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case in p. 29, where there is mention made of an amiable memoir, Probably he meant to write inmate in the first instance, and valuable in the second.

In this brief account of the learned Mr. Farmer there is one part which we perused with the deepest concern, namely, of his having left in his will the strictett orders to burn all his MSS. by the reli. gious observance of which (by his Executors) not only many valuable and finished differtations on particular parts of Scripture were destroyed; but also the remainder of that great work, of which his last publication, on the general prevalence of the worship of human spirits in the ancient heathen nations, was the first part; in the Introduction to which, the plan, or general outline of the whole, was given p. 44. V. A Sermon, in which the principal Doctrines of the Gospel are

enumerated, and the Neceflity of believing in them with a true Heart proved. By R. Housman, A.B. late of St. John's College, Cambridge. 8vo. 6d. Lancaiter, printed.

Sheer methodistical doctrine, with reflections on the conduct of the ministers of the church of England, who all, in Mr. Housman's opi. nion, preach morality only, and are therefore unfit for the ministry of Christ. . A Letter to the Rev. Mr. R. Housman; occasioned by his late Sermon. 8vo. 6d. Lancaster, printed; and sold by Johnson, in London.

A proper reprehension of Mr. Housman, for the liberties he had taken with the clergy, in his sermon above mentioned.

CORRESPONDEN C E. TYRO enquires where he may be informed of Mr. Hunter's miftake + about taking the specific gravities of different substances. We answer, that we do not acknowledge ourselves to have charged Mr. H. with a mistake, but with a want of being “ acquainted with the modern improvements in natural philofophy;" otherwise he would have taken the weight of the substances first in air, and afterward in water, and thence have determined the specific gravity according to the rules laid down in all the books that have been published on that subject within the present century. Mr. Hunter's method is not so accurate as that of the first inventor, Archimedes; and that was rude enough.

*.* The manuscript poem, entitled, A Soliloquy, cannot be found. We have no doubt of its being destroyed, agrecable to the intimation which accompanied it from the Author ; whose late favour, of June 9, 1787, is hereby respectfully acknowledged. ED.

+++ We conceive the meaning of the passage in Sterne, referred to by S. W. to be so plain, that we imagine he was only diverting himself with the idea of amusing us, when he wrote his letter of May 10.

ERRATA in Rev. for April. Page 293, par. 3, 1. 2, put a comma after jufi.' - 330, l. 17, read, who says he was on the spot.

TO THE MONTHLY REVIEW,

VOLUME the SEVENTY-SIXTH.

FOREIGN LITERATURE.

ART. 1. Novum Testamentum Græcum, ex codice MS. Alexandrino, qui Londini

in Bibliotheca Musei Britannici asservatur, defcriptum a Carolo Godofredo Woide, S. Th. D. Soc. Reg. et Antiq. Lond. Reg. Goiting. &c. &c. &c. Fol. 21. 2 s. unbound. Author. Brit.

Museum. 1786. 177 E congratulate the Christian world on the publication of

V this truly valuable work, which, while it bears the most unequivocal testimony to the learning and industry of the Editor, confers distinguished honour on our age and country. The work itself not being an object of criticism, we can only fay in general, that it poffesies every internal mark of fidelity; but it is our duty to give our Readers some idea of the judguent and erudition displayed in the Preface, recommending at the same time the entire perural of it to all those, who may have been induced by Wetstein's arguments to depreciate the value of the Alexandrian Ms.

After enumerating the motives which led him to engage in so laborious an undertaking, Di. Woide gives an history of the MS. 10 the following effect. It was a present from Cyrillus Lucaris, Patriarch of Alexandria, and afterwards of Conftantinople, to Charles I. The character of the donor was equally respectable in a literary and moral view. He was a native of Crete, but had studied at Venice, and afterwards visited several of the European nations. With the Greek, Latin, Italian, Arabic, and Turkish languages he was familiarly acquainted; nor was he less zealous to promote the general improvement of mankind, than successful in the cultivation of his own talents. Ever active in the propagation of learning, he attempted, by the establishment of a prels, to introduce the art of printing among the Turks; but the bigotry, or the folly, of these barbaApp, Rey. Vol. LXXVI,

rians,

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rians, rendered his well-meant labours ineffectual. Such was the man, who, after a fteady attention to the duties of his ftation, under various and severe persecutions, fell a sacrifice at length to the vindi&tive spirit of Mahometan superstition, being ftrangled by the command of the Ottoman Emperor, in the year 1638.

The MS. is generally, and according to Dr. W. juftly, supe posed to have been written in Egypt, and brought to Constan. rinople from Alexandria ; thougó Wetstein and others have con. troverted this opinion, and imagined it to have been found in the monasteries of Mount Athos. By an anciene Latin inscription in the first page, it appears to have been given to the Patriarchs of Alexandria A. D. 1098, from wbich period it remained in their poffeflion, till Cyrillus removed it to Conftantinople, and thence sent it to England (anno 1628). Upon its arrival in this country, it was repofited in the royal library, where it was consulted by several scholars, of whom Dr. W. gives a chronological lift, from Young to Wetftein, interfperfing allo such critical remarks on their works as tend to evince the deficiency and inaccuracy of their collations. At length, in the year 1753, this celebrated MS, with the whole library of the Kings of England, was removed to the British Museum, where it is ftill prelerved, and is, at the fame time, more open to the inspection of learned curiosity.

Having thus traced the passage of the MS. from Alexandria to the Museum, the learned Editor employs a distinct section in describing its present state and appearance, and then proceeds to the defence of its antiquity. The account given by Cyrillus Lucaris is written in the MS. with his own hand, as follows: “ Liber ifte scrip:uræ facræ N. et V. Teftamenti, prout ex traditione habemus, eft scriptus manu Theclæ, nobilis fæminæ Ægypeæ, ante mille et trecentos annos circiter, paulo poft concilium Nicænum. Nomen Theclæ in fine libri erat exaratum, sed extincto Chriftianismo in Ægypto a Mahometanis, et libri una Chriftianorum in fimilem funt reducti conditionem. Extin&tum igitur eft Theclæ nomen, et laceratum, fed memoria et traditio recens observat.

Cyrillus Patriarcha Constanti:” From this account, if it be admitted as true, it follows that the MS, must have been written before the end of the 4th cen. tury, a point which Dr. W. labours to establish by a refutation of the several arguments used on the other fide of the question. Wetstein is our Editor's principal antagonist. His learning was sufficient to render him formidable, and his reputation, equal at Jeast to his learning, might have checked the ardour of a combatant less intrepid than Dr. Woide. If, under these circumftances, victory has declared for Dr. W. he is particularly in

. titled

titled to our thanks. For, as error is never fo dangerous as when it has the sanction of great auchorities, he is the beft as well as the boldeft champion in the cause of truth, who is neither awed by the most gigantic talents, nor dazzled by the fplendor of names, however illuftrious. It is scarcely necer. sary to remind the theological reader, of the arguments used by Wetstein, and replied to by Dr. Woide. The former contends, that the MS. cannot be older than the gth century, ist, Because it has the Prologus of Athanasius prefixed to the Psalms. 2dly, Becaule the title of Archbilhop is there given to Athanafius. 3dly, Because it contains the Index Pralmorum, λυχνικων και νυκτηρινων. And aftly, On account of the word JEOTCX05, which is found in the title to the Song of the Virgin.

To the first of these objections Dr. W. answers, that if the Prefaces of Wickliff, Zwinglius, Calvin, Luther, and others, were added to the sacred books during their life.time, why Thould we wonder that the same honour was paid to Athanafius, particularly when we reflect on the very great respect that was Thewn to him, even by those who opposed his tenets. Admite ring, however, that this Prologus was not affixed till after the death of Athanafius, i. e. after the year 373, yet will it by no means follow chat the MS. was not written in the 4th century. To the second objection, drawn from the word Archie. pifcopus, Dr. W. replies, that this title occurs in Gregory Nazianzen's oration in honour of Athanasius, inscribed as Alan vadow, AEXIETTIGXOTOV ARE E QVOCE10s, and that it is used also by Athanafius himself, and by Epiphanius. In answer to the third objection, the learned Editor says, that the canons in question were in ure even before the 4th century. " Chriftiani totos dies noctesque vigiliis, jejuniis, precibus, et cantibus sacris vacabant, imo canones habebant diurnos nocturnosque. Both these poin's he proves fully from Lucian, from Philo, from Eusebius, from Athanafius, and from Sozomen, Gregory Nazianzen, and Chrysostom. Wetltein's fourth objection is as follows: " Porro appellatio ons bɛotox? quæ in nostro codice (in titulo Cantici Mariæ Píalmis adjedi) invenitur, seculo de. mum quinto, occafione Nestorii atque Cyrilli, fuit ufitata." To this Dr. Woide answers, that the term was in use in the 4th, and even as early as the 30 century. This he proves from the Ecclesiastical Hittory of Socrates, from a variety of passages in the Fathers, adduced by Grabe in his Prolegomena to the Old Testament, and by Suicerus in his Thesaurus ; and lastly, from the following passage in the Discourse of Athanafius on the Na. tivity : ayw asyw XX1 X8150Toxov, Xous au goOTOXON, Xab swingroToxov, xzı 980T Incu.

After thus answering the objections which have been brought against the testimony of Cyrillus, Dr. Woide proceeds to P p 2

bring bring positive proof of the antiquity of the Alexandrian MS. With this view, he compares the hape of the letters, &c. with those of the MS. of Dioscorides, in the Imperial library at Vienna, written in the beginning of the 6th century, and with those of other ancient MSS. The principle on which this comparison is conducted, and which we think perfe&ly just, is this: . Illud autem admonere fatis eft, omnia quæ ars consummavit a naturà initia duxiffe : nec ullam efle artem qualis inventa est, nec intra initium ftetiffe. Ideoque illud exiftimandum eft vetuftius, quod eft difficilius et minus ornatum. Artibus enim crescentibus, illud quod difficilius olim efficiebatur et facilius et elegantius perficitur.'

In addition to the proof arising from the form of the letters, &c. Dr. W. produces the following: The MS. contains the whole of the first, and a part of the second Epiltle of Clemens Romanus to the Corinthians. These epiftles were originally reckoned among the canonical books, and, as such, were publickly read in the church. They were, however, excluded from the canon, at the council of Laodicea, which was held in the year 365, or 367; for they are not mentioned in the cataJogue of the books of the Old and New Testament, still extant among the canons of that council. Hence then it follows, that the MS. is prior to the year 367. An argument of the fame kind and force is drawn from the eighteen Psalms of Solomon, which are to be found in our MS. and which were expressly excluded from the canonical scriptures by the 59th canon of the council of Laodicea. Dr. Woide argues tili farther in support of the antiquity of the MS. from iis having no chapters or sections in the Acts of the Apostles, in the Catholie I piltles, or those of St. Paul. The Epiftles of St. Paul were divided into chapters in the year 196, as were the Acts of the Apostles and Catholic Epilties in the year 458, by Euthalius. The omission of the Trisagium (@gios o 0805, 07105 igupos, Q7.05 a $xuxios, sercon nuas) in the Hymnus matutinus, fupplies the Edicor with another proof, of which he has well availed himself: for he shews clarly that the Trisagium formed a Part of the Hymr, in the time of Proclus, who was Patriarch of Const niinople from the year 434 to the year 440. As we have not leisure io pursue the detail of Dr. Woide's reasoning on this subject, we think it sufficient to mention the following, among other arguments to the fame purpole : The MS. has no spirits or accents; it makes no separation between the words; it contains Greek words drawn from the moit remote antiquiry; it places the initial or capital letters without the line; it has the titles and fubscriptions of the Epililes and Gospels in the Morteft and most fimple form ; and it exprefles numbers by words, and no! by letters of the alphabet. Dr. W. sums up

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