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wate afe of ihe reader, not as extended without proper limitations to those ibat are made for the public service of the Church.”
Of Bishop Newcome's translation it will be sufficient praise to observe, that it would be difficult to point out many instances, in which he has not adhered to his own rules. As a specimen of his general manner, we will transcribe the following animated passage from the Prophet Habakkuk, which Bishop Lowth has produced in his Prælections on the Hebrew poetry *, as a strike ing example of that species of sublimity, which is peculiar to the Ode:
Jehovah, I have heard thy + speech;
• God came from Teman,
• Was the anger of Jehovah kindled against the floods ?
• Thou didit cleave the streams of the land:
"The fun and I be moon stood fill in their habitation :
* Prælect. xxviii. p. 368. Edit. 2. + Hebr. bearing.
I Hebr. to him from his hand. $Hebr. at bis feet. | Hebr. were bis. Heb, under.
** Or, leri-Curtains. Rev. Jan. 1787
• In thine indignation didst thou march through the land ;
« Thou did it wound the head out of the house of the wicked: · Thou didit lay bare the foundation to the rock: Selah.)
Thou did it pierce with thy rod the head of his villages.
"When I heard thy speech, my bowels trembled :
And will cause me to tread on mine high places.' The words is iga O!!?? in verle 4, according to our present version, “ He had horns COMING OUT of his hand," are, we think, with greater propriety, as well as dignity, rendered by Bishop Newcome, Rays STREAMED from his hand. We would add, too, that this tranllation seems still further supported by its parallelism with the preceding clause,
וְנֹנָה כָּאוֹר תהיה
His brightness was as the light. Our Author's note on the paffage is as follows: "The verb 99 signifies to shine, Exod. xxxiv, 29, 30, 35: and a pencil or cone of rays issuing from a point, diverges in the shape of a horn.'-The propriety of the metaphor is sufficiently striking, • and indeed this interpretation of the word 72 is justified by the authority of Aben Ezra, who, as Buxtorf informs us, understands it in this very passage 'to signify radii fplendentes. On Exod. xxxiv. 29, &c. to which the Bishop refers, we shall take occafion to remark, that the mis-translation of the word 27 by Aquila, and the Vulgate Latin verfion, has perhaps given rise to that vulgar and ridiculous error, by which horns have
* Heb. thresho
+ Heb, under me.
been considered as a necessary adjunct ro every representation of the Jewish Legislator.-- Aquila ienders the words xspotwens ñv, and the Vulgaie admits the same erroneous interpretation, “ El ignorabat Mofes quod cornuta effèt facies sua.”
On ver. 7. the Bishop remarks, ó fupposing the Prophet to speak, " I saw," seems harsh; and therefore I propose 1787 thou sawel, addrested to God.'-- We must confefs, that we do not sce che neceflity of this correction of the Hebrew text;-nor do we think it more harsh, or more unnatural, for the Prophet to represent himself, as having been a witness to evenis long since past, than it is to describe things future, as now present ; a mode of expression which occurs in every page of the prophetic writings. We are inclined therefore to acquiesce in the present
1 ,ראיתי reading
Verse 11. is much more happily translated by Bihop News come, than in the old English version
"The sun and the moon stood still in their habitation ;
By their brightness, the lightning of thy spear.' The commion translation is comparatively obscure and inelegant - The sun and the moon food fill in their habitation; at the light of thine arrows they went, and at the shining of thy glittering spear.
On the words n'y vo wild in ver. 17. Bishop Newcome remarks, 'As nwy signifies to produce, as a tree or a field; see Gen. i. 11, 12. Pr. i. 3. hivyo will naturally denote fruit. Hence Torğuy xeption in the New Testament, Matth. iii. 10, &c.'
This observation is ingenious; but with respect to the word wnd we think, that neither Bifhop Newcome's translation, nor the old version, expresses its full force and elegance. The Septuagint approaches nearer to the Hebrew-WEUCÉTA&fy or inains-Thus Horace has fundus mendax, and fpem mentita leges.
And here candour obliges us to own, that a translation of the Minor Prophets is attended with peculiar difficulties. The obscurity, in which they are involved, in common with the other parts of the sacred volume, arises, in some degree, from the fingular conciseness of the Hebrew language, from its numerous afyndeta, and the paucity of its moods and tenses, from the frequent omiffon of preposicions, and the nice and various fignifi. cations ascribed to its particles. But belide there, and other difficulties, incident to every translator of the Hebrew Scriptures, there are others, not less discouraging, which B. Thop Newcome had more particularly to encounter. Such are the want of birtorical records, for the illustration of many facts, to which the writings of the Minor Prophets refer, the nature of those unaca complidhed prophecies that occur in them, and which the E 2
event only cze d.Atinals explain; and, above all, the shortness of the fecerai books, which deprives the tranflator of that most fruitfui source of juft criticiin, the comparison of a writer with himself. A prophecy corfilling but of a few chapters must of course contain words, ang phrases, about the meaning of which, as they occur but once, we can only form conje&ures from the context, or from analogous terms in the fifter dialects.
We bave before observed, that there are few instances in which cur Translator has not adhered to his own rules. The fcloning are among the number of those that we have noticed. Amos, iii. 3. is rendered by Bishop Newcome,
• Can two go together,
Crless they meet by appointment?'. But is not the expreffion, miit by appointment, one of those modern phrases, which he has himselt very properly proscribed, in page xxiii of bis Preface, and very pointedly condemned in other tranflators of the Scriprures ? Amos, iv, ver. 9. is rendered,
* I have smitten you with blasting and with mildew very much.' Whether this translation of the passage be more accurate than the common Engliin version, whicb, in compliance with the Masoretic divifion of the sentence, connects the word ni2777 with the following clause, we will not take upon us to deter. mine. But surely the expression very much is evidently deficient in point of dignity, and its position at the end of the sentence seems to render it particularly unharmonious.
Amos, vi, 14, is rendered by Bishop Newcome, in exa&t conformity indeed with the Hebrew original, but in direct oppofition to the rule laid down by himself (Rule V.), as follows: .
· Surely, behold I will raise up against thee, O house of Israel, Saith Jehovah, the God of Hofis,
A nation; and they thall oppress you, &c.' The structure of the sentence in the common translation is infinitely more natural, and better suited to an Englith ear:
" But bebold I will raise up against you a nation, 0 house of Ifrael, faith the Lord God of Hofts, &c.” Horea, xiii. 14. is rendered, we think, rather obscurely,
· Death, where is thine overthrow ? :
O Grave, where is chy deitruction ?' The words thine overthrow, and thy destruction, seem naturally to point out an overthrow, and a destruction to be suffered; racher than to be inflicted by death and the grave, Of this obscurity, indeed, the learned Translator appears himself to have been lenfible, for he has added the following note to explain the paffage • The destruction infiiEted by death.' But certainly a translation de. figned for general use, instead of requiring notes to explain its
• meaning, meaning, should speak a language intelligible to every capacity. Habakkuk, i. g. • All of them shall come for violence; The supping up of their faces shall be as an East wind; And they shall gather captives as the sand.'
Though the word nan be rendered, perhaps with strict literal propriety, the fupping up, and though the Translator may shelter himself under the authority of the common English verfion, and that of the learned Peters on Job, yet we cannot but be apprehensive that the phrase will convey either an improper meaning, or rather no meaning at all to the mere English reader. At the same time, however, we must be candid enough to confess, that we know no unexceptionable word which we can recominend to be substituted in its place; unless indeed we follow the Syriac verfion, and that of Symmachus, which appear to have read 799, or, what amounts to nearly the same, admit the conjecture of Houbigant, D72, when the sentence will run thus : Before their faces, &c.
But we forbear co inlift any longer on this moft irksome part of our office. We will not fatigue ourselves, or disgust our Readers, with a tedious enumeration of trilling inaccuracies. On the contrary, we cannot express our sentiments on this subject more exactly, or more forcibly, than in the words of a celebrated writer of antiquity---Kab CTED ye xai Év Tois x020001mons if yoos, ở To xaf' ¢xasov áspleis anoğuev, aara. Tois xx9óng TeosKouev põnacv, ñ fun mans tó Őrov • Štws xeợv TỐTO:S 77013001 DEI Try xpidit.
In the work at large, but more particularly in the Notes, the Bilbop has enjoved the advantage of lome particular ailitances in addition to those which the press affords. These, wnich he enumerates in the most candid and graceful manner, consisted principally in the access which he had to the inedited papers of Dr. Durell, Dr. Wheeler, and Archbishop Secker; in collations of the Coptic version made in the ad century; 3:34 of the Pachomian M$. ; to which must be added some obfervations of Dr. Forfayeth, Archdeacon of Cork, which occupy no inconti. derable part of the Appendix.
There is also a curious communication on Harpai, ii, 6, 7, 8, o from the learned Dr. Heberden, which deteris co be parlicularly noticed, as it tends to hew the mil ppiicaiicf a prophecy, which, as it stands in our translation, is evidently predictive of the Mefliah. It is true, that whatever cannot be properly applied to the support of Christianity, ought readily to be parted with, since even the best cause inay suffer from an insaitul or unfair defence. On the other hand, there seens an