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he ventures on foreign languages with a design of tracing their connection with his own or with each other, he must be diftinguithed by accomplishments far superior to those which commonly fall to the lot of the linguist. He must understand the history of the country whose language he proposes to illustrate, the invasions it has undergone, and its connections with the neighbouring states. He will then have to examine the languages of these different nations, not only in their purity, bus in their deflections and corruptions, whether they are the effect of time, and appear plainly in writers of different ages, or are to be traced only in the conversation of different ranks, and particularly in thac of the commercial clasies, who, froin the nature of their occupation, are most likely to communicate their phraseology to the surrounding nations. To elucidate the etymology of itchnical and scientific words, he must be accurately verled in the history of the arts and sciences, in the order in which different nations received them from the first inventors, and the improvements made at different æras, which have gradually introduced an accession of new words. In ascending to ancient languages he will often be stopped by a language no longer known. In this case he can only search for such vestiges of it as commerce or conquest may have introduced into languages now in bring. Above all, he must know when the sound is to be depended on, and when the sense. To ascertain the former with precision, he ought to postess a kind of knowledge which in some languages indeed cannot be obtained, the knowledge, we mean, of the ancient pronunciation. To ascertain the lacer, he must trace the various changes which words undergo by composition, metaphorical acceptation, and transmission from one lan. guage to another, an employment of itself sufficiently perplexing, but which, like every part of this great undertaking, can never : be entered on with success, without a philosophical acquainta ance with the origin and progress of language in general, and long habits of cool analogical reasoning. For it behoves the scholar, who would serve the cause of real learning, instead of haftly acquiescing even in his most favourite conjectures, to submit them repeatedly to the impartial scrutiny of reaion; to see that they are fupported by hetter authority than mere suppositions, however numerous and plaufible; to take care that a derivation, which is barely poflible, be never preferred to another which has probability on its fide; and to guard against every derivation of the elements of a compound word from different languages, unless the foreign word which is supposed to enter into the composition can be proved to have been previously naturalized.
Had these principles been more generally adopted by etymologists, we should not have seen so many wild and fanciful atSr4
tempts to torture sense and language, and wrest every thing to the support of a beloved hypothesis. The world would indeed have lost the amusement of seeing the Gods and Heroes of Pagan mythology converted, by an etymological metamorphosis, into Patriarchs * at one time, into Celts + or Swedes I at another, and under the hands of one daring adventurer, into a kind of allegorical orreryg. Whether the work of Mr. Vieyra be of this kind, or deserve rather to be claffed among those which elucidate the theory of language, and the philosophy of the human mind; which give precision to definition, and, in some instances, perspicuity to history, is a question which the selection of a few examples may enable our readers to resolve.
From the Hebrew, or Arabic, Dy dies, and 77 78 Deus, our Author tells us, is derived Jumula, the name of a Lapponian idol, signifying Deus dies, che inhabitan's worshipping, as a God, the returning day, after so long and comfor leis an absence.
Hercules is derived by Mr. Vieyra from the Hebrew 43 778 quafi illuminans omnia. Hercules, he tells us, was the name of the sun among the Tyrians, and in support of his derivation quotes the following passage from Macrobius, Sat. 1. 1. c. 20. Hercules quid aliud eft quam aëris gloria ? Quæ porra eft sëris, nili folis illuminatio ?
The Latin cogito, and the Greek ng koplo, he deduces from the Arabic hodj, intellectus, ingenium. Tamesis, and Thames, from the Arabic plj tâma, domavit. Nates, from the Arabic äasi nautat, of the same signification, 'quia, scilicet, fufpenfæ ac pendulæ sunt.' Bog, from the Arabic cixe bokat, locus depreffior ubi ftagnat aqua. Bog-house from the Persian oleh bagah, latrina. Toduck, from the Arab. Os lo đâc, deprefit, im
* See Cumberland's remarks on Sanchoniatho, Huet, and Fourmont. of Pezron sur les Celis.
I Ruabeck's Atlantica. § Hifioire du Ciel, par M. Pluch. “I have heard,” says the learned Warburton, “ of an old humourist, a great dealer in etymo. logies, who being vexed at the opposition his discoveries met with, broke out into much learned pallion, and with a large clailical oath affirmed, 7 bat he not only knew zvhince words came, but whither they were going. This was only thought an extravagance of an enraged etymologili in despair. But I apprehend the old gentleman had wit in his anger, and fuberly referred to his art of explaining antiquity. And indeed on any fyft m-maker's telling me his plot, I would undertake to mew, whitler all his cle words were going : for in ftrict propriety of speech they cannot be said to be coming from, but going to some old Hebrew root.” Divine Legation, Book iv. Sect. 4.
merfit in aqua. Hog, from the Persian L es chok, porcus. Lazy, from the Hebrew hy Otfel, piger, 'vel, fi mavis, per metathefin, ab Arab. Jili, zail, desinens, cessans, quia nempe piger continuo ceffat.' Same, from the Arabic, öldun famaut, or Aws femat, fignum. Cum enim, says our Author, Anglice dicimus, this is the same as that, quid aliud innuimus, quam, hoc haber eadem figna, et lineamenta, ac illud ?'--Sneeze, and snore, from the Arabic s näara, sonum emisit per nares. Carthage is derived by Ms. V. from the Arabic ä ä Kariat, urbs, and Ay, equus. Concerning the origin of this latter word, he says, difa ferent opinions have been entertained. He endeavours, how. ever, to support his own derivation from some Carthaginian coins, which bear the figure of a horse's head, in allufion to that which is said to have been dug up in laying the foundations of the city * From Ag he also derives the Latin Equus, the Irish Eac, the Spanish Haca, the Portuguese Faca, the English Hackney Nag, ine italian Haque-nea, five Chinea, and the French Haque-nie.-This is the fame hobby-horle on which Minage sides so much to his own fatisfa&ion, though his countrymall, Jaucourt, bas rather uncivilly endeavoured co drag him from his seat. Mr. Vieyra does not scruple to get up behind him, and seems as well satisfied wiih his place on the crupper, as the Frenchman with his on the saddle. We heartily with that Menage could look behind him, or, in other words, that he could see his derivations, so well backed by luch fonorous words, as will at least fupply the loss of those, which, Jaucourt tells us, exist only in the imagination of the French etymologist.
ART. XVI. Voyage PittorESQUE des Isles de Sicile, de Malte, & de Lipari,
i. e. Travels through Sicily, Malta, and Lipari; containing an Account of the Antiquities of these Islands, the principal natural Phenomena they exhibit, and the particular Customs and Manners of the Inhabitants. Numbers XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI. Large Folio. Each Number containing Six Plates,
and Eight Pages of Description. Price 12 Livres each Number. 167E resume, with pleasure, our too long interrupted ac
VV count of this capital work, the most elegant and learred, and, beyond all doubt, the most accurate of the kind.-Weh.ve had occalion to converse with some travellers, eminent for their taste for, and knowledge of, the fine arts, and their atiduous and
* See Justin, Virgil, and Silius italicus.
accentive observation of the precious remains of antiquity, who, after a careiul view of the objects on the spot, have admired the judicious and accurate manner in which they are represented in the descriptions and plates of Mr. HOUEL.
No XV. This number, which, among other things, contains an account of the dreadful fate of Mefiina, in the year 1783, is fingularly interesting. The 86ch Plate, with which it begins, represents the destruction of the Palazzata, and the parts of that beautiful and magnificent edifice, which still subfift, seen from the sea. This noble edifice presented to the harbour a semicircular front of 840 toises in length. It was terminated by the palace of the Viceroy, which (with the Magazines of Porto Franco, at the moment of their fall, and a view of a p?:t of the harbour) are represented in the 87th Plate. - The 88ch Plate exhibiis a view of the southern part of the Streights of Meffina, taken from the shores of Calabria, wherein the coast of Sicily, from Mesina to Catana, which was ravaged by a dreadful hursicane, in 1984, is accurately delineated, with Mount Ætna in prospect. This is foilowed by an account of the Bachs of Ali ; the sich mines of different metals that are found in a vale watered by the river Di Nife, and a curious description of the mineralogical beauties of Taormina, which, in the space of five or fix leagues along the sea coaft, has wherewithal to attract the attention, and excite the admiration, of the lovers of natural history, by the immense variety of interesting obje&s which it offers to their attention. In all the other parts of Sicily, says our Author, one sees the wonderful operations of nature already finished; but in the district of Taormina, we see them in the progress of their formation, we observe them, as it were, form. ing themselves, and we contemplate marbles and other calcareous ftones in their tendency, and their various steps, towards lapidifuation.' Mr. HOUEL gives a very elegant and accurate account of the procedure of nature in her operations, boib external and internal, in these grottos, or rather deep caverns. He shews, how rocks, already formed, are decomposed and dissolved by the acid of the ais, rendered active by the winds, and the different degrees of the heat of the atmosphere : these different degrees, give the air more or leis aclivity, according as several accidental circumstances are more or less favourable: Nature,' says he, ' works with patience :- he is not in a hurry: the has no fixed epochas *, in which such or such an operation is to be performed ;' and Mr. Houel describes her procedure in these finguJar grotros with great perspicuity.
On the traveller's approach to Taormina (the ancient Taurse menium, famous for the commerce of its inbabitants, and their * This is a hint to Recupero in Brydone's Travels.
taste for the arts) he observed the noble remains of an edifice, which must have been constructed in a very grand style of archia tecture ; but, neither by examining the parts of it which lublist, nor the ruins which surround it, could he come at the knowledge of its destination. Its ruins are delineared in the 8th Plate, and they have a great effect. The following Plate exbibits a general view of the city and theat:e of Taormina.
N° XVI. Of all the edifices of the kind constructed by the Greeks, the theatre of Taormina has been the best prelerved from the waftes of time, and is therefore the most adapted to give us a certain knowledge of the real manner in which these buildings were erected. This object therefore occupies the learned and ingenious author throughout this whole number. In fix Plates, accompanied with accurate descriptions, he unfolds the beauties that struck him in the conteni plation of this noble structure, exhibits the true forms and wies of all its paris, rectie fies the erroneous accounts that have been given of ic by modern travellers, and, from discovering an ancient theatre so well preserved, takes occasion to treat of the ancient theatres in general, which make such an eminent figure in the history of the arts. In the goth Plate we have a general view of the theatre in question, of the ground before it, and the ways that lead to it ;-in the 920, a view of the Proscenium, seen from a part of the city, and from Mount Ærna; and in the 930, 94th, 95ch, o6th, beautiful details, plans, and geometrical lect ons of this celebrated theatre, exquisirely engraved and coloured, ani full of <f et.
N° XVII. The Plates 97, 98, and 99, in inis number, contain picturesque views and geometrical plans of ancient tombs, cistens, and reservoirs. The following two Plates exhibit the perspective view and the geometrical plan and elevation of a Gymnasium, or place for public exercises; and in the concluding Plate (102) we have a chart of Mount Ætna, copied from that of the famous Canon Recupero, of Catina; who pasl d all his life in studying the productions and the natural history of this afton Thing mountain.
N° XVIII. This number opens with the antiquities of Naxos, built by a colony from the Grecian island of that name, and whose destruction, by Dionysius the Elder, gave occafion to the building of Taormina. These ancient remains are represented in the 103d Plate. The next contains a perspe&tive view of Æna, taken from the sea north-east of chat mountain, whence it is visible in all its immensity. In the 105th, we have a moft beautiful and curious view of its fummit, between Roca della Capra and Trifoglietto. This is followed by an account of the famous eruption of water from one of the craters of Ætna, in 1775, that, during several weeks, was preceded succesively by accumulated objects of consternation and terror. A relation of 10