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rious conclusions. It is proved that the balance of commerce is an insignificant word; that the balance paid in gold is not a proof that the trade is disadvantageous to the nation paying, nor advantageous to the nation receiving fuch balance; that the tables or calculations of the balance of commerce are not to be depended on ;- that the only method of estimating the increase of trade is by the increase of population ;-that it is impoffible to determine the quantity of money in a country ;--and that the calculations made for this purpose are faulty, as being built on uncertain data ;-that the precious metals are not true riches; that, considered as the means of change, it would be better to substitute, in home trade, paper-money instead of coin, and to employ coin for those purposes in which paper is useless, namely in foreign trade.
The Authors then apply the general principles, before laid down, to the present state of France and the United States ; they describe the filuation and the productions of the country, and the difpofitions and employment of its inhabitants. It may be objected, that it would be beiter for France to improve her home trade and cultivation, than to extend her foreign trade; the extension of a foreign trade is esteemed the fitreft, if not the only effectual means, of improving her cultivation, her manufactories, &c. Some very just reflections are added, on the inferiority of the French manufactures to those of England; the causes of this inferiority are pointed out, and a foreign trade is shewn to be the only means for rendering them more flourithing.
In the next Chapter, a view is taken of the United States; from which it plainly appears, that they are under an absolute neceffity of carrying on a foreign trade. The Authors consider, separa:ely the wants of the Americans, viz, she wants of necelfaries, of conveniences, and of luxury; these are only to be supplied by a foreign trade; manufactories are as yet almost unknown to the Americans; they are a new people, and have no time to exact or establish any manufactories until their country is well cultivated ; their greatest present intereft is, to apply themselves to agriculcure, and by no means to establish manufactories. After enumera:ing the advantages of such a practice, the Authors new that France alone is, of all other countries in Europe, the best adapted to iupply the wants of America. This is demonstrated by taking a view of the reciprocal importations and exportations carried on between France and the United Scates. The Authors prove, that it would be disadvantageous to the Americans to cultivate the vine in order to make wines; and that the French wines are preferable to all others. In a funilar manner, brandy, oil, olives, &c. &c. are leparately confidered ; together with the product of industry, such as cloth, linen, silk, hats, leather, glass, hardware, paper, &c. &c.
Toe The articles which America can send to France, are, tobacco, fish-oil, permaceti, corn, masts, and other timber for ship-building, furs, rice, indigo, lint feed, pitch, turpentine, &c. &c. These are leparately treated, and reasons are given why America can furnith such commodities better than any other country.
The work concludes with a collection of original papers relative to France and the United States; among which is a proclamation for the establishment of regular packet boats between Havre and New-York; one of these sails every fix weeks from Havre, or oftener, if the complement of passengers is full in a Thorter time.
Messrs. Claviere and De Warville are spirited writers; but they are sometimes too violent. The ardor of liberty is liable to break out into the Aame of licentiousness, unless reítrained by the superior judgment of a calm and unbiassed reasoner,
The Authors are juftly entitled to the united thanks of the French and the Americans ; for they have plainly thewn the mutual advantages that may accrue from a commercial intercourse between the two nations; and they have, at the same time, given a just view of a foreign trade in general, and the benefiis chence arifing.
ART. XV. Animadversiones Philologicæ in nonnulla Corani loca, cum Illuftrationibus
in V. T. ex Arabismo ac Perjajmo depromptis ; quibus recognitis atque auétis in hac nova Editione accedunt Specimina quinque, oftendentie LL. Lat. Ital. Hisp. Gall. Lufit. ac Angl. cum Arabica aut Perfica Affinitatem. In Usum Arabizantium Tyronum composuit, ediditque R. Antonius Vieyra, LL. B. ac LL. Hifp. et Ital. P. Reg. in Coll. She et Indæ Trin, Dublin Dublinii apud L. White, Sumptibus Univer
fitatis. 1785. TIR. Vieyra, we understand, is a native of Portugal, and the IV Author of a Portuguese and English Dictionary *, in two volumes 4to, publihed in London, in the year 1773. His present deligo is to facilitate the study of the Arabic language, by such a comparison of Oriental and European words, as may develope the elements and fignifications of both ; and, by illustrating their mutual agreement, supply the student in Eastern literature with the most effectual asistance and encouragement. Mr. Vieyra inlists particularly on the great utility of this plan to every one who wishes to collect an ample store of words in the Oriental languages; as the neceffary exercise of the judgment in such etymological researches will not only afford intervals of relief to the memory, but render che impreffions which are made on it
more useful and more permanent. He observes further, that many European words, which agree in fignification with those of the East, differ in their elements, yet it is most certain that the former are derived from the latter; and hence he infers the necessity of a Clavis Etymologica, to thew the changes which have taken place in the elements of words in their passage from one language to another; either according to the different effects of climate on the organs of articulation, or the different manners of nations inhabiting the same climates. Without taking upon us to determine how far this scheme is practicable, or whether the talents of our Author are such as would afford a fair prosp:et of success in the execution of it, we must give him due credit for the modelty with which he speaks of bis own labours.
• Cum autem hujusmodi Clavis explicationem completam, omnibusque numeris absolutam, Speciminum horum limites haud admittant; littus tantum iflius, ut ita dicam, immensi maris legere mihi propofui. Quie quidem opella, nunc levi tantum brachio a me fufcepia, atque expedita, tum in præfenti, ut spero, prælucebit tyronibus ad orientalis eruditionis palmum laudemque contendentibus ; tum in omne re. liquum tempus materiam suppeditabit ad id, quod levisimis tantum firitturis a me percursum est, novâ exemplorum copiâ inftruendum, illustrioreque adhuc luce perfundendum.'
The book is published at the expence of the Univerfity of Dublin, and is dedicated to the Provost and Fellows of Trinity College, whose patronage, however, does not appear to have placed the Author beyond the reach of indigence; which, though it fometimes kindles the latent spark of genius in the breast of the indolent, too frequently overwhelms the mind with languor and despondency; and by exacting the same degree of exertion at the happiest and the most unpropitious seasons, evidently subjects a writer to disadvantages, which, though we cannot recoge nize them, as critics, we must commiserate, as men.
We fincerely lament, that Mr. V. had not the means of publifbing his work without the aflistance of the University, particularly as the total want of Hebrew and Arabic types, on which he refts his apology for printing the Oriental words in European characters, exhibits no very favourable idea of the state of Eastern literature in the filter kingdom. We shall endeavour, however, to do him as much justice as we can, by supplying this defect, in the few specimens we mean to produce of his work.
The first part of the book is composed of observations on the Coran : but we are sorry to fay that they do not, either from their number or importance, merit any particular character.
With respect to the criticisms on the Old Testament, we will not controvert our Author's position, that the English version may frequently be corrected by consulting the language of the Coran. We are well aware of the afinity which sublifts between
the the Hebrew and Arabic languages; and we may add that words which are rarely to be found in the former, admit of a satisfactory interpretation, from their frequent occurrence in the latter., We are satisfied, that the primary sense of words, whose roots are wanting in the Hebrew, máy often be determined by a reference to the Arabic, in which their roots are still preserved. We recollect that * Maimonides, Tanchum of Jerusalem, and other ancient Rabbins, not bigotted, like their successors, io che imaginary fanctity and cutá pxeba of their own congue, instead of thinking it contaminated by explanations drawn from the language of Mohammed, applied their knowledge of Arabic to the illustration of the sacred text with equal zeal and ability.' The labours of Christian scholars will never cease to be remem. bered, till the names of Pocock and Bochart are forgotten, and till the annotations of Schultens and Hunt no longer adorn our public libraries, or attract the general attention of icholars. We with, indeed, we could enroll the name of Mr. Vieyra in this illustrious catalogue ; but we cannot help observing, that, though he merits much praise for his intentions, and though he certainly displays no vulgar proficiency in the Eastern languages, his remarks are but unsuccessfully directed to the end he had in view. To the divine they cercainly convey little useful or important information; to the oricntalilt they open no new or recondite sources of grammatical difquifition; and to the general reader they most assuredly do not come recommended by that species of criticism, which points out beauties unknown before, which supplies taste with objects congenial to itfelf, and exemplifies the elegance it describes. If there be any excepcions to these observations the following criticisms may, perhaps, be among the number :
I Sam. xv. 32. 007v9 1928 1989 is thus rendered by the English tra slators, And Agag came unto him delicately. Mr. Vieyra proposes that we should translate n yo languide, remise, invito, from the sense of the Arabic word ouers, which lig. nifes remiffio, languor.
Psalm xvii. 3. 'D 720-2 1791 I am utterly purposed that my mouth Mall not offend, our Author thinks will be better rendered,
* The testimony of Maimonides on this subject is clear and decisive,
اما اللغة العربية و العبرانية فقد اتفق علم الاغتين انهما لغة واحدة بال شک
Arabicam vero linguam, et Hebraicam, omnes qui probe callent, utram. que unam et eandem haud dubio elja profitentur. Vide Cafiri Biblioth. drab. Hifp. Efcur. vol. i. p. 292.
agreeably with the sense of the Arabic pr, capistro alligavi ne transgrediatur os meum. Capistrare linguam, and capistrare fermonem, are metaphors frequently used by Arabic wrivers.
Pialm xlv. 2. 79,73 910 OY '704 Lingua mea Aylus Scribæ velocis-Mr. V. Translates 772 periti. The Arabic verb
So signifies acutus ingenio, folers fuit, in re exercitatus fuit. In this translation, we would observe, our Author is supported by the authority of the Chaldee Paraphraft, and of the Syriac and Arabic versions. The expression of the English translators, either by accident or design, is ambiguous, and will fairly admit of either of these interpretations, My tongue is the pen of a ready writer.
We are next presented with five catalogues of words in the European languages, that are derived, or at least supposed to be, derived, from the Arabic or Perfic. The first news the affinity of the Latin to these iwo languages; the second, that of the Italian; the third, that of the Spanish, and Portuguese; the fourth, that of the English ; and the fifth, that of the French. . On Etymology in general we fall deliver our sentiments as concisely as possible, so far at lealt as they are in any degree connected either with the design or execution of Mr. Vieyra's work. We scarcely know any character that requires a more rare allemblage of extraordinary qualifications, than that of a skilful Etymologist. A writer of this description will find ample scope for the exercise of the most penetrating sagacity and delin þerate judgment, even if he confines his researches wichin the bounds of his veşnacular tongue. The difficulty of tracing English words to roots, which though of English growih, have long since become obsolete, or are preserved only in the provincial dialects of the rude and illiterate, has led too many into foreign countries in search of what could alore be found at home. It should be observed allo, that this difficulty is necessarily increased when the work is undertaken by a stranger, who has fewer opportunities of acquainting himself with the provincial dialects, and who is less likely to be informed of the changes, which, originating at first in the pronunciation of words, pass gradually into their orthography. We may be permitted to suggest by the way, that the native etymology of every living language would be better understood, if collections were made of such words as are peculiar to the vulgar in the several districts, and either published separately, or uniformly subjoined at least to such topographical histories as have lately enriched the literature of our own country. But it is not to any fingle language that the labours of the Etymologist can well be confined, and in proportion as the sphere in which he acts is extended, his talk becomes more complicaçed and more arduous. For before