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litary operations, and which constitute the chief excellence of every well regulated army.

ASTROLOGY! Art. 52. The New Astrology; or the Art of predialing and fore.

telling future Events by the Aspects, &c. of the Heavenly Bodies.

By C. Heydon, Jun. Altro-Philo. 12mo. 25.6d. Kearney. 1786. Art. 53. An Astrological Catechism, wherein the Principles of Afiro.

logy are fully demonstrated by way of Question and Answer. 12mo. is. Kearsley. 1786.

Solomon says “there is nothing new under the fun.” We, by long experience, have determined never to be surprized at any thing. It must however be acknowledged, that these two publications are very unfit characteristics of the country and age in which they have made their appearance.

THEOLOGY, &c. Art. 54. The Pilgrim's Progress from this world to that which is to

come. By John Bunyan. A new Edition, divided into Chapters. To which are added, Explanatory and Practical Notes. By G. Burder, Minister of the Gospel at Coventry. 12mo. 35. 6d. bound. Matthews. 1786.

As Bunyan's Pilgrim is certainly a masterpiece in its kind, we are glad to see an edition of it well printed on good paper, and adorned with neat copper-plates. The Editor hath prefixed the Life of the Author, written, like the former accounts, in a strain perfectly congenial with honest John's own pious spirit, and godly mode of expression; and the fame may be laid of Mr. Burder's large 'explanatory and practical notes ;' an extract from one of which may be given as a specimen :

oli is somewhat surprising that the Pilgrim's Progress should be universally esteemed, fecing that it condemns the far greater part of those who read it. To instance in this chapter only: Does not lg. norance speak the language of most nominal Christians? Do we not hear them ay with him, “ They hope well, for their hearts are always full of good motions--they have very good hearts, and they believe in Christ for justification?” But let their condition be truiy examined, and it will appear, “ that they neer had one good or right thought of themselves in their lives--that their faith is false, fantastical, and deceitful; and that they do not trun in Christ, but in themselves.” How many deceive their own souls in this matter? They say they believe in Christ, and trust in him, though they never saw their loft condition, and consequently their need of him; are unacquainted with the nature of his righteousness, and ridicule che idea of its imputation to the believer. Their dependence is on what they do, or (which is nearly the same) on wbac is done in them. They despise Christian experience as enthuiialm, and think that trusting to the righteousness of Christ, leads to licentiouineis. Soch is the language both of the parlour and the pulpit in this day; and yet, though it is here so justly exposed, every body adinires to Pil. grim's Progress! How fad, yet how true is the reflection of Borul, * Alas! there are abundance in every town in this condition, who.c families, yea, whole freets, and that of proteica Chirillian: inn!"


The Lord lessen their number daily, by the light of his glorious gospel.'

From the above quotation, the reader will be apt to infer that our Editor is a Methodist ; nor can we think otherwise, though he writes in a better flyle than some of that persuasion. But whatever be the religious denomination under which he would be clased, his expositions of Bunvan's allegories will strongly recommend his edition of the Pilgrim's Progress to the Antinomians, and rigid Calvinists in general. They are given at the end of every chapter*, somewhat in the manner of Doddridge's improvement of Scripture passages, in his Family Expositor. Art. 55. in Eray on the Goodness of God, as manifested in the Mission

of Jesus Christ. Published in pursuance of the Will of the late Mr. Norris, as having gained the Annual Prize instituted by him in the University of Cambridge. By Edward Pearson, A. M. Fellow of Sydney-Suitex College. 8vo. 15. Rivington. 1586.

It is not, perhaps, to be expected, that, in an exercise of this kind, much new light thould be cast upon a trite subject. It is a sufficient recommendation of the piece to say, that it is written with a degree of good senie, perspicuity, and elegance, which entitle the Author to a higher reward than the Norrisian Prize. Art. 56. Gospel Exeriences, and Memoirs of the late pious and reve.

rend Gabriel D'Anville, V.D. M. including several Anecdotes of some of the most celebrated Preachers in the Metropolis : with a concluding Address to the Junior Clergy, and more especially to the S:udents of Oxford and Cambridge. 12mo. 2 Vols. 59. sewed. Bew. 1736.

Gabriel D'Anville takes his name from his father's profeffionwhich was nothing more nor less than that of a blacksmith; and any Other name in the Mop would have suited the character equally well; for it is forged out of the lowest ore, and hammered into form by the molt bungling Cyclops of the trade.

This lam it and most insignificant of all Vulcan's offspring be. comes a methodist, and of course (according to his biographer) a hypocrite; for hypocrisy and methodism are, it feems, only two different words for the same thing. It is no part of our business to enquire whether this convertibility of terms be right or wrong. The Author's acquaintance with the subject is so fuperior to our own, that we must give him credit for the truth of his ailertions. He appears to have been in the secret; but what promp'ed him to disclose it to the world, is a point which we leave to be decided by those whom it concerns.

It concerns not us whether Gabriel d'Anville's picture be drawn from the life ; or whether it be the caricature of imagination, where fpleen held the pencil, and impiety supplied the colours. Let those determine the truth or falsehood of it, who think it worth their while to write or to talk of Gospel experiences, whether in carnest or in jeft; for

Suulli in contraria current ! • Mr. Burder has divided the two parts of the Pilgrim into 35 chapters. A third part, usually printed in the common editions, does not appear in this volume. We suppose it was not written by Bun. yan ; and if so, Mr. Burder was right in omitting it.

Art. Art. 57. Commentaries and Elays: published by the Society for

promoting the Knowledge of the Scriptures. No. IV. 8vo. 25.' and No V. 15. Johnson, 1786.

These numbers contain a numerous collection of critical notes upon detached passages of the Old Testament,' which will very well repay the attentive perusal of the biblical scholar:-An Inquiry into the Evidence which points out Christ to have been only a Creature of the Human Race, invested with extraordinary Powers from God, as it arises from his own Declarations, and those of the Apostles and Evangelists;' in which the main arguments for the Socinian System are brought into a narrow compass, and clearly ftated :-- Observations on Part of Daniel's Prophecy ;'-and a gleaning of remarks on Mr. Travis's Attempt to revive the exploded Text of 1 John v.7.

RELIGIOUS. Art. 58. An Elegy on the Nature and Glory of the Gospel of Jesus Chrift,

the Nature and Consequences of Spiritual Blindness, and of Divine. Illumination. By Joseph Bellamy, D.D. New England. 12mo. 19. od. Mathews.

Disputes are endless: this little volume relates to some religious controversies which have prevailed in America. It opposes Antinomian tenets, and is itself Calvinistical. The book will probably be acceptable to some readers, particularly to such as are acquainted with, or interested in, the circumstances of the debate to which it refers. We observe that the writer seems in one place to suppose that virtue and goodness appear odious to a wicked, or, as he terms it, an unregenerate man; as Jesus Christ appeared to the Pharisees, and others of the Jews : but of this matter a different account may be given.' It is often found that bad men approve and respect that virtue which they do not imitate : the decision of the Poet seems therefore more probable and exact;

. Video meliora, proboque, deteriora fequor.' Art. 59. A Manual for African Slaves. By the Rev. James Ramsay,

M. A. 12mo. · 3d. Longman. 1787. . This manual is compiled chiefly from Dr.Watts's Catechism, and Bishop, Wilson's Family Prayers. Thole who are employed in giving instruction to negroes, can best determine, from experience, how far a performance of this kind can be useful. From the Au. thor's intimate knowledge of the fituation of the wretched Africans enslayed in the West Indies, we are led to suppose that he has luited it to their capacities and circumstances.

CORRESPONDEN C E. We are obliged to Discipulus for his observations on the two verbs to lie and to lay. After reconsidering the subject, we are the more satisfied with the definition of lie, which we gave in our Review for March, p. 258. As to the verb to lay, it frequently fignifies to place; nor is our definition contradictory to this signification.

ERRATUM in our last.
Page 311, 1. 10, for • settled,' r. fifred.


For JUNE, 1787.

Art. J. The History of Athens politically and philofophically considered,

with the View to an Investigation of the immediate Causes of Elevation and of Decline, operative in a free and commercial State.

By William Young, Esq. *. 4to. 155. Boards. Robson. 1786. IT has been juftly remarked, that different persons, and even

l the same person at different periods of life, will read the same book with very different kinds and degrees of information, according to the direction of their former inquiries, or the par- . ticular object of their present attention. There is so much meaning and truth in this observation when applied to the subject of history, that we can never conclude the instruction contained in its more brilliant pages, how frequently foever they may have been read and commented upon, to be entirely exhausted.

The rise, progress, and decline of the Grecian States, and particularly of Athens, is one of the most fertile topics that can invite the attention of the philosopher; and, notwithstanding all that has hitherto been written concerning them, there is double less still room for ufeful speculation respecting their religion, policy, and manners.

Mr. Young seems to have been very sensible of the value of the Grecian history, as a subject of philosophical discuffion; and has industriously brought together many particulars of the Athenian State, instructive both to the statesman and the moralift, and deduced from them many important maxims and observations. He appears to have undertaken and prosecuted his design with manly views and a liberal (pirir. But we are sorry to ob. serve two essential defects in the execution; the first, that the materials of the work are not so perspicuously arranged, as to bring into one connected view the several documents of political and moral wisdom : the second, that the philosophical part of the work is almoft universally expressed in language wbich has

** For Mr. Young's former work, entitled, The Spirit of Athens,

fee Rev. vol. lvi. '. Vol. LXXVI.

I i


been ftiffened, by laborious composition, into enigmatical ob. scurity. One good effect of this mode of writing is, that it obliges the reader to think; in return, however, the writer should be careful to repay his reader's pains with a large portion of sterling sense. How far this is done in the present work, a few extracts will Thew.

Almost every chapter opens with a train of general reflections, suggested by, or in some fort connected with its subject. From thele we thall select the remarks with which Mr. Young introduces his account of the first Persian war:

• Under certain points of view, and in a certain degree, it is a just axiom of Lord Verulam's, That man is, but what he knows: the extent then of his knowledge, is that of his excellence, to the attain. ment of which opportunities must coincide with the capacity thereof; and it is not alone the primary circumstances of birth, the peculiar rareness of the spirits, or quality of their channels, or what else to be acted upon by climate, or other natural contingency, that can fingly elevate the human character ; but a further and more refined combination of infiuences is requisite ; of influences, originating not from the material, but mental world, not from the temperature of foil or air, or even temperament of parents ; but from the pre-established order of society, the prescriptive objects of its ingenuity, study, emulation, and esteem.

• The advantages of country in a physical sense, it will readily be granted, are not alone equivalent to those of country under the polia tical purport of the word: ic yet remains for confideration, how far there may agree? whether the vertical suns, which, according to many ancient and modern fophifts, are so favourable to a finer texture of the brain, are not oppreffive to its further strength and energy? whether quickness is not incompatible with stability and, as man is not so much excellent from the gift of possessing, as from the faculty of acquiring, whether the retentive and progressive powers incident to those born under less brilliant skies, give not, in the course of time and things, a national superiority, made and strengthened by gradual and improved accumulation, which the more vivacious children of the sun must ever look up to in despair? the most etherial genius born to the community, finding no previous common stock of method for its direction, or of knowledge for its basis, no previous grounds of acquirement whereon to build or improve fyftems for the use of, and to further again the progress of posterity? Avoiding a too long and digreflive train of reasoning, I leave it to the reader's ingenuity to feek, and supply these queries with, the proper solution; to deduce levity from fancy, and ignorance from inaction; to mark the passions born of indolence stilling reason in its birth; and then, to account-why Eattern genius hath gleamed in metaphor, rather than shone in poem ;--why fancied, rather than thought in science ;--why originated, and not perfected menial trades, and even the finer arts ;--grafting the first Moots of knowledge, why left it to others to mature the fruit;--and (touching home to the subject) to develope why the people of Asia, dreading the recondite theories and active practice of republicanism, have ever fought, and do itill


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