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assembled: thus, the Grocers called themselves the frater- | and a half of fresh grease at 16d. per gallon. For the nity of St. Anthony, because they had their altar in St. spicery and kitchen there were collected, among other Anthony's church; the Vintners, the fraternity of St. articles, 94 lbs. of “poudre de pepir, 38.; 2 lbs. de sugre Martin, from their connection with St. Martin's Vintry blanch, 2s. ;" with saffron, ginger, mace, cloves, honey, church, &c.
figs, almonds, dates, “reysons de Corince, cynamon, notteSECTION 4.
meg, flower de ryse and sanders; also costards, wardens,
and other sorts of fruit; oatmeal, vinegar, virjuice, onions, PROCESSIONS, FEASTS, AND PAGEANTS.
and garlick, twelve gallons of cream, and eight gallons of We find that the fraternities were accustomed, at the milk.” There is also a curious account of the crockery, time of elections, to make processions to their respective pewter ware, rushes for the floor, napery or table linen, cost churches in great form, accompanied by the religious orders of cooks, and other attendants, &c., all mixed up in French in rich costumes, bearing wax torches, and singing, and and English. frequently attended by the Lord Mayor and the great civic Even at this period, the culinary art was in no despicable authorities in state. Stowe describes one of the processions state, since we find a notice of such agreeable preparations of the Skinners' society on Corpus Christi day, when more as their Leche Lombard, a kind of jelly made of cream, than two hundred torches of wax, costly garnished, burning isinglass, sugar, and almonds, with other compounds. A bright, were borne before them, and there were above two curious modification of the same, called a cury, was comhundred clerks and priests in surplices and copes, singing; posed of pork pounded in a mortar with eggs, raisins, dates, “after which came the sheriffs' servants, the clerks of the sugar, salt, pepper, spices, milk of almonds, and red wine; compters, chaplains to the sheriffs, the mayor's sarjeants, the whole boiled in a bladder. Their mottrews was a rich counsel of the city, the mayor and aldermen in scarlet, and soup or stew made of pork and poultry, pounded in a morthen the Skinners in their best liveries.”
tar and strained. In the form of a cury this mo!trews was Funerals were also observed among the brethren with compounded with blanched almonds, milk, and white flour great solemnity. The canons of St. Martin Grand agreed of rice. Doucettes, or little sweetmeats and confections, with the Saddlers' company, in Saxon times, that for every formed a garnish to the larger dishes, as did also various deceased member St. Martin's bell should be tolled, "and kinds of fritters, and payn-puff, or a preparation of bread procession made with burial freely and honourably.” At a stuffed with several sorts of forces and ragouts. Sometimes later period, the ordinances of the Grocers' company, en the payn-puff was directed to be made of marrow, yolk of force, " that at the death of a member of the brotherhood eggs, dates minced, raisins, and salt, in a delicate paste, and in London, the warden of the year should order the beadle moulded in an orbicular form. There is reason also to to warn the brothers to go to the dirge, and on the morrow believe that the halls were “aromatized" with the precious to the mass, under pain of viii. s.” And if any of the com Indian wood called sanders, thus adding to the luxury of pany died and did not leave sufficient to bury him, then it entertainments, which were of no ordinary kind. The was to be done of the common goods, for the honour of brilliancy of the feasts was also increased by the presence of the society:" These funerals appear to have been con the female members of the several companies. “ Amidst ducted with great pomp, each company being possessed of so many attractions which these ancient feasts held out, it a splendid state pall, (sometimes of two or three,) to be was not one of the least to have the company of females at used on such occasions. These palls are described at some them. This curious, we had almost said indecorous, custom, length in Mr. Herbert's interesting work, and appear to but which must, at the same time, have greatly heightened have been some of the most superb examples of ancient the hilarity, occurred in consequence of the companies conembroidery, representing sacred and angelic personages, sisting, as we have seen, of brothers and sisters; and which flowers, network, and other devices wrought in gold, silver, practice they seem, on their reconstitution, to have borsatin, velvet, and other costly materials. The state pall of rowed from the religious gilds. Not only did widows, the Fishmongers exceeds the rest in magnificence, and is wives, and single women, who were members, join the still kept in the hall of that company. Funeral dinners joyous throng, but from the Grocers' ordinances of 1348, were frequently given to the company on these solemn we find the brethrene' could introduce their fair acquaintoccasions, and it was not uncommon for a sum to be left by ance, on paying for their admission; and that not, as in the deceased for this express purpose. Plenteous entertain modern times, to gaze in galleries, the mere spectators of ment was also provided during the ceremony; for it is good living, but as participants. There is an amusing simstated, that during the dirgę, there was a drynkynge in plicity in the ordinances alluded to of the Grocers on these all the cloisters, the nuns halls, and parlors of the said points: they enjoin, that every one of the fraternity, from place, and every where ells, for as many as would come, as thenceforward, having a wife, or companion, shall come to well the crafts of London, as gentilmen of the inns of court.” the feast, and bring with him a damsel if he pleases,
But it is from the account of election feasts, as given by (ameyne avec luy une demoiselle si luy plest,) if they cannot these companies, that we gain the best ideas of the growing come, on account of sickness or maternal duties ; they are luxury and magnificence of their several societies. Though then, and not otherwise, to be excused.”. Every man paid the sums mentioned as the price of their dainties may ap- for his wife 20d.; or man and wife, 58.; that is to say, 20d. pear very small, it is to be remembered that money was for the man, 20d. for his wife, and 20d. for the priest. then of five times its present value. In the fifteenth cen Women, not members, but who should afterwards marry tury the entertainments of the different crafts began to be members, were to be entered, and looked upon “as of the attractive to those who loved the good things of life, so fraternite for ever, and be assisted and made one of us." that the company's dinners were often graced with the If left a widow, such female member was to come to the presence of persons of rank and consideration. In an elec- annual dinner, and to pay, if able, 40d., but, in case she tion-feast of 1425, the fish course, and the prices paid, were married again to one who was not of the fraternity, she as follows: Porpeys, 10d.; oysters and muscles, 6d.; was to be expelled, and so to remain during such marriage, salmon and herring, with fresh ling, 15d.; a salmon, 21d.; “nor none of us ought to meddle or interfere in anything for codling's head, 8d.; for five pykes, 6s. 8d.; lampreys, with her on account of the fraternity, so long as she 6s. 8d.; turbot, 3s. 4d.; eels, 2s. 4d.; eight hundred her remains married.” The admission of different comparings, 10s. 6d." The different sorts of bread used at the feast nies, of course, varied with circumstances : the brothers are distinguished as white bread, trencher bread, payn- of the Brewers' company were to pay 12d., the sisters 8d., cakes, wassel bread, çocket bread, and spice bread, all in- and a brother and his wife 20d.; whilst among the Fishcluded under the head of Pannery. The poultry is entered mongers, the members were to pay towards the feast, on as follows: “Twenty-one swans at 3s. 9d.,—31. 18s. 9d.; two their quitting church, every man 12d., and for his wife 8d., geese at 8d., -15.4d.; forty capons at 6d.,—20s.; forty conies and each “ for his gest in the same manere at the assemble, at 3d., —108.; forty-eight partridges at 4d. each, -16s.; as the wardeyns shall reasonabilly ordeynne;" and, it is twelve woodcocks at 4d.,-46. 4d.; twelve dozen and a half added, “every body that omyteth to come to the foreseide of smaller birds at 6d. the dozen,-68. 3d.; three dozen fest or assemble, and is absent, shall pay redely as othir or plovers at 38.; -98.; eighteen dozen larks at 4d.,—68.; six here condicion that be present; and atte same fest or assemdozen little birds at 14d.,-9d.”. The more substantial por- ble every yere shall be ordeyned or chose from other suffitions of the feast, under the head of Butchery, include, cient persons of the same fraternite to governe and rule in among other meats, the noble baron of beei, eight fillets of gode manere most profitable to the encrece and worship of veal, and one sirloin of beet, amounting altogether to the same fraternite.' 18s. 10d., with two rounds of beef and two fillets of pork, The election ceremonies took place after the feast, and 108. There is also mention of forty marrow-bones with differed in different companies ; but seem all to have inmarrow, 58.; five pieces of suet, 18. 4d.; and three gallons cluded the practice of crowning the newly-elected principals,
In the ancient records of the Grocers it is enacted that the which forms the forecourt of their present hall. The Growardens were to come “with garlandes on their hedes, after cers built on the site of Lord Fitzwalter's town mansion, the mangerie was finished," and the fraternity was to choose and had a fine garden, part of which is also still preserved. as wardens for the year ensuing, “them upon whom the The minor companies, in several instances, bought and
to be delivered all money, papers, and other things which trade halls: as the Leather-sellers, who fitted up the fine belonged to the fraternity, under a penalty of ten pounds. hall of the nuns of St. Helen's; the Pinners, who occupied Refusal of office was followed by fine and expulsion. In the Austin Friars' Hall, afterwards called Pinners' Hall the wardens' accounts of the same company, for 1401, the Meeting-house; the Barber-Surgeons, who built on part sum of twenty pence is debited for the two chapellettes of the site of the hermitage of St. James in the Wall, and pour couron. les novels mestres,” and sixteen shillings for others. refreshment. Minstrels were present at these feasts. Some “The greatness or convenience of most of the companies' times harpers played and sung, in the intervals of more halls, not only adapted them for the immediate uses they sonorous strains from cornets, shalms, flutes, horns, and were built for, but enabled them to give grand feasts to pipes. Theatrical entertainments were also introduced, but various monarchs, who honoured them with their suites, by the pieces appear to have been sacred, and the actors, in enrolling themselves members. In the interregnum they some cases, ecclesiastics.
were the meeting-places of the various government commisThe place in which all these ceremonies were enacted is sioners, and occasionally superseded the senate-house as an thus described by Mr. Herbert.
arena of politics. By the parliamentary commanders they “ The hall was an immense room, giving name, as now, were converted into barracks, by the puritanical clergy into to a whole collection of contingent buildings, which the preaching places, and by succeeding lord mayors they were fraternity themselves generally and more appropriately afterwards used as temporary mansion-houses.” termed their "house. It mostly had an open timber roof, The pageants next call our attention, and we can only for the Fishmongers suspended the leading articles of their glance at so extensive a subject, leaving the reader to seck pageants from it, as was probably the case with the other fuller particulars in Mr. Herbert's work, or in the authoricompanies. A lantern, or lover, in the centre, and elevated ties which are there referred to. These pageants were gothic windows on the sides, 'richly dight' with the arms called by the common people ridings, and were so freof the benefactors, threw the dimmed sunbeams on a glare quent that Chaucer, in describing an idle apprentice, makes of gorgeous tapestry, filling the space between the windows them the great cause of drawing him from his work. and the floor, and which, in the Merchant-Tailors' Hall, contained the history of their patron, St. John the Baptist.
When there any ridings were in Chepe, The floor was only strewed with rushes; the tables, boards
Out of the shoppe thider wold he lepe;
And till that he had all the sight ysein, placed on tressels, except perhaps the great cross table on the haut pas, for superior guests. Pewter vessels, though
And danced well, he would not come agen. hired at the Brewers' dinners, were chiefly for the use
On the return of Edward the First from his victory over of the kitchen; for the tables of the other companies were, according to their inventories, resplendent with donations but specially the Fishmongers, which, in a solempne proces
the Scots in 1298, the trades made their “severall shew, of plate. All the halls were traversed by the reredos, or
sion, passed through the citie, having, amongst other pagrand screen. The Merchant-Tailors had a large sylver geants and shews, foure sturgeons gilt carried on foure ymage of St. John, in a tabernacle, on the top of theirs. horses, then foure salmons of silver on foure horses, and These screens concealed the entrance to the buttery, larder, after them six and forty armed knightes riding on horses, kitchen, and offices. The minstrels were placed some
made like sluces of the sea, and then one representing St. where aloft, and there were temporary platforms or stages Magnus, (because it was on St. Magnus day,) with a thoufor players. Other passages branched to the wine and ale
sand horsemen, &c.” cellars, and to the chambers, among which latter, one was
The sluces above mentioned are explained to mean luces, always reserved for 'the bachelors.' Annexed to the
a fish introduced in the Fishmongers' arms. buttery, but at a greater distance, were the bakehouse and
In 1446, is an entry thus: - This yeare came Quene brewhouse; the kitchen passage, which lay on a gradual
Margaret into England, with grete roialte of the kyng's descent, was guarded from hungry intruders by a spiked cost, and was receyved at London the 28th day of May in hatch : the kitchen itself was stored with the 'spittes,
the moost goodly wise, with alle the citizeins on horseback rakkes, and rollers, and all the other massy and capacious riding ayenst hir to the Black-heth in blew gownes and rede culinary implements and utensils which characterized these
hodes; and in the citie in diverse places goodly sights establishments in the rude days of England's stout yeo
ayenst hir comyng." manry. The city Guildhall, on the lord mayor's day, now
When Henry the Fifth arrived at Dover from France in affords the best idea of the company's ancient halls and
1415, with his prisoners, he was met by a procession, thus feasts, though certainly on a scale of greater magnitude and described by Lydgate: splendour.” Though the different companies had probably halls or
The mayr of London was redy bown places of meeting, from the time of their first establishment;
With alle the craftes of that cite, yet there is no recorded account of them before the time of
All clothyd in red throughout the town, Edward the Third, when their charters were bestowed.
A semely sight it was to see; Besides the hall itself, and the offices connected therewith,
To the Blak-heth thaune rod he, the companies were required, in the time of the Stuarts, to
And spredde the way on every syde; keep a granary and armoury. Almshouses also adjoined the
XX' M men might well see, principal building, that the almsmen might be at hand to
Our comely kyng for to abyde. join in any public processions or pageants. “One of the first of these halls, which apparently cor
The reception of Henry the Sixth on his return from responded with the increased consequence of the newly
being crowned King of France, also appears to have been chartered companies, was the Goldsmiths' Hall, which very magnificent. The mayor's dress on this occasion is must also have ranked with the earliest in point of age, as
described as being of crimson velvet, with a great velvet their fraternity had an assay office in the reign of Edward
hat furred, a girdle of gold about his middle, and a jewel the First. In this, Bartholomew Read, goldsmith, and
of gold about his neck, trailing down behind him. He
was followed by three hundred huntsmen on great courlord mayor in 1502, is stated to have held a feast of such magnitude, that Stowe treats Grafton's account of it as
sers, in entire suits of red, all spangled with silver. The
whole commonalty of the city, who seem mostly to have fabulous, observing, that Westminster Hall itself would scarcely have sufficed.
been liverymen, were clothed in white gowns and scarlet
hoods, with divers “Most of the halls which existed before or near the
embroidered on their
sleeves. Reformation, seem to have been formed from the deserted mansions of the great, and subsequently from religious Their clothing was of colour full covenable; buildings, and they in consequence possessed, in many
The noble mair clad in red velvet, instances, gardens. Drapers' Hall was the mansion of Lord The shrieves, the aldermen, full notable, Cromwell, and still retains its fine gardens. Salters' Hall
In furryd clokes, the colour of scarlett; was the town seat of the Earls of Oxford, and had a garden
In stately wyse whanne they were met, attached, said to have been the place where Empson and Ich one were wel horsyd, and made no delay, Dudley met in Henry the Seventh's reign, and part of
But with there maire rood forth on their way.
The citezens ich on of the citee,
men, from the colour of their dress. Four of these men In their entent that they were pure and clene, was the number usually employed, but sometimes as many Ches them of whit a ful faire lyvere
as twenty wild and green men preceded the pageant. In evry craft, as it was wel sene;
The respect paid by the city companies to the memory To shewe the trowthe that they dede mene, of deceased royalty, also added greatly to the grandeur of Toward the kyng hadde mad them faithfully
public funerals. At the interment of Henry the Fifth, In sundry devyses embrowdyd richely,
1422, every householder was charged to provide a black or The “Merchant Strangers," consisting of the “Geneweys" russet gown, and a black hood, and after the charge to be (Genoese), Florentines, and also the Easterlings, (all of present at the king's funeral. Certain of the crafts were which nations had their residences in the city,) were dressed ordered to find two hundred torches for the funeral. The in their country fashion, or as it is stated," clad in there Brewers provided eight torches, weighing one hundred and manere," and attended by serjeants and other officers, thirty-eight pounds
of wax, price 51s. 9d. The chamber"statly horsyd," passed through the suburbs, riding after lain gave white gowns to the torch-bearers, and the Brewers the mayor. At Blackheath, (the general place of rendez- paid to each three-penge a day for two days. “The royal vous on these occasions,) the whole arranged themselves in corpse was brought
to London on Thursday, November 5th, two ranks, leaving
and was met at St. George's Bar, Southwark, by the
mayor, sheriffs, and citizens, on foot; the Brewers stood A strete between ech party lik a wall;
at St. Margaret's (Southwark) churchyard, until the proAll clad in whit, and the most principalle
cession had gone by, preceded by the torch-bearers, and Afore in red.
then followed to St. Paul's, where a dirge was performed. The precedency of the companies was a point of etiquette On the next day several masses were sung by many bishops scrupulously adhered to in all the pageantries, and was and others, who, after eating, preceded the corpse to Westregnlated by the mayor and aldermen, though it does not minster, with the mayor and civic authorities. The torches seem to have been reduced to a fixed principle until a com were held at the gate of the abbey until all had entered; paratively late period in the history of the companies. To and when brought back weighed one hundred and twelve prevent disputes it was arranged that the mayor's company pounds, and were sold for 28s. Every_householder, from should always precede, and that the others should have the church of St. Magnus to Temple Bar, had a servant alternate precedence. In the reign of Henry the Eighth a holding a torch at his door while the procession passed. court was summoned for the especial purpose of settling the The burial was solemnized on Saturday, November 7th, order of processions.
when there were offered at the high altar four steeds royally An attempt at scenic display was made on this occasion, trapped, with a knight full and whole armed with the a pageant being placed against the Great Conduit between king's coat armour, and a crown upon his head, sitting upon Grocers' and Mercers' Halls, representing a grove of such
one of the steeds. After mass, two hundred cloths of gold foreign fruits as were peculiar to the trade of a grocer, (the were offered. mayor being of that trade,) and in the midst of the grove
“ At the burial of Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry the three wells, whose waters, at the king's presence, seemed Seventh, 1503, amongst the honest persons, citizens of miraculously changed into wine. At these wells the three London, on horseback, we find the aldermen of London, out the wine, and two aged men, representing Enoch and before them, the Portingalls before them, the Venetians
, Elias, approached the king as he passed the wells, presenting before them, the Janavys (Genoese) before them, and the him withi fruit, and giving him their blessing.
Lewknors before them; and all the surplus of the citizens That God conferme his state ay to be stable,
of London thạt rode not in black, stood along from Fanchers
(Fenchurch) to the end of Cheap. Besides these were Thus old Ennock the processe gan welle telle And praid for the kyng as he rood be the welle,
ordeyned divers torch-bearers of certain crafts of London,
which torch-bearers had gownes and hoods of white woollen After Elias, with his lokkes hore,
Thus, up to the time of the Reformation, whether at
seasons of public rejoicing or of national mourning, the And preserve hym in al manere thing,
Livery Companies of London were always ready to add to And special among kynges alle,
the imposing nature of public ceremonies by their presence In enemyes bandes that he nevere falle.
and powerful aid. In another Supplement will be described
the effect of that great national blessing, the Reformation, on At the coronation of Elizabeth, queen of Henry the the state and dignity of the City Companies. Seventh, in 1487, “at her coming forth from Grenewich by water, there was attending upon her there the maior, shrifes, and aldermen of the citie, and divers and many worshipfull comoners, chosen out of every crafte, in their liverays, in barges freshely furnished with banners and stremers of silke, rechely beaton with the armes and bagges of their craftes; and in especiall a barge called the bachelor's barge, garnished and appareleed, passing all other, wherein was ordeyned a great redde dragon spowting flames of fyer into the Thames; and many other gentlemanlie pagiaunts, well and curiosly devised, to do her highness sporte and pleasоure with.”
The procession in honour of the marriage of the unfortunate lady Ann Boleyn, appears to have been as splendid as any of the foregoing. But in addition to the city companies, Apollo with the muses, and St. Anne with her children, had their appointed places. The three Graces took their stand in Cornhill, and the Cardinal Virtues in Fleet Street. A fountain of Helicon ran Rhenish wine, and the Conduit in Chepe foamed forth claret. The great red dragon casting forth wild fire, was again put in requisition, wild men also cast fire, “making a hideous noise.” Three years afterwards the mayor, aldermen, and city companies, are described as being among the mournful spectators of the execution of this ill-fated lady.
The wild men spoken of in this pageant, were fellows dressed like savages in hairy dresses, partly covered with green leaves. These men marched before the procession
THE “WILD MEN OF ANCIENT PAGEANTI. flourishing large clubs to keep off the mob, who were assisted by others whimsically attired, and disguised with droll masks, having large staves or clubs headed with cases of crackers, These assistants were sometimes called green JORN W. PARKER, PUBLISHER, West STRAND, LONDON.
increased his reputation in Andelys, this circumstance, POUSSIN AND HIS WORKS.
joined to the pressing entreaties of Nicholas, at length 1.
overcame the reluctance of the father to permit his Few artists present a more instructive example than son to follow the bent of his inclination, and he was Nicholas PousSIN, of diligence and patient perse- permitted to become the pupil of Varin. verance, which under circumstances of peculiar diffi The great interest which Varin took in the progress culty, enabled him fully to triumph over the various of his young pupil, and the rational course of study obstacles by which caprice, bad taste, and malevolence, which he prescribed, had, doubtless, considerable inattempted to arrest his course. “He did not fix his fluence on the future success of Poussin. But after a standard on the highest pinnacle of art, but having selected time, the studies of Varin and the little town of Andea more humble station, it is his great praise that he accom- lys, afforded no models that could satisfy his genius. plished, more completely than almost any other artist, the He felt that greater excellence might be attained, but objects which it was his ambition to attain. From his
that the means of attainment were in a distant place. earliest years he appears to have been blessed with a calm philosophical mind, free from strong passions, but replete his father's consent, he set out for Paris without the
One of his biographers states, that in despair of getting with energy, and with an amiable and contented disposition, which enabled him to live in amity with his fellow men, knowledge of any one. This, however, is contradicted; to circumscribe his wants, and to concentrate the whole first, by the general character of Poussin, and the force of his mind upon his professional pursuits. These scrupulous regard with which he fulfilled all the duties rare endowments appear, at an early age, to have afforded of life, whether as son, husband, or citizen; secondly, him an almost intuitive power of discovering that line of by the fact that Poussin was able to procure the assistart best suited to his capacity, from the strength and sim
ance of masters on his first arrival at Paris. plicity of which he was never led aside, either by the blandishments of colouring and effect, or the more dignified
Poussin was eighteen years old when he entered attractions of the highest departments of painting. From Paris. His first master was Ferdinand Elle, a Flemthe study of the works of almost every artist of eminence, ing, who enjoyed considerable reputation as a portrait he appears, indeed, to have obtained occasionally useful painter; but he soon quitted him, and became a pupil hints, which he dexterously interwove with his own pecu- of L'Allemand, who, though superior to Elle, soon liar style, but without in the slightest degree diminishing found himself far behind Poussin in all but the mechaits originality. His pictures, with the exception of those nical part of the art, and their connexion did not last of a very few distinguished artists, possess greater unison, in their respective parts, than the productions of any other many weeks. Poussin was full of ardour to enter upon painter. Whether his subject partook of the gay, the the bold and difficult career of historical painting, and lively, or severe, he uniformly made it his successful care could not devote his time to the assistance of those who not to impair the general character, that ought to pervade painted nothing but portraits, whose highest merit was the whole, by the introduction of extraneous or incon- to produce striking resemblances, and who knew nothing sistent matter.
Those artists who are anxious of the ideal beauty which Poussin was striving to apto acquire the general rudiments of art, will derive one preciate and to secure. great advantage from serious reflection on the works and
Poussin's means of subsistence were exhausted, when example of Poussin ; whatever they may acquire from him may be considered as real gain, for they will, at least, have
he fortunately succeeded in forming a friendship with a nothing of it to unlearn in their after progress*.'
young nobleman of Poitou, who was then pursuing his Nicholas Poussin was descended from a noble fond of the arts, and entertained so great a regard for
studies at the university of Paris. This gentleman was family of Picardy, established in the compté of Sois Poussin, that he furnished him with the means of pro
His father left his country in consequence of civil war, and followed the fortunes of the King of
secuting his studies. Navarre, afterwards Henry the Fourth; but the poverty
With the greatest eagerness for instruction, Poussin of the royal treasury during that unhappy period, had sought in vain for masters who would confirm and rea
lize to him the exalted idea which he had formed of the thrown all the expenses of a military life upon himself. On the establishment of peace, the elder Poussin settled
art of painting. At this epoch a bad taste in painting at Andelys, a little town situate among the pleasant
pervaded France; the school of Raffaelle had been exhills on the banks of the Seine, in Normandy, where in tinguished by civil wars, and that of the Caracchi
, the year 1592, he married, and in June, 1594, the
which in Italy had begun to restore good taste and corsubject of the present memoir was born.
rect principles, had not yet exerted any influence north
of the Alps. The early history of Nicholas Poussin resembles that of many other artists; he was led, as it were, by an
But Poussin was not left altogether without aid. irresistible impulse to copy the forms of natural ob Through the kindness of his young patron, he made the jects, covering his books, and the white walls of his acquaintance of Courtois, mathematician to the king, school and his home, with his sketches, and constantly assembled there a beautiful collection of engravings by
who occupied apartments in the Louvre, and who had incurring the censure of his schoolmaster and parents, Mark Antonio and others, after Raffaelle and Giulo who lamented that a boy of so much talent should be Romano, together with a number of original drawings continually wasting his time in such trivial, profitless by those masters, all of which he generously lent to pursuits.
so ardently longed for, and
This treasure afforded the young artist a of young Poussin, an artist of some repute, Quentin Varin by name, came to reside at Andelys. He dis- taught him to conceive his subjects nobly and historicovered in the infantile attempts of Poussin, some in moulded by the systems of schools, nor submitted to
His love of the beautiful not having been dications of genius, and encouraged his inclination to devote all his energies to the arts.
the contracted view of a master, he proceeded with the Poussin did not share in the enthusiasm of his son; chaste style which distinguishes his works. He needed
But the elder force of genius to form his taste for that grand and on the contrary, he regarded the life of an artist as one incapable of producing either profit or happiness; but pieces now before him; he eagerly and carefully copied
not to be instructed in the beauties of the masterby degrees, the performances of Varin having greatly them; and often afterwards talked of this event as one '. The above excellent remarks occur in a notice of Mrs. Graham's
of the most fortunate of his life. Memoir of the Life of Nicholas Poussin, contained in Blackwood's
Poussin's young patron being recalled by his mother Edinburgh Magazine, 1821.
The materials for our notice are mostly to his country seat, engaged the artist to follow him. derived from M. Landon's voluminous work, Les Vies et Euvres des Peintres. We have also to acknowledge our obligations to Mrs. Gra
He wished to embellish his house with pictures, and bam's excellent Memoir.
the grateful artist acceded to this request with joy, as