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scarcely a breath of air stirring, when the captain called | ration that the sheet of ice was fifteen or sixteen square our attention to the sound, as of distant artillery, vibrating miles in area, and three feet thick, may be easily imagined. in a low gentle murmur, upon the water, and distinctly Nor was this all : I was occasionally surprised by sounds heard at intervals during the whole day. He said it was produced by the wind, indescribably awful and grand. caused by an engagement at sea, and believed the enemy Whether the vast sheet of ice was made to vibrate and had attacked our fleet at Alexandria. No such event had, bellow like the copper which generates the thunder of the however, taken place, and it was afterwards known that stage, or whether the air rushing through its cracks and the sounds we then heard, proceeded from an attack, made | fissures made a noise, I will not pretend to say, still less to by our troops, against the fortress of Rachmanie, on the describe the various intonations which in every direction Nile beyond Rosetta. This had commenced upon that day; struck upon the ear. A dreary undulating sound wandered and hence, alone, the noise of guns could have originated from point to point, perplexing the mind to imagine whence The distance of Rachmanie from the coast, in a direct line, it came, or whither it went, and whether aerial or subteris about ten leagues ; this allows one hundred and thirty ranean, sometimes like low moaning, and then swelling into miles for the space through which the sound had been a deep toned note, as produced by some æolian instruinent, propagated when it reached our ears."

it being in real fact, and without metaphor, the voice of Dr. Arnott relates a case where the sound of bells winds imprisoned in the bosom of the deep. This night, was heard on board a ship sailing along the coast of (March 7, I listened for the first time to what was then Brazil, far out of sight of land. The sound was heard

I perfectly new to me, although I experienced its repetition

on many subsequent occasions, whenever the temperature during an hour or two, at a particular spot on deck,

fell very suddenly. and it seemed to vary as in human rejoicings. All on board came to listen, and were convinced as to the existence and nature of the sound, but to account for it

CURIOUS CHESS PROBLEMS. was impossible. Months afterwards it was ascertained, that at the time of observation, the bells of the city of

IX. Şt. Salvador, on the Brazilian coast, had been ringing Tue following is a remarkable example of the Piox on the occasion of a festival: their sound, therefore, COIFFÉ, or capped pawn, in which the first player puts favoured by a gentle wind, had travelled over, perhaps, a ring, or a little paper cap, over a particular paws, with a hundred miles of smooth water, and had been brought which he undertakes to give his adversary check-mate. to a focus by the concave sail in the particular situation This problem is by Michele DI MAURO of Calabria, on the deck where it was listened to.

who is celebrated by Salvio as an excellent player, Many remarkable sounds in nature are produced by “worthy of all praise." He flourished about the end repeated reflection from surfaces. In some situations of the sixteenth century. the sound of a cascade is concentrated by the surface of It may be of use to the young student to be reminded a neighbouring cave, that a person accidentally entering that, in all such cases as the present, where the mate is it is startled at the uproar. In the gardens of Les required to be given by a particular piece or pawn, the Rochas, once the well-known residence of Madame de last move being known, the number of moves required Sevigné, is a remarkable echo, which illustrates finely to be discovered is, in effect, reduced by one ; for exthe conducting and reverberating powers of a flat sur- ample, the present problem requires for its solution five face. The Chateau des Rochas is situated not far moves, but as the last move is known, the student has from the interesting and ancient town of Vitré. A | to discover only four moves, whereby he brings the broad gravel walk on a dead flat, conducts through the pieces into such a position that he is enabled, at the fifth garden to the house. In the centre of this, on a parti- | move, to give check-mate with the Pawn. cular spot, the listener is placed at the distance of about White to move first, and to give check-mate with the ten or twelve yards from another person, who, similarly Paun which now occupies the King's fish square placed, addresses him in a low, and, in the common

in five moves. acceptation of the term, inaudible whisper, when, “Lo! what myriads rise !" for immediately from thousands

BLACK. and tens of thousands of invisible tongies, starting from the earth beneath, or as if every pebble was gifted with powers of speech, the sentence is repeated with a slight hissing sound, not unlike the whirling of small shot passing through the air. On removing from this spot, however triffing the distance, the intensity of the repetition is sensibly diminished, and within a few feet ceases to be heard. Under the idea that the ground was hollow beneath, the soil has been dug up to a considerable depth, but without discovering any clew to the solution of the mystery. On looking round for any external cause, the observer who has supplied this des scription, says, “I felt inclined to attribute the pheno. menon to the reflecting powers of a semicircular low garden wall, a few yards in the rear of the listener, and in front of the speaker, although there was no apparent connexion between the transmission of sound from the gravel walk and this wall. The gardener, however, to whom I suggested this, assured me that I was wrong, since within his memory the wall had been taken down and rebuilt, and that in the interim there was no perceptible alteration in the unaccountable evolution of these singular sounds."

On the smooth surface of ice, and on a much larger scale, a somewhat similar effect has been observed. The following instance is given in Head's Forest Scenes:

March 7. The frost continued, and the cold increased to a very low temperature, the effect of which upon the

The contemplative soul can make a solitude for herself in extended sheet of ice, which covered the bay, was somewhat remarkable. It cracked and split from one end to

every place.-ST. AUGUSTINE. the other, with a noise that might have been mistaken for distant artillery ; but this, when it is taken into conside

Joux W. ParkER, PCBLISHER, West STSAXD, LONDON,

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I.

its fellow-establishments, was dissolved by Henry the WESTMINSTER College ranks among the first esta- Eighth, the king was pleased to signify his intention blishments in the kingdom; and of the youth there of restoring some of these religious communities under educated very many have been distinguished in different a new character, and on different foundations. Westperiods of our history, by becoming, to the honour minster Abbey, therefore, was dealt very gently with, of their country, eminent divines, statesmen, orators, and was honoured with episcopal distinction. On the poets, &c.

17th of December, 1540, the king raised it by letters As early as the reign of Edward the Confessor, there patent into a cathedral, with an establishment consisting was a school attached to Westminster Abbey; for of bishop, dean, and twelve prebendaries. The new Ingulphus, the historian of Croyland Abbey, states bishop was Thomas Thirleby, dean of the king's chapel; that he himself received his education at that school, and the late Abbot of Westminster was appointed dean ; the that often, when returning from Westminster School, prior and five of the monks were made prebendaries ; Edgitha, the queen, would inquire of him touching his four other monks were made minor canons ; and four learning and 'lesson; and “falling from grammar to more were sent as king's students to the two universilogie, wherein she had some knowledge, she would ties. The remaining members of the brotherhood were subtilely conclude an argument with him," and after also provided for, being dismissed from their cloister wards send him home with cakes and money. Very few with pensions, and allowed either to undertake some notices, however, remain to show the character of this parochial office, or to live in seclusion, according as early establishment. Fitz-Stephen, in his Life of Thomas inclination might direct them, à Becket, observes, that the three principal churches in A palace and a revenue were assigned to the bishopthe metropolis had schools attached to them, and these ric, the former being the residence of the late abbot, and three appear to have been, St. Paul's, Westminster the latter derived from the estates of the dissolved Abbey, and St. Peter's, Cornhill. Notices also exist of Abbey: some of the Abbey lands were also assign to the salary paid by the almoner of the monastery in the the endowment of the dean and chapter. It likewise reign of Edward' the Third, to a schoolmaster who is appears that the chapter was charged with the payment described as magister scholarum pro eruditione pue- of four hundred pounds per annum, to ten readers or rorum grammaticorum, This salary was continued professors of Divinity, Law, Physic, Hebrew, and Greek; down to the dissolution of monasteries.

five in each of the universities. Also with the stipends When the Abbey at Westminster, sharing the fate of of twenty students in those universities, amounting to Vol. XXIV

756

1661. 13s 4d. Two masters and forty grammar scholars committee, and in 1649 this guardianship was further also formed part of the establishment as founded by extended by an act for the continuance and support of Henry the Eighth.

the school and almshouses at Westminster. The church In 1544, the church at Westminster was discharged remained under the control of this committee until the from paying the stipends of the king's university stu- Restoration in 1660, when affairs took their former dents, on consideration of yielding up lands to the annual course, and a dean was restored to the collegiate church amount of 1671. And two years afterwards other es of Westminster in the person of the learned and excel. tates were surrendered to the yearly value of 4001., that lent Dr. John Earle. the church might be released from the salaries of the Westminster School is not separately endowed with professors. A portion of the latter sum was given to | lands and possessions, but is attached to the general Trinity College, Cambridge, the rest to Christchurch, i foundation of the collegiate church, as far as relates to Oxford.

the support of forty scholars. It is under the care of In 1550, Bishop Thirleby surrendered his bishopric, the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, and conjointly in submission to the will of Edward the Sixth, who re with the Dean of Christchurch, Oxford, and the Master united the diocese with that of London. Thus the of Trinity College, Cambridge, respecting the election episcopal dignity of the church at Westminster was of of scholars to their several colleges. The boys on the brief duration. No notice had been taken on this occa foundation are called King's scholars, from the royalty sion in the king's letters patent of the Dean and Chapter of their founders, and are in a state of collegiate assoof Westminster, and it appeared doubtful whether their ciation. They sleep in the dormitory; have their dinner canonical condition was to be considered as legal. This and supper in the hall; and may have, if they choose to occasioned an act of parliament, which constituted the claim it, a breakfast of bread and butter and beer, but the church a cathedral in the diocese of London. During statute ordains that the breakfast hour shall be at six this reign, there is record of the zealous efforts of one o'clock, and this is alone sufficient to prevent the boys from Alexander Nowell, formerly of Brasen-nose College, desiring the privilege. The king's scholars are distinOxford, to afford sound instruction to the youths in guished from the town boys, who are far more numerous, Westminster School. Anthony à Wood bears testi- by a gown, cap, and college waistcoat. This dress is mony, that such was his zeal to train the scholars in furnished by the college, but in so coarse a material that sound Protestant principles, that in the following perse- it is customary for the scholars to provide others of a cuting reign, the cruel Bonner “would have consigned better fabric, but in the same fashion. For education him to the shambles," had he not luckily made his escape and for special accommodations, the king's scholars pay from the country.

the same as the town boys. The privilege by which Under the government of Queen Mary, a total change they are distinguished is, that at the end of every fourth took place in the church at Westminster. Again was year, about eight or nine of their number are elected to its monastic character restored, and its subjection to the Christchurch, Oxford, and Trinity College, Cambridge; see of Rome effected.

Cardinal Pole assumed the in the former case to studentships worth from forty to power of re-composing the chapter. He gave the new sixty pounds per annum, in the latter to scholarships of abbot possession, and took upon himself the whole of of much less value. The election in May, and much the regulations without even requiring the royal assent. interest is required to get a boy elected to Oxford. But During this state of things the school formerly con- if interest is allowed to sway the election to the univernected with the church appears to have been entirely sities, it is not so with respect to the election of king's neglected and given up.

scholars. About thirty town boys propose themselves On the happy succession of Queen Elizabeth, West as candidates from the fourth, fifth, and shell forms, and minster Abbey was destined to undergo another change. are left to contend with each other in Latin and Greek, It was re-suppressed as a monastery, and in 1560, re and particularly in grammatical questions and speaking established on its present foundation as a collegiate Latin. Two boys will challenge for five hours together church, and endowed with all the lands possessed by in grammar questions; and at the end of eight weeks of the late abbots and monks. This foundation closely constant challenge, the eight boys at the head of the resembled that of Henry the Eighth, having a dean, number are chosen according to vacancies; those who twelve prebendaries, an upper and under master, and have presented themselves below the eight succeed forty scholars. These arrangements have also remained according to the next vacancies, the head master sitting undisturbed

up to the present time. The second dean, as umpire. This contest occasions the situation of the after the re-establishment of this cathedral by Queen king's scholars to be much sought after by the boys of Elizabeth, took a precautionary measure for preserving all ranks as a distiuction; it becomes a solid groundthe scholars from the effects of the plague then ravaging work of reputation, and incites a desire to obtain the London. Holding the prebend of Chiswick at the same election, time, he obtained the privilege for his church of being There are four boys also called bishops' boys; so tenant in perpetuity of the prebendal estate, that it denominated from their being established by Williams, might afford a place of refuge from any pestilential bishop of Lincoln. They receive a gratuitous education, disease or epidemic for the chapter, the masters of the and are distinguished by wearing a purple gown : they school, and the scholars. Thus it appears that on some do not, however, live in the college, or enjoy any other occasions subsequently, the scholars were removed to advantage, except a small annual allowance, which is Chiswick to escape the plague. The same dean, who not paid while they remain at Westminster, but is sufbore the appropriate name of Goodman, appears to have fered to accumulate until the period of their admission given his serious attention to the improvement of the to St. John's College, Cambridge, when with some school. He brought the scholars into one spacious additions it amounts to about twenty pounds a year for chamber, regulated the commons, and added to the ac- four years. These boys are nominated by the dean commodation of the masters. He is also supposed to and the head master. have influenced the Lord Treasurer Burleigh in 1594, Among the head masters of Westminster School, who gave a perpetual annuity of twenty marks, to be from the time of its foundation, there are many eminent distributed among the scholars elected to the two uni

William Camden, the celebrated author of the versities.

Britannia, held that office in 1593; Dr. Busby, the During the civil wars, the Dean and Prebendaries of eminent scholar, in 1638; the learned and indefatigable Westminster were in general dispersed, and the school | Dr. Vincent, in 1788. seems to have shared the same fate. In 1645, however, The expense of Westminster School, as it relates to parliament consigned the government of the church to a the forty foundation boys, or king's scholars including

names.

the salaries of the masters, is stated in the Government over the fogge like a white liste in the skie, the tops Report not to exceed 12001. per annum. The collegiate altogether covered with snow, and the shoare beset with salaries are 391. 6s. 8d. to the upper, and 15l. to the ice a league off into the sea, making such irksome noise, under master, with houses for their residence. What as that it seemed to be the true pattern of desolation, they receive individually from the scholars for instruc- and after the same our captain named it “ The Land of tion, is a remuneration apart, with which the church Desolation.'" Pereeiving that they were run into a has no concern. The annual payment to the masters very deep, bay, wherein they were almost surrounded is different in different years. It is thirteen guineas the with ice, they kept coasting along the edge of it, southfirst year, whether for a town boy or king's scholar, ten south-west, till the 25th, when they discovered that the guineas the next two years, and eight guineas the last shore lay directly north. They therefore altered their year. The assistant masters are not of collegiate insti course to the north-west, in hopes of finding the desired tution, and are proportioned to the state of the school: passage; but, on the 29th, they discovered land to the their incomes also arise from the scholars, for of the north-east, in latitude 64° 15'. On approaching the thirteen guineas paid for education, six go to the mas coast, (which, however, was still Greenland,) they found ters, and the rest to different ushers. Boarding-houses some good roads for shipping, and many inlets in the are provided for the accommodation of the town boys. land, whereby they judged this land to be a number of There are five of these, in each of which an usher islands standing together. Having landed upon a small resides and superintends the inmates. Further particu- island, they discovered some tokens of inhabitants, for lars concerning this celebrated institution will be given they found “2 small shoo, and pieces of leather sewed in a second notice.

with sinews, and a piece of fur and wool like to beaver." They then proceeded to another island, and having

ascended an eminence, the people of the country espied OLD ENGLISH NAVIGATORS.

them, and made a lamentable noise like the howling of CAPTAIN John Davis.

wolves. In order to get on friendly terms with these

people, Davis sent for his musicians, and caused them 1.

to play while a part of the crew danced. The natives In the year 1585," certaine honourable personages and gradually approached in their canoes, near enough to worthy gentlemen of the court and country, with divers talk,-“their pronunciation was very hollow through worshipful merchants of London and of the west coun the throat." At length one of them, pointing to the trey, mooved with desire to advance God's glory, and to sun, “would presently strike his breast so hard, that seek the good of their native countrey, consulting toge we might heare the blow. This he did many times ther of the likelihood of the discovery of the north-west before he would any way trust us. Then John Ellis, passage, which heretofore had bene attempted, but un the master of the Mooneshine, was appointed to use his happily given over by accidents unlooked for, which best policie to gaine their friendship; who strooke his turned the enterprisers from their principall purpose, breast, and pointed to the cunne after their order; which, resolved, after good deliberation, to put downe the ad- when he had divers times done, they beganne to trust ventures to provide for the necessarie shipping, and a fit him, and one of them came on shoare, to whom we threw man to be chief conductour of this so hard an enter our cappes, stockings, and gloves, and such other things prise.” According to Hakluyt, (whose authority we as then we had about us, playing with our musicke, and follow in the present narration,) the most active mer. making signes of joy, and dancing. So the night comchant of the company was William Sanderson, who, ming, we bade them farewell, and went aboord our “ besides his travaile, which was not small, became the barks.” greatest adventurer with his purse, and commended unto The next day no less than thirty-seven canoes were the rest of the company one Mr. John Davis, a man in motion about the ships, the natives calling to the very well grounded in the principles of the arte of navi- sailors to go ashore; but not being in a hurry to do so, gation, for captaine and chief pilot of this exploit.” one of the natives ascended a rock, and jumped and

This celebrated navigator was born at Sandridge, in danced, displaying a seal's skin, and making a noise on the parish of Stoke Gabriel, near Dartmouth, in Devon- a sort of timbrel, which he struck with a stick. Whereshire. His residence near that sea-port probably ex upon Davis, having ordered the boats to be manned, cited his taste for the life of a seaman. Accordingly, rowed up to them; and having mutually pointed, with at an early age, he went to sea, and with the assistance certain gestures, to the sun, a great confidence arose, of a good master, and his own skill and industry, he and barter proceeded briskly. "We bought five canoes soon became one of the ablest navigators of his time. of them; we bought their clothes from their backs, which Being furnished by the London merchants with two were all made of seale's skinnes and bird's skinnes; their small barks, “the Sunneshine of London and the buskins, their hose, their gloves, all being commonly sowed Mooneshine of Dartmouth,” of fifty and thirty-five tons

and well dressed; so that we were fully perswaded that they respectively, Davis departed from Dartmouth on the king of them full of fine wooll, like beaver. Their apparell

have divers artificers among them. We had a paire of bus7th of June. After experiencing, as usual, some delays for heat was made of bird's skinnes, with their feathers on from contrary winds, they came, on the 19th of July, them. We saw among them leather dressed like glover's to the sixtieth degree of north latitude; and in a very leather, and thick thongs like white leather of a good calm sea, they heard “a mighty great roaring, as if it length. We had of their darts and oares, and found in them had been the beach of some shore ;” the fog being that they would by no means displease us ; but would give great, and fearful of running suddenly upon land, they with whatsoever we gave them. They took great care one

us whatsoever we asked of them, and would be satisfied sounded, but found no ground at three hundred fathoms : of another; for when we had bought their boats, then two the captain then proceeded in a boat towards this sup- others would come and carry him away between them that posed beach, and was soon encompassed by numerous had sold us his. They are very tractable people, void of icebergs, and greatly astonished to find that the noise craft or double dealing, and easy to be brought to any civiwas occasioned only by the rolling of the ice together. lity or good order; but we judge them to be idolators, Davis broke off some pieces of the ice, which, being and to worship the sunne." carried to the ship, were converted into good water. The natives promised to return next day with a quanOn the next day they discovered the southern coast of tity of furs and skins, which they saw were highly Greenland, “ the most deformed, rockie, and mountain valued by the foreigners ; but à favourable breeze ous land that ever we saw; the first sight whereof did arising, and Davis having understood by signs from show as if it had bene in forme of a sugar-loafe, standing these people that there was a great sea towards the to our sighte above the cloudes, for that it did showe north and west, proceeded on his voyage. He steered

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across the strait which bears his name, and on the 6th

ECHINI, OR SEA-EGGS. of August found land in latitude 66° 40', quite free

1. from “the pester of ice,” and anchored in a safe road

While many of the zoophyte inhabitants of the ocean under a great mountain, of which the cliffs were as

take the form of branches, leaves, and flowers, there are “ orient as gold." This mountain he named Mount

vast numbers which have been popularly named sea. Raleigh; the road where their ships lay at anchor,

eggs, and sea-stars. The former of these we are not Totnes Road; the bay which encompassed the moun

about to describe. The Echini, or Sea-eggs, as they tain, Exeter Sound; the fore-land towards the north,

exist in the ocean, are animals having a calcareous shell Dier's Cape ; and that towards the south, Cape Wal

of a roundish, oval, or conical figure, and mostly covered singham. " While at anchor, the seamen saw three

with moveable prickles. While bristling with these white animals, which seemed to be goats. Anxious to

prickles or spines, the animal is called sea-urchin, or procure fresh victuals and some sport, they gave chace,

sea-hedgehog ; but when these fall off, the shell is more but discovered, not goats, but enormous white bears. The animals rushed on furious and fearless, till, being

commonly known as a sea-egg. The variety in these received with several balls, they retreated, apparently

animals is so great, that to describe their various forms, not much hurt, but were pursued, and at length killed.

certain genera have been named turbans, diadems, mer

maid's skulls, or hearts, or fairy stones. They appeared to have fed on nothing but grass; it was, however, necessary to remove large quantities of fat before the flesh could be eaten. On the 8th of August he left this place, and coasting for some days, arrived at the cape which he had before reached. This Fig. 1. promontory he named “ The Cape of God's mercy," as being the place of their first entrance for the discovery. Turning this cape, they came to a very fine strait or passage, twenty or thirty leagues broad, free from ice, and the water apparently the same as in the ocean. This passage still retains the name of its discoverer,“Davis's Straits.” Having ascended about sixty leagues along this strait, they discovered several islands in the mid-channel, on some of which they landed : the coast was very barren, without wood or grass, and the rocks were like fine marble, veined with different colours. On one of these islands the seamen heard the howl of

THE COMMON ECHINUS, (Echinus esculentus,) covered with its spines. dogs, and saw a number approach, of wolfish appearance, but apparently peaceably disposed. Impressed with the The common echinus may be taken as the type of idea that on these shores animals of prey were only to this curious order of animals, although, from the varibe found, they fired, and killed two; round the neck of ations in the several genera, the description of one one of which they found a collar, and soon afterwards species cannot be fully applicable to others. The exdiscovered the sledge to which he had been yoked. cellent description of this animal given in the article on Although the islands in this sound were numerous, yet Zoophytes, in the Encyclopædia Britannica, furnishes the passage was open, and the hopes of our navigators us with materials for the following notice. The shell of were daily increased, that, by pursuing this track, the the common echinus is of a globular figure, with a flatnorth-west passage might be discovered ; but about the tened base, formed of ten plates, united by ten others, and 20th of August, the wind appearing to settle in a con all proceeding from the rim of an aperture in the base, and trary direction, and dreading the approach of winter, rising upwards. These plates converge towards the top, they determined to return home. After a safe passage, and are united in a circle opposite the mouth, by a series of they reached Dartmouth on the 29th of September. small plates. The first series of plates is called area, by

Linnæus, and those by which they are joined together,

and which are all narrow, and of the same size, he DESCRIPTION OF A FOLIO.

named the ambulacra, from a fancied resemblance to

the walks between the parterres of a garden, laid out That weight of wood, with leathern coat o'erlaid;

after the olden fashion. Tubercles of different sizes Those ample clasps, of solid metal made; The close-prest leaves, unclosed for many an age,

cover these area, and on a close examination, it will be The dull red edging of the well-kill'd page;

seen, that a zig-zag line divides each area into two equal On the broad back the stubborn ridges roll'a,

parts, composed of numerous long hexagons set in cross Where yet the title stands in tarnish'd goid :

rows, and dove-tailed into each other with the most These all a sage and labour'd work proclaim,

perfect accuracy. The tubercles, with which the shell A painful candidate for lasting fame:

is thickly studded, support the spines or bristles which No idle wit, no trifling verse can lurk

are so remarkable in the animal. These move on a In the deep bosom of that mighty work; No playful thoughts degrade the solemn style,

pearly globular pivot that sinks into a corresponding Nor one light sentence claims a kindred smile.

cup in the base of the spine, and are retained in their Hence, in these times, untouch'd the pages lie,

place by the soft epidermis or skin that covers the And slumber out their immortality.

whole of the shell in its fresh condition. The primary They had their day, when, after all his toil,

spines are frequently large in proportion to the shell, His morning study, and his midnight oil,

but with these are generally intermingled smaller ones At length an author's Oxf great work appear'd,

of three descriptions, e. e., spines of the same form as By patient hope, and length of days, endear'd ;

the primary ones, but much smaller ; others, slender as Expecting nations hail'd it from the press; Poetic friends prefix'd each kind address;

a hair, but dilated into a club at each end; and a third Princes and kings received the pond'rous gift,

kind on a Alexible stalk, supporting three moveable And ladies read the work they could not lift.-CRABBE.

prongs placed in a triangle. The functions of these last are unknown, and they have been mistaken for

parasitical animals infesting the echinus. The ambuNEVER talk of your schemes before they are executed ;

lacra have no spines, but are perforated from top to lest, if you fail to accomplish them, you be exposed to the bottom with holes, arranged in a regular pattern. From double mortification of disappointment and ridicule, these holes are protruded slender fleshy tubes, with

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