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not to be neglected where it is necessary;' but various circum. ftances muft concur to render it practicable and insure success. The risk, with which this operation is attended, of communia caring diseases, is an important and very material objection to the indiscriminate practice of it, and seems to overbalance any advantage that can be obtained by it. It is practised, in general, more with a view to obviate deformity, than to be productive of any real advantage; and we think a beautiful set of teeth dearly bought at the expence of a venereal taint, or even the infection of a less dreadful malady.
The diseases of the ear form the subject of the next chapter, in which Mr. Bell considers deafness as arising from an imperfora:ed meatus auditorius; from extraneous bodies impacted in the ear; from excrescences in the meatus; or from wax collected in the ear. The various operations for removing these are defcribed, and in such cases as cannot be cured by any manual operation, palliative remedies are recommended..
This volume concludes with the wry-neck, the diseases of the nipples, issues, and inoculating for the small-pox.
The art of Surgery is much indebted to the ingenious and judicious Author of these volumes, for what he hath already done toward the advancement and improvement of it; and we hope he will not long keep us in expectation of that pleasure which we promise ourselves in a review of his future lavours.
ART. VIII. Annals of Agriculture, and other useful Arts. Collected and published by Arthur Young, Esq. F. R. S. &c. &c. &c. Vols. I, II, III, IV. and V. 8vo. 15. 3d. each. Goldney. THOUGH this work hath made its appearance in detached
| numbers, and though it is not our custom to take notice of periodical productions, yet as this undertaking is of a peculiar nature, approaching to the memoirs of particular focieties, which are often published periodically, we have thought ourselves obliged, in some measure, to take notice of it. .
In a preface to the first volume, Mr. Young explains the defigo of this publication, and points out its utility.
At the end of a war which not only left the nation despoiled of a large territory, but deeply involved in debt, he concludes, that nothing remains for extricating ourselves from our difficul. ties but a redoubled attention to our domestic concerns; and, in that view, nothing, he thinks, could prove more useful than a performance naturally calculated to turn the attention of mankind to the important concerns of agriculture. These confiderations gave rise to the present work: and he professes to bestow, freely, bis own labour, without any prospect of pecuniary emoD 4.
The plan of the work differs little from several other periodi. cal productions on agriculture that have appeared, except that it is published by an editor well known for his labours in that line, and that no anonymous papers are admitted.
At first it was proposed to vary the fize of the numbers, as matter might prove more or less abundant, and also not to be limited to any regular time of publication ; but now, we think, the numbers are pretty uniform, and that the time of publication is also tolerably regular,
Mr. Young appears here in two characters, that of an authar (for he has contributed pretty largely to the work bimself), and that of an editor. In his original essays we perceive the same vivacity of thought, the same quickness of imagination, the same avidity for seizing doubtful facts, the same facility of rearing, upon whatever foundation, structures of stupendous magnificence; the same bias to calculacion, the same fondness for political speculations, which distinguish all his other performances, and which render them peculiarly entertaining to those who ftudy agriculture for amusement and recreation. It appears that to his other acquirements Mr. Young has now added a degree of knowledge in chemistry, which opens as good a field for his imagination to sport in as any other branch of science that he could have thought of. Accordingly, we find that in the hands of the adventurous Tyro, the words PHLOGISTON, AIR, and GAS, are nearly as omnipotent as the SALT, SULPHUR, and MERCURY of the ancient chemists, or the acute and obtuse spicula of the mechanical chemists. A Bacon or a Boyle might see room for caution or scepticism, in respect to the application of theo · ries that are imperfectly understood : caution and circumspection, however, are but disagreeable inmates with those impatient geniuses who delight in indulging the agreeable reveries, into which an uncurbed imagination so readily falls,
As an editor, Mr. Young appears in a less advantageous point of view than as an Author, his natural talents being licclę calculated for discharging the duties of that office, either with pleasure to himself or with fatisfa&tion to his readers. Instead of those lively rallies which enchant his own mind, and delighe for a time the readers of his original productions, he is called upon, as an editor, to advance with a calm, steady, rigid cautiousness; to probe every system with that penetrating carefulness which a long and atientive experience only can suggest as useful ; co sift every fact with the most scrupulous nicety ; to point out circumstances that may have been overlooked in the ardour of the experimenter, or his incautious precipitancy; and ço trace out those nice particulars that require to be adverted to, and fully ascertained, before the facts, often seemingly proved to
a care. a careless observer, can be in any sort relied upon. Mr. Young, as, might have been naturally expected, enters little into this view of the matter. His observations on the productions of his correspondents are few, and in these it seems that he would rather run before his friends than fay to accompany them, or to moderate their ardour, if they happen to be in too much hurry: and though we believe that he has a mind far above the meanness of knowiogly becoming the panegyrift of high rank or great names, yet be bas, on several occasions, inadvertently we presume, fallen into a tone that an ill-natured critic might easily conftrue to his disadvantage. The dignity of science requires that a man of character thould be equally above offering incense to the great, or unjustly degrading the bumble; and, if we are not miltaken, our editor will readily agree with us in this fentiment.
It will not be expected that all the papers in a work of this nature can be of equal merit, or that an editor can have it in his power to reject all those which his own judgment might disapprove, when he and the correspondents are mutually known to each other; for politeness, humanity, gratitude, and benevolence sometimes forbid this. A considerate reader will therefore be disposed to make allowances on these accounts, and will not harshly refuse to forgive him for admitting a few trifliog and insignificant eslays, when the bulk of those he meets with have merit. Of this last class there are not a few; but to no one person has this work been so much indebted for original and usefut communications, as to John Symonds, LL. D. profeffor of modern history in the University of Cambridge; who has given, in reveral long and interesting papers, a better account of the present fare of agriculture in Italy, ihan we recolle to have ever seen of any other country on the globe : it would form a very intereiting work by itself. Many other valuable communications occus; but we are not allowed room to particularize them.
The greatest defect we have remarked in the work is, that perpetual tendency which the Author Thews to run into long and intricate digreffions on political subjects. We call them digreffions, for though the editor has endeavoured to pave the way for such anomalies by inserting, in the title-page, the words other weful arts, as well as agriculture, yet we presume every reader would expect that the work thould be almost wholly appropriated to agriculture. For our own part, we have been disgusted by having our attention to often diverted from the subject we expected to find treated exclusively of all others, and called away by long digressions on the colonies, the West Indies, the Irish propofitions, and other fimilar subjects, which are trea:ed with all the ardour and enthusiasm of a profeffed party-writer. This disappointed us; and we are persuaded it must have a llill greater
: tendency tendency to offend the sober-minded farmer, who, chiefly aftentive to his own business, takes little concern in those warm contests which so strongly interest our political partizans. This, we doubt, may have tended much to retard the sale of our Author's annals, of which he bitterly complains, among that truly valuable class of citizens. In its present ftate, the work can neither be adapted to the taste of the practical farmer, nor that of the speculative politician, as it contains a great mixture of extraneous matter, about which neither of them are much concerned. It would be well, therefore, if Mr. Young would lay himself under a little restraint in this respect, and either resolve to abstain from one of these kinds of speculation, or make iwo separate publications of it. Our desire to see a successful work on the subject of experimental agriculture, which we think is much wanted, has produced these remarks.
N. B. This publication hath proceeded as far as the 30th No.
ART. IX. Two Discourses, delivered at the public Meetings of the
Royal Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres at Berlin, in the Years 1785 and 1786. I. On the Popuiacion of States in general, and that of the Pruffian Dominions in particular. II. On the true Riches of States and Nations, the Balance of Commerce and that of Power. By the Baron de Hertzberg, Minister of State, and Member of the Academy. Translated from the French. Svo. 25. 6d. Dilly. 1786. THESE discourses are two of those which the Baron anI nually delivers before the Royal Academy at Berlin, on the birth-day of the Pruflian morarch.
We gave a particular account of the first of these pieces in the Appendix to the 73 o volume of our Review, from the French; we shall therefore proceed to the second.
The Baron begins with shewing that the prosperity, happiness, and riches of a state, confift in the variety and goodness of the means by which it can procure for itself, first, the necessaries, and afterward, the conveniencies or elegancies of life. He proves, by many ingenious arguments and observations, that the first, principal, and effential basis of the prosperity of a state, consists in good agriculture, and in the abundance of natural productions; and that the second bafis is national industry, which, by giving perfection to the produce of the soil, introduces various kinds of manufactures, and thus gives value to the artificial productions of a country. He concludes that the balance of commerce will always be in favour of that nation whose commodities, whether natural or artificial, are neceffaries of life, as corn, linen, wool, timber, &c. and this balance will always be against a nation whose different kinds of merchandice consist only of articles of luxury, and consequently are not effential to life. He considers the balance of commerce to have an effential and decisive
infuence on the balance of power; and the proof of this affertion is confirmed by an historical account of the existence of a political balance in all ages. In this part of his work he fnews himself to be a profound politician, and a well-informed historian.
After mentioning the great work which the King had lately completed, of eftablishing the general repose and security of Germany, the Baron proceeds to enumerate the many important political occupations which engaged the attention of that great monarch. It appears that he has, at his own expence, erected a great number of public and private buildings at Berlin and Pots. dam,—that he has rebuilt whole towns which have been con fumed by fire,-ereded new churches, and repaired old ones, that be has expended great sums in the construction of fortrefles and barracks, that he has established new manufactures and fupported old ones,--that he has given considerable fums to gentlemen and other possessors of lands for the advancement of agriculture and the improvement of their estates, for the clearing of lands and the draining of marshes, and that he has made the greatest efforts for repairing the damages and misfortunes occafioned by extraordinary inundations, in causing the banks that were broken down to be restored without loss of time, in fur. nishing to the unfortunate inhabitants feed for fowing, and corn for their sustenance, and in supplying their various other neceffities. The whole sum which the King has expended during the course of the year 1785, in extraordinary benefactions and gratuities, for the benefit of his subjects, appears to be 2,901,000 crowns.
The Baron, after this warm eulogy on his illustrious monarch, returns to the principal subject of his discourse, and thews that Pruflia may be considered as a powerful and rich ftate, because it enjoys an improved state of agriculture, great national industry, an advantageous inland and foreign commerce, and an extensive navigation.
This great and learned politician has afforded us much pleafure, whenever we have had occasion to peruse his productions ; and we think our countrymen are obliged to Dr. Towers for giving them a good translation of the present ingenious and animated diícouries,
ART. X. An Attempt towards an improved Verhon, a metrical Ara
rangement, and an Explanation of the Twelve Minor Prophets. By
Boards. Johnson, &c. 1785.
light and satisfaction to liberal and philosophic minds, the progress which has been made in biblical criticism, in particular, undes the auspices of civil and religious liberty, in our own