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through the two Grison valleys, where accommodation is The mountains of this glorious land
rude and scanty. This will sufficiently account for the Are conscious beings to mine eye,
very small number of books which have been written on When at the break of day they stand,
the Tyrol ; but whoever has perused the works of Latrobe Like giants, looking through the sky, To hail the sun's unrisen car,
and Inglis, Mercey and Lewald, and Mr. Murray's HandThat gilds their diadems of snow;
Book for Travellers in Southern Germany will agree with us While one by one, as star by star,
in the opinion that few countries will better repay a closer Their peaks in ether glow.
examination than has yet been bestowed upon it by the
traveller. Asw countries have been more talked of, of late years, than
SECTION 1. the Tyrol, and yet how few are the travellers who have HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. desoribed it. In many respects it is the successful rival The ancient name of Tyrol was Vindelicia. Its modern of its neighbour Switzerland, which is overrun with tour appellation is said to be derived from Teriolis, an ancient ists. The vastness and gloomy grandeur of some of the castle in the valley of Venosta. It was conquered by alpine passes of Switzerland surpass what is to be found Augustus, and afterwards suffered during the decline of the in the Tyrol; but it has its peculiar points of interest, Roman empire, for the valleys of the Eisach and the Adige among which, the traveller will not lightly esteem the were doubtless among the highways by which the northern character of the people. “The beau ideal which we form tribes poured into Italy. On the permanent settlement to ourselves of the Swiss peasantry is far nearer realized in of the barbarians, Tyrol was included in the Ostrogothic the Tyrol, than in the Swiss Alps: the innocence, the empire; and in later times, its masters were successively gaiety, the simplioity, and the hospitality which every one the Lombards, the Franks, the Bavarians, and the Ausdreams he shall discover in Switzerland, but which are trians. rarely found, will be met with in the Tyrol." The olis During the middle ages, the Tyrol was divided among a mate and the produotions of the soil, also, greatly surpass number of petty lords, spiritual and temporal, who owned those of Switzerland.
a nominal allegiance to the head of the Germanic empire. It is difficult to entice the tourist from the beaten path The first noble who appears to have gained an ascendancy along which he travels in comfort, and merely exchanges was Mainhard, Count of Goerz and Tyrol, to whom the luxuries of his own land for those of another; but if in Rudolph was in great measure indebted for his elevation to exploring new scenes he must leave his comfort behind the empire. The race of Mainbard ultimately becamo him, it becomes still more difficult to persuade him to quit extinct in the person of Margaret, surnamed Maultasch, or the beaten path. The access to Switzerland is easy on an great mouth; and she having become connected by two sides, and accommodation for the traveller is everywhere successive marriages first with the house of Bavaria, and abundantly supplied. It is not so with the Tyrol, for in then with that of Austria, granted the reversion of her order to get to it, a circuit must be made of part of Bavaria, Tyrolese possessions to the dukes of Austria. This bequest crossing the Bavarian Alps, or else the traveller must pass gave rise to a fierce contest with the dukes of Bavaria, who VOL. XXV.
disputed the succession; and the quarrel was only termi- | the road over the Brenner. The greatest elevation of this nated by the purchase by Count Rudolph of his rival's road is near the fortification of Schamitz, or about 6000 claim. Margaret's grant was subsequently confirmed by feet. Charles IV., and since that period the Tyrol has been an The extensive mountain region which forms the south appanage of the Austrian family.
east boundary of the Tyrol, is known by the name of the The Tyrol is bounded on the west by a portion of the Carnic Alps. They extend partly within Tyrol and partly Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, and by Switzerland. It is within the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom. Few of its separated from Lombardy by a continuous chain of high peaks are covered with perpetual snow; among the highest mountains, which commence from the Lake of Idro, and is Monte Marmolata, which rises to the height of 11,500 extend northwards to the Ortler Spitz. This great chain feet. This range is connected with the eastern Tyrolese then extends to the west, but a lateral chain branching out Alps by a narrow ridge of moderate elevation, which sepasomewhat irregularly to the north separates Switzerland rates the sources of the Drau from those of the Rienz from Tyrol, and terminates on the banks of the Inn, with This ridge is connected on the north with the extensive the steep mountains that inclose the valley in which snow masses and glaciers of the southern portions of the Finstermünz stands. North of the Inn the mountain range Drey Herrn Spitz. The road which connects Tyrol with bears the name of Rhætium, which extends nearly east and Austria passes over this ridge. west between the Inn and the Rhine, and is the boundary The mountain road over Monte Stelvio was constructed between Tyrol and Switzerland. The Rhine to its entrance by the Austrian Government, between the years 1820 and into the Lake of Constance forms the remainder of the 1825, for the purpose of establishing a direct communication boundary. On the north, Tyrol is bounded by Bavaria, between Tyrol and the Valtelin. This road passes over but the boundary is frequently broken by streams flowing the elevated and snow-covered mountain masses to the north ward; on the east, by Austria and Illyria; and on north-west of the Ortler Spitz. Its highest level rises 9174 the south, by mountains, which separate it from Lom- feet above the sea, or 1500 feet above the limit of perbardy, but this boundary is also frequently interrupted by petual snow. This, the loftiest carriage-road in Europe, streams.
will be further noticed in these sketches. The surface of the Tyrol has been estimated at 11,457 The Inn and the Etsch are the largest rivers of the Tyrol. square miles.
It is far more mountainous than Switzer- The Inn rises to the west of the Rhætic, in Engadin, and land; indeed, it is almost entirely covered with mountains, enters Tyrol by a narrow valley at Finstermünz. Its some of which ascend above the limits of perpetual snow, course within Tyrol is about one hundred miles. It beand are encompassed with extensive glaciers. Tracts fit comes navigable for small boats about twenty miles above for the plough occur only along the borders of some of the Innspruck, and for larger boats about eight miles below rivers, and seldom attain a greater width than half a mile; that town. At Kufstein it leaves Tyrol and enters and altogether these tracts do not occupy more than one- Bavaria. tenth of the surface of the country.
The Etsch has its sources in the mountains to the west The Tyrolese Alps do not attain so great an elevation as of the Ortler Spitz; it flows eastward until it is joined by the Western Alps, in Mount Rosa, or Mont Blanc. The the Passeyer rivulet, when it takes a south-eastern direcmost elevated occur along the western boundary-line, south tion. At its junction with the Eisach, below Botzen, it of the Inn, and in the great chain which runs through the flows south, and becomes navigable. At Borghetto it leaves country, from west to east, forming a portion of “the great Tyrol and enters the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom. In granitic back-bone or frame-work of Europe.” Monte Italy this river assumes the name of the Adige. Adamello is more than 11,000 feet above the level of the It has been calculated that one-tenth of the country is sea, and from this to the Ortler Spitz the peaks are nearly always covered with snow; but the more southern valleys always covered with snow. The Ortler Spitz is the highest are not more than five hundred feet above the sea level: summit of the Rhætic Alps.
hence the climate is different in different places. The great The last-named mountain is separated by the great chain unevenness of the surface causes the air to be in continual which runs through the country from west to east, by the motion, so that a calm day is of rare occurrence. The deep and wide valley of the Upper Etsch, called Vintschgau. south winds resemble the sirocco of Italy, and are much This great chain is separated by a wide depression of the dreaded, especially in the southern valleys. They prevail mountains, through which the road over the Brenner passes must towards the end of summer, and in a few hours disfrom Germany to Italy. The western division consists of solve an immense quantity of snow, producing a volume two extensive elevated mountain masses, called the Moun- of water, which causes inundation in some parts of the tains of the Platey Kögl, or of the Great Oetzthaler Ferner, valleys. and of Winacher Ferner. The former masses occupy In the north of the Tyrol, an elevation of 7500 feet, and nearly all the country between the Inn on the west and in the south, 8500 feet, produces perpetual snow, and even the Achen on the east, a space of nearly thirty miles from at an elevation of 6000 feet, snow continues all the year in north to south, and of twenty miles from east to west: a places sheltered from the sun. But when exposed to it, large portion of this tract is covered with perpetual snow;
the declivities of mountains are covered with grass that the highest of its peaks are Mount Gebitsch, which attains serves for pasture during the summer months.
At an an elevation of 12,276 feet; the Simitaun Spitz, 11,859 feet; elevation of between four and five thousand feet fir trees and the Great Oetzthaler Ferner, 10,434 feet. The Wina- grow; potatoes and vegetables are cultivated, and a few cher mountains form a less extensive mass, but several of spots are permanently inhabited: here the winter lasts its summits exceed an elevation of 10,000 feet; such as the eight or nine months. In all places below 4000 feet Kitz Kamp, the Winacher Ferner, the Winter Stuben, agriculture prospers: rye, barley, and potatoes are grown: and the Bock Kögl.
apple and pear trees thrive at the elevation of 4000 feet, but To the east of the Winacher mountains the peaks di- a lower elevation is required for the plum and the walnut. minish in elevation. The road over the Brenner does not The beech occurs between 3000 and 4000 feet, and the exceed 4374 feet above the level of the sea, which is in oak between 1800 and 3000 feet; the vine does not thrive fact the least elevated mountain-road across the Alps. higher than between 800 and 1800 feet. East of this road, the most elevated mountains of the The most fertile lands are in the valleys of the Inn and Tyrol form an elevated ground, which extends from west the Etsch; wheat, rye, barley, and oats are cultivated to east, and constitutes, at its eastern extremity, the boun- when the soil and climate are favourable. Buck wheat is dary between Tyrol ind the Austrian district of Salzach. grown in some parts to a great extent, and is used for bread. Most of its mountains are capped with snow, and the Millet is also grown to a limited extent; Indian corn is highest peaks are the Schwarzenstein, the Drey Herrn extensively cultivated, and tobacco moderately so, in the Spitz, and the Gross Glockner, which is 12,438 teet above valleys of the south ; and potatoes to a great extent in the the level of the sea, and occupies a position contiguous north. Flax and hemp are generally cultivated. Fruit to Austria, Illyria, and Tyrol.
trees abound in the south, and large quantities of fruit are Another mountain range to the north-west and north of are exported to Bavaria. Plantations of fig trees occur those already noticed, is separated from them by the valley near Trent, and chesnuts are common at Roveredo: the of the Inn. It contains the sources of the Lech and Isar, olive and the mulberry are also cultivated at these places; which flow from it into Bavaria. The highest points in where also the silk-worm thrives. On the banks of the this range are the Arlberg, which attains an elevation of Lago di Guarda crops of oranges ripen, and wine is also 10,200, and the Great Golstein of 9702 feet. To the west made in many parts. of the last-named mountain is the road which leads from “It is at Riva, and the head of the Lago di Guarda,"; Bavaria to Innspruck, and is the northern continuation of says Mr. Inglis, “ where we see the olive trees scattered
over the banks, the pomegranate kissing the little waves, exercise of it, and in accuracy of aim, they furnish an and the broad-leaved fig tree, and its crooked branches, admirable corps of sharp-shooters. The Tyrolese rifle is a spreading in nooks of the rocks, that we are naturally led heavy, clumsy instrument, but is nevertheless prized above to glance retrospectively at the productions of the Tyrol, the lighter and more elegant arms made in France or Engfrom its northern and highest extremity, to the borders of land by its owner, who has probably inherited it from his the Lago di Guarda ; and there is something very interest ancestors. The trigger is so delicate as almost to set off by ing, as well as curious, in this retrospect. From the sum a gust of wind.
There is scarcely a village in Austria, mit of Mount Brenner to the southernmost extremity of Tyrol, Styria, or Bohemia without its shooting-ground, the Tyrol, one valley extends—a valley about a hundred where the peasants meet to practise. At stated times every miles in length; and this valley exhibits a scale of produc- year matches are made, and the marksmen of one village, tions more varied, than will be found in any similar extent parish, or valley meet to contend for a prize with one of territory. We have first, alpine productions, but to another. Such trials of skill are worth the traveller's pass these over, and to note only the productions of culti- attention; the common distance is from two hundred and vated land—we have first, then, barley, thin and scanty, fifty to three hundred paces, and a good shot will hit the and a few hardy vegetables; we come next to Indian corn bull's eye three times out of five. The victor is carried of a poor growth, with barley more vigorous ; oats, grass, home in triumph, with flags, music, and garlands, by his and firs. The third gradation brings us to a little wheat, own people, and receives as a trophy the target, which is mingled with all these, and to some walnut trees, besides hung up in front of his house, where five or six similar fir. In the fourth division of the valley, we find Indian memorials of skill are often seen suspended at once. corn and wheat growing luxuriantly; vines beginning to “It may readily be imagined how formidable an arm the appear; and fruit trees, especially the cherry, in abundance. rifle becomes in the hand of such expert marksmen; and The fifth gradation shows us, with all these productions, when the hardy habits of the people, and the mountainous vines in luxuriance, and magnificent walnut trees, entirely nature of the country are taken into consideration, the superseding the hardier wood.. At the sixth step we find success of the Tyrolese in their memorable struggles for some additions to these; the mulberry begins to appear; | independence, in the face of overwhelming numbers, disciand fruits of the more delicate descriptions are found. plined troops, and skilful generals, may be understood with
The seventh division presents the vine in its perfection, the out difficulty. They needed little tactics or drilling for the mulberry in its abundance, and the fruits we have seen warfare they waged,- by day, saw-dust thrown into the before in greater luxuriance. The eighth, and last, grada- head-waters of the rivers flowing in various directions, contion shows us, with all that we have seen before, the olive, veyed the signal of the intended rising in a few hours to all the pomegranate, and the fig. The valley of the Adige is quarters of the compass,—and' by night, the beacon-fires indeed peculiarly calculated for the display of this scale; from a hundred mountain-tops sent forth the inhabitants the low temperature which in its upper parts accompanies of as many different valleys to the place of rendezvous. its great elevation gives us the productions of a northern The rising was universal; none but infants, aged, and latitude; while, as we descend, the valley being open to infirm staid at home; even females, in some instances, the south and shut in in every other direction, a vegetation hurried to take part in the contest, and to aid their husis produced that belongs to a more southern latitude than bands and brothers. The bands thus suddenly summoned the country enjoys.”
together dispersed when an emergency required with all The cattle are of moderate size, and somewhat abundant; the rapidity of a summer shower, and from their knowledge horses are less so; sheep are numerous, and in recent times of every path and mountain, pursuit was hopeless. Again, great attention has been paid to the improvement of the when a stand was to be made, they had the choice of their breed. Goats are very common; pigs, fowls, geese, and own ground, and a whole division of disciplined troops was ducks are not plentiful. Among wild animals are the often kept at bay by half a dozen ambushed foes. It was chamois, hares, marmots and partridges. Eagles are con their ambuscades which, more than any other manæuvre, spicuous among the birds of prey.
foiled and daunted their assailants. Obtaining from their Gold and silver may be reckoned among the mineralogical spies intelligence of the time and direction in which the wealth of the Tyrol, but the quantity is small. There is army of French and Bavarians were about to pass, they some copper: lead, iron, zinc, and coal are more abundant; occupied the sides of some defile where the beetling mounrock-salt and a fine marble are also valuable products of tains seemed to overhang the road. There collecting a vast the country
mass of large stones and rocks they bound them fast on the SECTION 2.
verge of the precipice, and awaited until the serried ranks of
the enemy were entangled in the depths below. Upon a given SKETCH OF THE TYROLESE.—THEIR MANNERS
signal the ropes were cut, and the loosened mass burst with AND Customs.
a crash down the precipice, increasing in velocity at every “On entering Tyrol from Switzerland, it is probable that bound, overwhelmed and beat down hundreds of terrified the first sight of its scenery may disappoint the traveller, enemies, burying them beneath a cataract of rocks. Upon but in its inhabitants he cannot fail to perceive a change for such occasions, when dismay was at its height among the the better-self-interest, obsequiousness
, and the desire for ranks of the invaders, the riflemen, perched unseen among gain, no longer prominently distinguish the people in their rocks and trees, and far out of reach of harm, took deadly intercourse with strangers. The more noble character of the aim and committed fearful havoc, especially among the Tyrolese is as marked as his open countenance and upright officers. Even within the walls of a fortified town, the carriage. It is not, however, on high roads or beaten paths French officers were not safe from these unerring marksmen. that he is seen to advantage ; let the traveller penetrate into It is a well authenticated fact that many men were picked off remote valleys of the German Tyrol, and ascend to the in the streets of Botzen by peasants posted on the hills above high pastures, he will there find poverty free from selfish the town, at a distance from which it would be deemed ness, and laborious perseverance without discontent. Every hardly possible to take aim. After one of those bloody inch of ground that presents a slope towards the sun, or is contests which took place near Innspruck, a body of Bavacapable of irrigation, is brought under tillage, though earth rians several thousand strong, laid down their arms to a and manure must often be carried up to it several miles, on very inferior force of Tyrolese, perfectly inadequate to the peasants' backs. For the sake of an armful of hay the escort them to a place of safety. As there was no prison shepherd will not unfrequently endanger his neck in climb near at hand large enough to hold them, the mode resorted ing up precipices to grassy ledges, which he can reach only to, to prevent their escape, was to place them in a hollow by the aid of crampons on his feet.”
among the mountains, and to place sentries on the heights
** Rifle-shooting is a favourite pastime in all parts of marksman. The game, however, is become so scarce, even
stitious, and are also said to be immoderately fond of spiri- | he begins to whirl with his partner. To describe the tuous liquors, and to this may be partly owing the many dancing is scarcely possible. It was a confused mass of wrestling and pugilistic encounters which often lead to whirling, jumping men, each taking his own course, each fatal results. Almost every peasant wears a very thick wanting to storm himself out, each actuated by a blazing ring of silver or iron on the little finger of the right hand, flame that must have consumed him had it not found vent. and a fist thus armed inflicts cruel wounds. In the Ziller-One twirled round like mad, shouting till he was black in thal especially, an extraordinary form of combat is known the face, and his eyes appeared starting out of his head; to be common. It is called Haggeln, from the verb hikeln, another whistled on his finger till it rang again; a third to hook. It commences by the two combatants pulling tried his powers of vaulting; a fourth strove to surpass with the middle finger crooked; but as they become heated | him; and all found rooin for these exercises and evolutions, with preliminary skirmishing the encounter becomes as none interfering with the others. Ainonyst them whirled remarkable as it is cruel and unnatural. M. Lewald des- the maidens with crimson fuces, on which slione gaiety and cribes it in the following example:-“ The Zillerthaler has enjoyment; and although no dancer kept his arm round his an innate passion for these rude battles. Often in a lonely partner ainidst the frenzied throng, uproar and seeming mountain-path, the fit seizes him, when it announces and confusion, every planet knew the sun round which he was relieves itself by a peculiar ringing cry. If the cry be to revolve, the couples re-uniting with marvellous accuracy, answered from whatever distance, he need only follow the whenever they thought fit. . . . At five o'clock this scene sound to find an antagonist. And answered the cry must of rapturous exhilaration was to end. The assessor of the be, if it reach the ear of mortal who understands its mean- district tribunal, a little, pale, cracked-voiced man, appeared ing,—so command the laws of honour. My companion amongst the dancers, and all was over. The glowing Titans related, that one day a handsome lad was on the mountain, took off their caps, laughed bashfully, and looked down. in company with an experienced grey-beard, when hé Our looks petitioned for them; the good-natured assessor heard the cry;
He answered it, and his eyes Aushed drew out his watch, cleared his throat, and said, 'If you brighter, and the colour deepened on his cheek. He fol- will be very orderly you may dance till nine. A loud lowed the guiding sound, and on turning a projecting rock shout was the answer, and at the very instant the whirling met his dearest friend, his neighbour, the accepied lover of began again, so that the grave functionary had some diffihis sister. Had he been alone it is likely that the haggeler culty in escaping with a whole skin.” frenzy would, for once, have evaporated innoxiously; but The favourite, because liveliest, dance-tune is vulgarly the experienced old rustic haggeler was present, and both called Hosen-aggler, (the breeches-shaker,) from the violent youths were ashamed to shrink from the conflict. Laugh- commotion produced in those garments by the prodigious
they began, and, hooking their fingers, dragged each leaps and bounds to which it impels the dancers. other hither and thither, whilst the old man looked on, The Tyrolese have acquired more celebrity out of their encouraging, observing, stimulating, deciding. Thus they own country for their songs and music than for their dancgradually became heated; too violent a blow exasperated ing. It is said that in the Tyrol a violin or a guitar is to one of the friends, who grasped the other, flung him on the be found in every cottage, and not unfrequently a piano. ground, and stooped over him. The fallen hagyeler, exas- “Each valley has its own peculiar airs, full of sweetness perated in his turn, seized his adversary's nose with his and melody, similar to those which the Tyrolese minstrels teeth and strove to bite it off, the sufferer cried out, but the made so popular in England a few years ago, and which old man decided that biting off the nose was as lawful as were nothing more than the ordinary songs (Jödeln) of the digging out the eyes. The combatant who despaired of his shepherds and dairy-maids on the mountains, which they nose took the hint, and with his thumb gouged out the eye carol forth with a peculiar intonation of the voice within of the nose-biter. Buth parties had now had enough, and the throat, making the echoes ring with their wild notes." rose bleeding from the ground, the one of the future A Swedish traveller in the Tyrol, M. Atterborn, describes brothers-in-law noseless, the other one-eyed; whilst the the Tyrolese singing and singers somewhat in the followold man, with high gratification, pronounced that the laws ing terms:-“ In the evening we suddenly heard sweet of pugilism and of honour were fully satisfied.”
female voices, and a meludy that touched us deeply. We Boxing and wrestling matches are not uncommon at followed the sound, and found two young girls singing festivals. The successful champion in a match transfers popular Tyrolese songs at the table d'hôte. We bade them the cock's feather worn in his opponent's hat to his own; come to us next. They came and sang all they knew, even three feathers mark the champion of a valley or parish, and till midnight. We were highly delighted and thankful for it not unfrequently happens that the champions of two the privilege of hearing these songs in the Tyrol itself, and neighbouring valleys are pitted together. We are, however, sung by natives. The peculiar mode of singing them, that pleased to find that these savage pastimes are being put variation and fraction of sounds celebrated all over Germany down by the interference of the magistrates.
under the nanie of to jodeln or johlen, which is held to It cannot, of course, be expected that men who shew no express a redoubled alternating echo of herdsmen's voices merey among themselves should be merciful to their beasts. and hunting-horns amidst the mountains, requires such
The different communities of Zillerthalers pride themselves marvellous action of the voice, such springs and falls of in the possession of powerful rams with enormous horns tones, as cannot possibly be produced by other throats than and beard. The rams are pitted against ench other for such as have had the Alps for their singing school. They considerable sums of money. If neither ram conquers, the are imitated, however, as may be, especially at German people themselves fight to desperation. A passion for universities, where, as is well known, a sort of forester's wagers is common to all the Tyrolese, and the possession of or hunter's life is always led. Nay, at Jena, the Senatus an alpine pasture is often decided by one throw of the Academicus was compelled to publish a prohibition, 'more dice.
Tyrolensium inconditos clamores edere,' (to utter rude cla. These vices may doubtless be referred to the abuse of mours after the Tyrolese fashion,) because it happened fermented drinks so common among the Tyrolese, as well that all the windows of a many-storied house, situate in a as to that love of excitement which appears to form a part large market place, and entirely inhabited by students, were of their character. These stimulating causes, however, for a considerable length of time, seen open from morning more generally expend themselves in pastimes of a more till night, and crammed full of shirt-sleeved sons of Minerva, harmless character, among which the dance stands pre-em- who jodléd away all day long in so full a chorus, that busiinent. M. Lewald describes one of the rustic balls in a vil- ness was at a stand, and the whole town remained as if deaf lage inn, where he was dining. It commenced with a sort of and dumb. “hurly-burly," as though the house was tumbling about his “But it was not by their lays only that the young song. ears. "The musicians were only tuning their instruments, stresses afforded us poetic enjoyment; the story of their own and already the dancing couples were in action, stamping, life, which we had from the people of the inn, is highly whirling, leaping, and shouting in a style that impressed a poeticalThey are properly three in number, orphans, in stranger at once with their joyousness, and his own incapacity age from fifteen to twenty, live in a little cottage out of to share it, at least, in the same way. What I most espe- Inspruck, and support themselves by their singing. They cially noted upon this, and other similar occasions, was a visit the town daily, or are sent for to sing their simple violent convulsive trembling that seizes the youths, begin- ditties to lovers of music and travellers. Two are sisters, ning in the head, thence passing into the arms, and discharg- wlio have taken the third, a poor orphan like themselves, ing itself by the legs, that 'stamp with the rapidity of into their singing association. This last we did not see till lightning, and a seemingly superhuman force. The whole the following morning, when we had appointed them to occupies about a second, yet spreads over the entire man. come again and repeat their songs. They now sang in Every dancer passes through this spasm of delight, before addition a ballad upon Hofer and his feats; they siood
before his portrait, and his blithe countenance seemed to listen with pleasure to his name, as it sounded so grate tent. Those which cover the Swiss highlands rarely confully on the lips of the daughters of his country. Nature vey such vast ideas. There, the woods climb only halfway has endowed all three with admirable voices, they have up their ascents, which then are circumscribed by snows: practised singing together, and they give the whole with here no boundaries are set to their progress, and the mouna force, a warmth, a correct harmony, and a musical tains from base to summit display rich unbroken masses of judgment that cannot be sufficiently praised. Neat and vegetation. clean in their dress, they are perfectly modest, and free " As we were surveying this prospect, a thick cloud, from all appearance of beggary. They come in only when fraught with thunder, obscured the horizon, whilst flashes summoned, drop a modest but slight curtsey at the door, of lightning startled our horses, whose snorts and stampings step quickly forward, place themselves in a triangle in the resounded through the woods. The impending tempests middle of the floor, look only at each other, and instantly gave additional gloom to the firs, and we travelled several begin their songs. When they have sung as much as they miles almost in total darkness. One moment the clouds can, they at length raise their eyes to the travelling audience, began to fleet, and a faint gleam promised serener intervals, and with simple child-like friendliness and a pretty curtsey, but the next was all blackness and terror; presently a ask whether they have given satisfaction, adding that they deluge of rain poured down upon the valley, and in a can sing no longer. He were a barbarian, who could short time the torrents, beginning to swell, raged with such scantily reward their nightingale-toil. Thereupon they violence as to be forded with dificulty: Twilight drew on return thanks for what they have received with another just as we had passed the most terrible: then ascending a curtsey somewhat deeper than the former, and rapidly mountain, whose pines and birches rustled with the storin, vanish from one's sight.”
we saw a little lake below. A deep azure haze veiled its eastern shore, and lowering vapours concealed the cliffs to the south; but, over its western extremities hung a few transparent clouds; the rays of a struggling sunset streamed on the surface of the waters, tinging the brow of a green promontory with tender pinks.
“I could not help fixing myself on the banks of the lake, for several minutes, till this apparition faded away. Looking round, I shuddered at a craggy mountain, clothed with forests, and alınost perpendicular, that was absolutely to be surmounted before we could arrive at Walchen-see. No house, not even a shed appearing, we were forced to ascend the peak and penetrate these awful groves. At length, after some perils but no adveuture, we saw lights gleam upon the shore of the Walchen Lake, which seemed to direct us to a cottage, where we passed the night, and were soon lulled to sleep by the fall of distant waters.
“The sun rose many hours before me, and when I got up was spangling the surface of the lake, which spreads itself between steeps of wood, crowned by lofty crags and pinnacles. We had an opportunity of contemplating this bold assemblage as we travelled on the banks of the lake, where it forms a bay sheltered by impending forests; the water, tinged by their reflection with a deep cerulea 11, calm, and tranquil. Mountains of pine and beech rising above, close every qutlet; and no village, or spire, peeping out of the foliage, impress an idea of more than European solitude.
“From the shore of Walchen-see, our road led us straight through arching groves, which the axe seems never to have violated, to the summit of a rock covered with daphnes of various species, and worn by the course of torrents into innumerable craggy forms. Beneath lay extended a chaos of scattered cliffs, with tall pines springing from their crevices, and rapid streams hurrying between their intermingled trunks and branches. As yet, no hut appeared, no mill, no bridge, no trace of human existence.
“ After a few hours' journey through the wilderness, we began to discover a wreath of smoke; and presently the cottage from whence it arose, composed of planks and
reared on the very brink of a precipice. Piles of cloven fir THE PASS OF TIR NONTE STELVIO.-GALLERIES IN THE WORUSER
were dispersed before the entrance, on little spot of verdure, browsed hy goats; near them sat an aged man with
hoary whiskers, his white locks tucked under a fur cap. SECTION 3.
Two or three beautiful children with hair neatly braided,
played around him; and a young woman dressed in a short APPROACH TO THE TYROL PROM BAVARIA. FROM THE
robe and Polish-looking bonnet, peeped out of a wicketBAVARIAN FRONTIER TO INNSBRÜCK.
window. A few short, but beautiful descriptions of the entrance “I was so much struck with the appearance of this into the Tyrol from Bavaria are given in Mr. Beckford's sequestered family, that, crossing a rivulet, I clambered up letters, which, though written so far back as the year 1780, to their cottage and sought some refreshment. Immediately are still for the most part true, because, as he says, "they there was a contention amongst the children who should be are chiefly filled with delineations of landscape, and those the first to oblige me. A little black-eyed girl succeeded, effects of natural phenomena which it is not in the power of and brought me an earthen jug full of milk, with crumbled revolutions or constitutions to alter or destroy."
bread, and a platter of strawberries fresh picked from the “ Having refreshed ourselves, we struck into a grove of bank. I reclined in the midst of my smiling hosts, and pines, the tallest and most flourishing we had yet beheld. spread my repast on the turf: never could I be waited on There seemed no end to these forests, except where little with more hospitable grace. The only thing I wanted was irregular spots of herbage, fed by cattle, intervened. When language to express my gratitude; and it was this deficiency ever we gained an eminence it was only to discover more which made me quit them so soon.
The old man seemed ranges of dark wood, variegated with meadows and glitter- visibly concerned at my departure; and his children foling streams. White clover and a profusion of sweet- lowed me a long way down the rocks, talking in a dialect scented flowers clothe their banks; above, waves the moun which passes all understanding, and waving their hands to tain ash, glowing with scarlet berries: and beyond, rise bid me adieu. hills, rocks, and mountains, piled upon one another, and “I had hardly lost sight of them and regained my carfringed with fir to their topmost acclivities. Perhaps the riage before we entered a forest of pines, to all appearance