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Channel, would be likely to drive a portion of the sand THE OLD CONDUITS OF LONDON. from the hill into this once cultivated little valley. It
I. . is so. The sand rises in the air, is carried inland on the breeze, and falls on the earth a shower of desolation. An east wind comes in its turn; but, less frequent and less powerful than the western gales, it repels not the destroyer; and the result is, that the sand gradually accumulates in depth, and the cultivated farm becomes a barren and dreary waste. Year after year has added to these accumulations, until the sand is become several feet in depth.
It is a striking illustration of the uncertainty of terrestrial tenure. To be sure, this silent and gradual accumulation of sand is not to be compared with those fearful sand-storms of the desert, where mountains of sand, literally flying on the wings of the wind, prostrate whole caravans to the earth, and involve man and beast in one common ruin: “ The Lord shall make the rain of thy land powder and dust: from heaven shall it come down upon thee, until thou be destroved.” But these
Them miniature storms are not less destructive of vegetable
REBUILT IN THE YEAP. life, or at least of agriculture, than are the whirlwinds
. 1667 of the desert destructive of animal life.
SIR THO DAWSKN When we visited this solitude, some eighteen or
L MAYOR. twenty years ago, part of a building was still to be seen, which was filled with sand to the depth of three or four feet; and we understood that many acres of land had been “inundated” to this depth within a few years. We saw two or three small trees, and a few remaining bushes of hawthorn, which had once formed part of a fence. And eren these were in unis in with the surrounding scene. They bloomed not: there was none of the “ May's" delicious perfume
To waste its sweetness on the desert air. The recollection of this scene brings vividly before our view that beautiful sentence, which has ever clung to our memory, since we first saw it in one of our school-day reading books: “If the spring puts forth no blossom, in summer there will be no beauty, and in LAWBY'S CONDUIT, AS REBUILT IN 1667, FROM A DESIGN BY autumn no fruit; so, if youth be trifled away without
SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN. improvement, manhood will probably be contemptible, | Pure water being one of the necessaries of life, the and old age miserable.”
means for obtaining an abundant supply have in all To prevent the further progress of the sand, two ages been an object of great solicitude. We learn from fields, formerly the richest land in the neighbourhood, the earliest records, that wherever any advances had had been sown with a sort of rushy grass called star, been made in civilization, wells were dug and fountains which grows plentifully on the margin of the shore. formed. The contrivances mentioned by ancient writers This plant, “the star or sea-reed, the roots of which are still the subject of comment by modern travellers, penetrate deep into the sand, and offer a fixed point especially in those countries where even a scanty supply round which it may collect," is considered so valuable a of water is often of the utmost importance to the barrier against these sandy inundations, that in the reign migratory pastoral tribes, and, in some cases, to the of Queen Elizabeth an Act of Parliament was passed residents in towns and villages. In the sacred records, making it penal to destroy this useful plant; and at the wells of Abraham and Isaac are mentioned, with various times, motives have been held out for its culti- the contentions which they occasioned. (Gen. xxvi.) vation.
The well of Jacob is rendered memorable by the conAt low water there is a pleasant ride on the shore to versation of our Lord with the woman of Samaria. Liverpool, turning inland a short distance to cross the (John xiv.) Alt, a small stream that runs into the sea a little south The supply of water to the population of a large of Formby Point. There is not, at least there was not, city, requires much scientific knowledge and skill. A much of peculiar interest to the traveller; but he must notice of the different schemes adopted at various times, be of a very dull imagination, or of a very grovelling will serve to exhibit the progress of improvement in mind, who can take a first ride along the sea-shore, other respects. We have already noticed the introwhatever the shore may be, and find no amusement, and duction of pavements into public streets*; and some of pick up no instruction.
the methods of lighting our cities and townst; and on the present occasion, the reader may find some amuse
ment in the inquiry as to the supply of water in LonWe should learn to be just to individuals. Who can say, I don, previous to the construction of water-works at in such circumstances, I should have done otherwise ? Who, did he but reflect by what slow gradations, often by
London Bridge and the New River. In this and how inany strange concurrences, we are led astray ; with
another article on the same subject, our information is how much reluctance, how much agony, how many efforts
chiefly derived from an amusing and instructive work to escape, how many self-accusations, how many sighs, how
by Mr. Matthews, entitled Hydraulia. many tears-who, did he hut reflect for a moment, vould In a description of London, written by Fitz-Stephens have the heart to cast a stone? Fortunately these things in the reign of Henry the Second, the author states, are known to Him, from whom no secrets are hidden; and that “Round the city again, and towards the north, let us rest in the assurance that His judgments are not as ours are. -- ROGERS.
* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XIII., p. 219. '+ See Saturday Magasine, Vol. XIII., p. 140.
arise certain excellent springs at a small distance, whose | commonalty to lay down a leaden pipe of six inches waters are sweet, salubrious, clear, and 'whose runnels bore, from six fountains or wells in that vicinity; and murmur o'er the shining stones!' Among these, Holy- as this useful work was expensive, the principal citizens well, Clerkenwell, and St. Clemnent's well, may be esteemed the principal, as being much the best frequented, extend further than the western boundary, for it is
contributed liberally. This large pipe did not, probably, both by scholars from the schools, and youth from the city, stated by Stow, that in 1432, Tyborne water was laid when in a Summer's evening they are disposed to take an airing.”
into the Standard, Cheapside, at the expense of Sir In Stow's Survey of London, written in the reign of John Wells, lord mayor; and likewise in 1438, by Queen Elizabeth, the following notices occur:
another lord mayor, Sir William Eastfield, from Tye Anciently, until the Conqueror's time, and for two hun- borne to Fleet Street and Aldermanbury; and from dred yeares after, the Citie of London was watered, (beside Highbury to Cripplegate. the famous river of the Thames on the south part,) with According to Mr. Nelson, the historian of Islington, the river of Wels*, as it was then called, on the west ; the conduit formed at Highbury was opposite Highbury with water called Wallbrooke, running through the midst of the citie into the river ot' Thaines, serving the heart Place, but is now arched over with brick, its situation thereof; and with a fourth water or boorne, which run
being marked by an upright stone, which points out within the citie through Langbourne Ward, watering that the direction of the springs on the higher ground, from part in the east. In the west was also another great water which it receives its supply. From this ancient conduit, called Oldborne.
which remained open as a watering place for cattle Then were there three principal fountaines or wels in before the building of Highbury Place, many of the the other suburbs: to wit, Holywell, Clement's Well, and houses there are now served with water, a proper comClerke's Well. Neare unto this last fountaine, were divers munication having been made, on building them, for other wels; to wit, Skinner's Well, Fag's Well
, Tode that purpose. By these means it flows into wells or Well, Löder's Well, and Radwell. All which said wells,
reservoirs behind the houses, which also communicate having the fall of their overflowing into the aforesaid river, much increased the streame, and in that place gave it the with each other, the lower well receiving the surplus naine of well. In West Smithfield there was a poole, in water when the upper one is filled. records called Horsepoole; and another near to the parish These means for supplying London with water, exchurch of St. Giles', Cripplegate. Besides which they had tensive as they were esteemed then, were inadequate to in every gate and lane of the citie, divers faire wels
, and their intended purpose. The citizens still continued to fresh springs, and after this manner was this citie then adopt a very primitive method of supplying their wants, served with sweet fresh waters; which being since decayed, be showed ; but first of the aforenamed rivers and waters is time," continues Stowe, “ many of these lanes were stopped other means have been sought to supply the want, as shall fetching it from the Thames “by many lanes that led
to the water side in divers wards of the citie. But in to be said as followeth:
The said river of Wels, the running water of Wall- up by those that dwelt thereabouts, for their own gain, brooke, the boornes, &c., and other fresh waters that were
who would suffer none to pass without paying a duty. in about the citie, being in process of time, by incroach- This became a great grievance, insomuch, that in the sevenments for buildings, and heightening of grounds, utterly teenth of Edward the Third, (1342,) the Maior, Aldermen, decayed; and the number of citizens mightily incrensed, these lanes and passages to the Thames. Upon this an they were forced to seek for waters abroad, whereof some, at yeare of his reigne, were for the profit of the citie, and good and of all the lanes that were common passages to the the request of King Henry the Third, in the twenty-first inquisition was made, and divers persons of the several
wards sworn to make diligent inquiry into these grievances, of the whole realme thither repairing, to wit, for the poore Thames, who brought in presentments of them, and of the to drink, and the rich to dress their ineate.
The first cisterne of lead, castellated with stone in the annoyances and stoppages of them in several wards." citie of London, was called the Great Conduit, in West
That encouragement was given to persons who procheap, which was begun to be builded in the yeare 1235, posed to increase the supply of water to London, will Henry Wales being then mason. The water-course from appear from the following statement:-In 1439, the Paddington to James' head, hath 610 rods; from James' Abbot of Westminster granted to Robert Large, the head on the hill to Mewsgate, 102 rods; from the Mewsgate lord mayor, and the citizens of London and their succesto the Crosse in Cheape, 484 rods.
sors, one head of water containing twenty-six perches in This appears to have been the first attempt made to length, and one in breadth, together with all the springs supply London with water by means of metal pipes; in the manor of Paddington, in consideration of the and the work appears to have been regarded, at the time city paying for ever to the said abbot and his sucof its execution, as one of the greatest magnitude and cessors, on the feast of St. Peter, two peppercorns. importance ; a work which could now be executed with But if the intended work should draw the water from ease in a few weeks, occupied the long period of fifty the ancient wells in the manor of Hida, then the grant years. The pipes were not simply imbedded in the to cease and become entirely void. This grant was earth, as is the present custom, but inclosed within a
confirmed by Henry the Sixth, and likewise a writ. of capacious arch of brickwork, into which workmen could Privy Seal issued, allowing the lord mayor and citizens descend, when necessary, to repair any damage.
power to purchase two hundred fodder (loads or tons) About the year 1236, another scheme was adopted of lead, for the intended pipes or conduits; and also to for supplying water to London, as appears by a proposal impress plumbers, labourers, &c., for carrying on the made by some foreign merchants, who were desirous of said work, provided always that their wages be punclanding and housing their wares; for this privilege they tually paid thereon. agreed to pay fifty marks yearly, and to give one hun These useful works seem to have been carried on dred pounds towards the expense of the operations then during several successive years; for Stowe records, that going on, for conveying water from Tyborne to the in 1441, William Combes, sheriff
, gave ten pounds to city. This important undertaking originated in a grant the works of the conduits; and that in 1442, the confrom Gilbert de Sandford, enabling the lord mavor and duit in West Cheape was built ; and the one in Alder
* Pennant states that the river of Wells, or Wal-brook, is mentioned manbury, as well as the Standard in Fleet Street, in in a charter of William the Conqueror to the College of St. Martin's-le. 1471; also, that in 1476, Richard Rawson, one of the Grand, and it rose to the north of Moorfields,
passed through London sheriffs, gave twenty pounds towards the work of the long time qnite exposed, having several bridges erected over it. Two conduits; and that in 1478, a cistern was added to the or three centuries ago it was vaulted over with brick, paved at the top, Standard in Fleet Street, another at Fleet Bridge, and and formed into a street now called Walbrook." He also remarks that " forinerly barges of considerable burden fowed up the river Fleet as another without Cripplegate. The conduit in Gras high as Holboro Bridge ; qver it were four stone bridges, on its sides Street was built in 1497, and Oldborne Cross about extensive quars and warehonses, and it was scoured and kept open at a vast expense, nearly twenty thousund pounds baving been applied to that
1498. purpose in 1606."
Many facts have been collected which indicate the
anxiety of the corporation, as well as of private indi
THE KITCHEN GARDEN. viduals, to benefit their fellow citizens by contributing
V. to the supply of water. In 1546, the common council
MAY. voted a sum of money for the purpose of erecting a conduit at Lothbury, the water to be supplied from
Gradaal sinks the breeze Hoxton Fields. During the same year, another conduit
Into a perfect calm, that not a breath was constructed near the church in Coleman Street,
Is heard to quiver through the closing woods,
Or rustling turn the many twinkling leaves The conduit erected by Mr. William Lambe merits
or aspen tall. Th' uncurling floods, diffused yarticular notice. Mr. Lambe is said to have been a
In glassy breadth, seem, through delusive lapse, gentleman of the chapel royal, in the time of Henry the
Forgetful of their course. "Tis silence all,
And pleasing expectation. Herds and flocks Eighth. At the place named after him, Lambe's Con
Drop the dry sprig, and, mute imploring, eye duit, he caused several springs to be so connected as to
The falling verdure. Hnsh'd in short suspense, form a head of water, which was conveyed by a leaden
The pluny people streak their wings with oil,
To throw the lucid moisture trickling off, pipe, about two thousand yards in length, to Snow Hill,
And wait th' approaching sign, to strike at once where he rebuilt a conduit which had long been in a
Into a gen'ral choir. Ev'n mountains, vales, ruinous state and disused. He is said to have expended
And forests, seem impatient to demand
The promised sweetness. Man superior walks a very large sum of money upon these structures, and
Amid creation, musing praise, thus, by his benevolent efforts, conferred an important
And looking lively gratitude. At last,
The clouds consign their treasures to the fields, advantage on a populous neighbourhood. His bene
And, softly shaking on the dimpled pool factions for other purposes were also numerous. He
Prelusive drops, let all their moisture flow was buried in St. Faith's Church. Over his tomb was
In large effusion o'er the freshen'd world.-THOMSON inscribed an epitaph, written in the quaint punning Spring showers, so beautifully described in the above
, conclusion :
lines, are full of blessings to the earth, and are especially
witnessed with delight by agriculturists and cultiva. O Lambe of God
Home to thy fold,
tors of gardens. To the kindly influence of warm and
gentle rains, do we owe the beautiful freshness of our Was offered up for sinne;
Lambes and goates shall sever, pastures, the rapid growth of the various crops, and the Where I (poor Lambe)
Of thy cho:ce Lambes Went from thy flocke astray,
constant succession of wholesome fruits and vegetables Lambe may be one for ever. Yet thou (good Lord)
which our gardens supply, Vouchsafe thy Lambe to winne
Among the earliest vegetables sown in May, may be reckoned the dwarf varieties of the kidney-bean,
which are followed in the second week by the scarlet Logic is the art of thinking well. The mind, like the and white runners. This kidney-bean (Phaseolus) is a body, requires to be trained before it can use its powers in delicate vegetable, as well known, and almost as unithe most advantageous way. A man may be strong and brave without having learnt the military exercise ; but he versal a favourite as the pea. Its botanical name Phawill be able to exert his natural strength and courage to
seolus is supposed to allude to the shape of the seed-pod, much more advantage after he has been trained as a soldier : which resembles a boat first invented at Phaselis, a town and so, a man whose understanding has been regularly taught of Pamphylia. The English name Kidney-bean was and exercised in the art of thinking, will be able to employ given on account of the seed being of a kidney shape. his natural powers more quickly, easily, and certainly, than French-bean is another name given to this vegetable, he could otherwise have done. A multiplicity of unmean, owing to its long cultivation in France. ing or unimportant distinctions were formerly made, and much idle labour was spent in logical studies
. The good lands, is said to have taken place about the year 1509,
The introduction of this vegetable from the Nether. sense of modern times has brought these useless pursuits intu disesteem ; but the artificial training and exercise of but the greater number of the present varieties are of the intellectual powers is, at present, too little regarded. much later date. The dwarf varieties are twelve in A modern education stores the memory with a great and number; they are of very low growth, and require no various mass of well ascertained and important facts; but support. Of the runners there are six varieties; these it leaves the powers of abstraction and reasoning unculti- ascend to the height of eight or ten feet, and therefore vated, and only accidentally exercised. In consequence of require tall sticks, around which they may wind themthis system, while extensive information on all those branches of knowledge which consist in mere collections of selves; or they may be planted near trellis work, where facts is widely diffused, very few individuals are found who their leaves and blossoms form no inelegant covering. are competent to a continued effort of thought; and very The scarlet runner was formerly in great repute for the few books are published, which require in the reader more beauty of its blossoms, which were added to the nosegays than the lightest exercise of the intellectual faculties.- of ladies. Elements of Thought.
The best soil for kidney-beans, especially for the
early sowings, is a light mellow loam, inclining to sand; Connaught, particularly the mountainous part, was long a
if the seed be sown in wet tenacious earth, the greater favourite place of refuge for the Celtic Irish, when driven part of it generally decays without germinating, and by the English from the eastern districts. It has, therefore, those plants which do contrive to struggle into existence, like Wales, retained a more completely national character, seldom last long or produce much. From the beginning the English language being scarcely understood in the more remote regions. Leinster, on the other hand, is almost dwarf varieties may be made, if necessary, every three
of May, to the first week in August, sowings of the Anglicized, the Irish language being spoken in only a few out-of-the-way corners. "Nearly the same may be said of weeks. If a removal is intended, the sowings should be Munster, though scarcely to the same degree. Of Ulster, made in pots, as the roots are less injured in that way, the greater part has received a Scottish impression, though than in being transplanted from a seed-bed. In all Irish is still spoken here and there. Connaught is the only cases the seed is buried an inch and a half or two inches thoroughly Irish province. Leinster may be said to be the deep in the earth. The rows, if of the small varieties, province of light; Connaught the province of darkness, to must be a foot and a half apart; if of the larger, two Ireland : in the former is the greatest cultivation, and the feet. The rows of the earlier crops are best ranged lovely land of Wicklow; in the latter, poverty, barbarism, north and south. Kidney-beans, whether dwarf or superstition, and the wilds of Connemara. Even in trifles there is a marked difference between the inhabitants of the climbing, are very tender plants, and the early crops two provinces. Thus in Leinster, as throughout England, frequently fail. In order to get them a fortnight earlier people eat the entrails of the sheep, but never those of the than they could otherwise be procured without the aid hog; in Connaught it is just the reverse.-Kohl's Ireland. I of hot-house or pits, a slight hot-bed is sometimes made
about the third week in April, and covered five or six a kind of soup. At Bornou Major Denham found four inches with some light rich soil, over which one or kinds of beans in cultivation, and raised in great abunmore hand-glasses must be set, or the bed may be arched dance. All are known by the general name of gafooly, over with stakes and covered with mats; the seed under and are eaten by the slaves and poorer people. In the this protection will soon vegetate, and begin to appear towns near the river no other food was to be procured above ground. Plenty of air must then be given to by the traveller and his companions than a paste made harden them and prepare them for planting out. To- of beans and fish. wards the latter end of May, if the plants have pro Throughout the month of May the winter main crops spered, and the weather be favourable, they may be re of potatoes are planted. The potato is an invaluable moved to the shelter of a warm wall, or into a southern vegetable, and forms in many countries almost as indisborder, where the ground must be well broken up and pensable an article of food as corn itself. It is supposed drills made to receive them. The plants are then care to be a native of South America; though Humboldt is fully removed with a garden trowel and set about four somewhat doubtful whether it be not merely naturalized or five inches apart, and an inch or two deeper than there. It was the opinion of Sir Joseph Banks that they were before in the seed-bed. If the ground is very potatoes were first introduced to Spain from the moundry, so that water is needful, it should not be given tainous parts of South America, early in the sixteenth quite cold from the pump, as the tender plants are century, and thence found their way to Italy. In South likely to be chilled and receive injury thereby. “As the America the vegetable was called papas, in Spain beans advance in growth the earth is drawn round the batatas, and in Italy taratoufli (the same name as the stems occasionally, and, if necessary, the tops of a few truffle). The potato was sent to Clusius at Vienna in of the leading shoots are taken off, to render the crop 1598, and receiving the name of cartoffel, spread rapidly more equal.
throughout Germany. Britain first received this invalu. The running varieties of kidney-bean are easy of cul- able root by means of Sir Walter Raleigh, or of the tivation, and are often seen growing in great luxuriance colonists sent out under the authority of his patent in cottagers' gardens, sometimes forming an arbour or granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1584, for discovering a porch, and affording shelter from the heat of the and planting” in North America, new countries not sun.
It has been remarked of these plants, that in their possessed by Christians." These colonists returned from voluble habit of growth the tendrils turn to the right, Virginia in 1586, and it was probably at that time that or in a direction contrary to the apparent diurnal course the vegetable was first seen in Great Britain. Sir of the sun; and that this fact being an exception to the Walter Raleigh had an estate at Youghal, near Cork, common habit of climbing plants, is probably to be ac and it was there that the potato was first raised. counted for by supposing that the native country of the Among the anecdotes relating to the introduction of scarlet runner will be found to lie south of the equator, the potato the following is often told as a fact. When Sir and that the plant, although removed to the northern Walter Raleigh's gardener had reared the first crop of hemisphere, is still obedient to the course originally as potatoes on the estate at Youghal, he saw no other signed to it, turning in a direction which in its native product than the berries containing the seed, and taking climate would be towards the sun.
these to his master he inquired if this was all the fruit While the pod and its inclosed seeds are only used he was to expect from the much-talked-of plant. Sir as a vegetable in England in their green or immature Walter examined the berries (some say caused them to state, the ripe seeds are extensively used in France and be cooked), and was so dissatisfied with the result, that Italy for the purpose of making a favourite dish called he ordered the gardener to root them out as worthless “haricot." The dwarf white kidney-bean is the variety weeds. The gardener obeyed, and in digging them up principally employed for this purpose, and it is occa- found a bushel of potatoes. If this story be true, we sionally used in the same way in England. The seeds must suppose that Sir Walter feigned ignorance for the are first boiled for a short time, and then stewed in sake of amusing himself with the surprise of the garrich gravy, with high seasonings. The soil for the dener at the discovery of the tubers ; for it is not very running varieties of kidney-bean may be of the same likely that he would have introduced and cultivated the nature as for the dwarf kinds. The cultivation is recom- potato with so little knowledge of the nature of the mended by Rogers to be as follows. About the second plant. The value of the vegetable soon became appaweek in May, an open well-wrought piece of ground is rent, and it was therefore soon afterwards cultivated in prepared, and a drill drawn from north to south about English gardens; but it was thought so great a delicacy two inches deep. The seed is then dropped in, about that Gerard, who had some growing in his garden in three inches asunder, and covered lightly with the hoe. 1598, and called them Battata Virgiana, recommends If there be more than one row, they should be full as a good mode of cookery that the roots be steeped in three feet apart, so as to be well open to the sun and sack and sugar, or baked with marrow and spices, or air. When the plants are three or four inches high even candied by the comfit makers. In the reign of they are to be earthed up, and as soon as runners begin James the First potatoes were provided for the royal to form, tall, strong, bushy sticks should be placed household in small quantities, and at the exorbitant firmly on each side. The crop will afterwards give but price of two shillings per pound. little trouble, except in keeping the ground clear of This vegetable first became an object of national weeds, and gathering the pulse for use. When a crop importance 1663, when a recommendation was issued of these beans is required to continue for a length of from the Royal Society to plant it throughout the king. time in a bearing state, the fewer beans left on for seed dom to prevent famine. This recommendation, though the better; these checking their produce for the table. not immediately complied with, drew more general atten. When the growth of the scarlet runners is checked by tion to the plant, while the necessities of the poor in the autumn frosts, the haulm is sometiines cleared away, Ireland did much to promote its culture; indeed, this and dry litter spread over the roots as a protection | latter cause was more influential than any other, for from severe weather. The plants will in this state sur- public societies appeared to set forth almost in vain the vive the winter, and putting out new shoots, will fre- advantages which would result from the general use of quently produce an early and abundant crop. But the this vegetable. Private prejudice was enlisted against practice of sowing fresh seed every spring is preferable, it. One of our English writers on gardening at the end and attended with greater certainty of success.
of the seventeenth century, admitted indeed that the Kidney-beans are pretty generally cultivated in civil potato was much used in Ireland, and in America as ized countries. In some countries the leaves are used bread, and might be propagated with advantage to poor as a culinary vegetable, in others the seeds are made into people; but writers on husbandry, and on gardening in
general, overlooked the potato altogether, or spoke of it flowers, and the white-rooted with white flowers. Some with contempt. In a Gardener's Calendar for 1708, the of the most esteemed sorts are the Ash-leaved Kidney, root is described as resembling in nature the Jerusalem Foxe's Seedling, Early Champion, Red-topped Kidney, artichoke, "although not so good and wholesome, but it and the Purple or Deep-red potato. may prove good for swine. In Bradley's extensive Potatoes are too frequently spoiled in the cooking, works on horticulture, published rather later, a slight and, however fine the particular variety, they are thus notice of the potato is accompanied by the following made unwholesome and disagreeable. Those who are so zemark: “ They [the potatoes,] are of less note than inattentive to the preparation of this article of food, horse-radish, radish, scorzonera, beet, and scirret; but would do well to take a lesson from the Irish labourers, as they are not without their admirers, I will not pass so numerous in most parts of our country during har, them by in silence."
vest-time; or, at least, to attend to the following simple Potatoes were not cultivated in Scotland before the directions supplied by an Irish gentleman to the author
In 1728 Thomas Prentice, a day-labourer, of the Vegetable Cultivator. “An untinned iron sauce. first planted potatoes in the open fields in Kilsyth, and pan is always preferable for boiling potatoes. In preparing with so much success that every farmer and cottager them they should never be peeled, or they cannot be well followed his example. Prentice was a frugal and indus-cooked, and much of their nutritious quality will be lost; trious man, and the produce of his plot of ground was
they only require to be washed clear, and at farthest to be 80 valuable to him, and so much in demand among his lightly scraped. After soaking for about an hour, put
them into a saucepan with cold water enough to cover neighbours, who came to him for seed potatoes, that
them, and when it begins to boil (which is the chief point in the course of a few years he was enabled to save to be observed in the cooking of them) let a tea-cup full of two hundred pounds, which to a Scotch day-labourer cold water (rather more or less according to the quantity) was no inconsiderable fortune, and which by prudent be put in, which will check the boiling and allow time for management afforded a resource for his old age. He the potatoes to be done all through, without their being in died in Edinburgh in 1792, at the age of eighty-six. any danger of breaking: when they are sufficiently soft, But ignorance of the management of the crops had long the water, and let the saucepan with the potatoes continue
pour retarded the utility of the vegetable throughout the
for a short time over a gentle fire, and the heat will cause kingdom, and bad cookery rendered the small and dete
any remaining moisture to evaporate, when, after having riorated potato still more unwholesome. It is said that
been peeled, they will be fit for table. By this method of when potatoes were first planted in the county of Forfar, cooking, (if strictly adhered to,) they will be found, espea visitor, who was invited to taste the new dainty, found cially if of a good kind, to be very mealy, floury, and delithat the roots had been scarcely heated through, and cately flavoured.” that consequently their flavour was very disagreeable,
The remaining operations of the month consist in and they stuck to the teeth like glue. A gentleman keeping up a succession of the crops of former months; happening to arrive from Lancashire, where the mode brocoli for the autumn supply in the third or fourth of cooking was better known, the potatoes which had week; Dutch and Swedish turnips once or twice; cubeen discarded in disgust, were put into the hot turf cumbers for pickles, or for late supply; transplanting ashes until they became as agreeable as they had before cabbages and cauliflowers from seed-beds; placing celery been nauseous.
in nursery-rows, or putting strong plants into trenches; From the middle of the eighteenth century this vege.
with general attention to neatness and order. table made steady progress in the favour of our population, so that in 1796 it appears that in Essex alone, Every one at all versed in history must be acquainted with seventeen hundred acres of ground were planted with many instances of severe and protracted struggles concernpotatoes for the London market. At the present time ing matters which are now remembered only on account of there is no longer any question as to the utility of this
the struggles they occasioned; and again of enactments vegetable, and it is so extensively cultivated in all parts hardly attracted any notice at the time, and were slipped
materially affecting the welfare of unborn millions, which of the country that an abundant supply can be procured into one of the heterogeneous clauses of an act of parliain every place, and in all seasons.
ment.--ARCHBISHOP WHATELY, The soil required for the potato is a light rich loam, neither too dry, nor too moist. If planted in a tena. THERE is a void in our hearts which we would fain fill, cious soil, the weight and pressure of the earth will and we seek to do it with the dust of earth instead of with prevent the proper formation of the tubers, or should the light of heaven; but the only true wisdom is to give they be formed of tolerable size, the moisture retained
up these empty dreams of how much better our lot or we by such a soil would render them waxy and unwhole ourselves would be, if we had but some treasure which we some. A somewhat sandy soil is therefore preferable, lie in our own hearts; so do those of content and peace;
see or fancy another to possess. The materials of misery if there is sufficient humidity to nourish the roots. (I dare scarcely use so bold a word as happiness, while I Potatoes may be propagated from seed, by cuttings, speak of human feelings in this sin-stained world of sorby layers of the young shoots, by sprouts from the eyes, row;) and if we use the latter in the right place, and the and by cuttings or portions of the potato itself. This right way, namely, in consecrating them to God rather last method appears to be the best, and is therefore than to ourselves, and in seeking His will before our own, practised almost universally. The sets, or cuttings from
we shall find that the restless, covetous ambition which too the tubers, are planted in lines from twenty to twenty: shadow. Oh! it is a long and tedious lesson: doubly so in
often poisons our best moments, passes from us as a forgotten four inches apart, either in drills, or by the dibble, at intervals of from twelve to fifteen inches. A peck of reason, we look upon the paths that others tread, and
the bright hours of youth; for then, in spite of our better seed potatoes is usually required to plant a bed of twelve because we cannot discern the same thorns which mark our feet by thirty-two. The young plants are kept free own, we fancy that they are easier and more sunny than from weeds, and hoed up when they are about half a we find ours can ever be. Each man's lot seems in some foot, or a foot high.
respect brighter than the one assigned us; each companion Different counties and places in England have their appears to have had his dreams of hope less checked than favourite varieties of potato, and some of these varieties
those whose broken relics we carry in our own bosoms; are excellent only in their particular district, where the
and so, instead of making the best of what we have, and climate and soil agree with them, for if transplanted to idly dream of better opportunities for happiness or good,
are, and filling up to the full the measure appointed us, we what appears an equally good situation in another
and waste our energies in coveting what is not our own.county, they become waxy and ill-flavoured. There Truth without Prejudice. are two general divisions under which the different sorts of potato are ranged,--the red-rooted with purple JOHN W. PARKER, PUBLISKER, W&ST STRAND, LONDON.