontispieces for the books pictures which, for a long time, formed one of the prinprinted at the royal printing-office. The first that he cipal attractions of the Orleans collection; they were furnished was that to the Bible, printed early in 1642, purchased by the late Duke of Bridgewater, for the sum commonly known by the name of The Bible of Sixtus the of four thousand nine hundred guineas, and are now in Fifth; and he afterwards designed those for the Horace the collection of Lord Francis Egerton. Poussin also and Virgil, printed about the same time. The following painted at this time his beautiful picture of “ Rebecca at extract from one of his letters to Del Pozzo, dated the the Well,” which is full of truth, grace, and beauty. 20th of September, 1641, will best show the nature of It was not long after Poussin's return to Rome that his employments. He says:
Louis the Thirteenth and the Cardinal de Richelieu I am labouring without intermission, sometimes at one died; and M. Desnoyers, his chief patron, having rething, and sometimes at another. I should do this wil. tired from court, the public works in which Poussin had lingly, but that they hurry me in things that require time been engaged were superseded by political troubles; and and thought.
I assure you, that if I stay long in this country, I must turn dauber like the rest here. "As to feeling himself thus released from all his engagements, study and observation, either of the antique or of anything Poussin no longer thought of returning to Paris. else, they are unknown, and whoever wishes to study or Being free from all anxiety, he resumed his simple to excel must go far from hence. The stuccoes and paint- frugal mode of life, and devoted all his time to the exering of the great gallery are begun after my designs, but cise of his art. He had just quitted the frontiers of very little to my satisfaction, because I can get no one to ambition and of fortune, but such a man could not sink second me, although I make drawings both on a large and a into obscurity: his reputation shone with greater lustre small scale for them. I have put "The Last Supper” in its place, that is, in the chapel of St. Germains, and it succeeds
in his modest dwelling at Rome, than under the gilded very well. I am now at work upon the picture for the roofs of the Louvre. There, during the long period of noviciate of the Jesuits; it is very large, containing four- three-and-twenty years, he continued to produce his teen figures larger than nature, and this they want me to admirable works, finishing them with the greatest care, finish in two months.
and never allowing them to leave his hands until he was This picture was finished at the prescribed time, and fully satisfied with them. the admiration it met with was the first signal for all In appreciating the value of his own pictures he diswho envied Poussin's good fortune and reputation, to played singular disinterestedness. He always fixed the commence those persecutions against him which ren price, and marked it at the back of his picture, and if