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it is surely high time to have done with a logomachy which has occafioned so much mischief in the world.
One inference, however, arises from this comparative view of the Athanafian and Socinian dodrine, of which our Author does not seem to have been aware, which is, that if the dispute between the parties be entirely a war of words, they are agreed in meaning. Consequently, when the Trinitarian worships God the Son, the Redeemer of the world, as far as be has any ideas, he worships the one true God as united to the man Christ Jesus for the purposes of redemption. The charge, therefore, which has often been brought against the Trinitasians, and which we are sorry to find repeated in this work, that in their prayers to three persons in one God they are guilty of idolatry, is, upon our Author's own principles as quoted above, wholly without foundation. It must, nevertheless, be acknowledged, that the metaphysical terms, borrowed from the schools, by which our public.forms of religion are obscured, whatever purpose they may formerly have served, are at present of little use. For this reason, although we can by no means adopt our Author's inconclusive mode of arguing, from the de. fects of past or present establishments, against the propriety of religious establishments in general, we heartily with, that the spirit of reformation and improvement, which is at present so laudably called forth in other relpeds, may be extended to the church, so far as to disincumber its Liturgy and Creed from the perplexing fubtleties of scholastic theology, and to restore them, in all doubtful points, to the fimplicity of Scriprural language..
Concerning the remainder of this volume, it may fuffice briefly to inform our Readers, that it confifts of two discourses on The Security and Happiness of a virtuous Course, which contain more novelty of thought than was to be expected on lo crire a subje&t-two, On the Goodness of God, in which the arguments jn support of the doctrine, drawn from the nature of the Divine Being and from his works, are clearly and strongly represented, and several cbjections, particularly that which has lately been advanced by Hume in a posthumous work, are satisfactorily refuted ;-and one, On the Resurrection of Lazarus, in which the Author ably defends the credibility of the miracle.
On the whole, we are of opinion that these discourses cannot fail to be acceptable to all truly liberal and candid readers; and that, whatever may be their effect in propagacing the Author's peculiar tenets, they will render an essential service to the cause of religion, by disseminating a spirit of philosophical moderation, ; *. * In a note, p. 93, there is a very material error of the press, viz, speaking of an opinion into which, as our Author
says, fays, Dr. Watts settled, after spending many years in perplexing inquiries, and taking much pains to keep within the limits of the do&rines commonly reckoned orthodox. This opinion, Dr. Price observes, 'agrees with Arianism in the strange doctrine as Dr. Watts calls it-of a THREEFOLD Deity, &c. But the passage, it seems, should have been printed thus : 'ic agrees with Arianism in REJECTING the frange doctrine, &c. See more of this, in our latt Review, p. 364.
at Descripto the Scr have fe does
af Defcription of motum. This is.ad. Mr. Hun
ART. VII. Obfervations on certain Parts of the Animal Oeconomy,
By John Hunter. 4to. 16s. Boards. Sold at No. 13, Castle Street,
Leicester Square. 1787. M R . Hunter has here given us a collection of tracts on vae
V rious subjects, most of which have already appeared, at different times, in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: those papers, therefore, which we have noticed in reviewing the works of that learned body, we shall now barely enumerate; but we thall examine, in a more particular manner, the pieces which are now first made public.
The first is, A Description of the Situation of the Teftis in the Fætus, with its Descent into the Scrotum. This is a subject which most anatomifts and physiologists have fully created. Mr. Hunter is accurate in his description ; but he does not give any new thoughts concerning the manner how, or the reasons why, the change happens.
The second is, On the Glands situated between the Rectum and Bladder, called Veficule Seminales. Here we meet with a new hypothefis, viz. ihat the veficule seminales do not contain the fubftance which preceding writers on anatomy have allotted to them. Mr. Hunter's conjecture would, perhaps, have had more of the appearance of probability, could he have proved the real use of these organs. We must nevertheless acknowledge the great ingenuity of the anatomist, although we doubt his conclusions.
III. An Account of the Free Martin. See Review, vol. Ixii. p. 221.
iv. An Account of an extraordinary Pheasant. See Review, vol. Ixiv. p. 276.
V. On the Organ of Hearing in Fishes. See Rev. vol. Ixix. p. 395.
VI. An Account of certain Receptacles of Air in Birds which com. municate with the Lungs and Euftachian Tube. See Rev. vol. li. p. 376. Considerable additions have been made to this paper since its former publication.
VII. Obfervations on Animals, with respect to the Power of proe ducing Heat. See Rev. vol. Iv. p. 120.
VIII, Proa VIII. Proposals for the Recovery of Persons apparently drowned. See Rev vol. Tvii. p. 2.
IX. On the Structure of the Placenta. This paper was read at the Royal Society; but as the facts it contains had, before that time, been given to the Public, it was not published in the
time, besonders on the Gillaroche gizzard, vol. li. Pid, in
X. Observations on the Gillaroo Trout. This file is remarkable for having its stomach fimilar to the gizzard of fowls, and is commonly called the Gizzard trout. See Rev. vol. li, p. 376.
XI. On Digestion. In 1772, Mr. Hunter published, in the 62d volume of the Philosophical Transactions, a paper, On the Digestion of the Stomach after Death *. It is here republished, with a very long critique on the principal experimenters who have had the presumption to enter the same field of enquiry. Mr. Hunter has, accordingly, bestowed some severe ftri&ures on Reaumur, Spallanzani, Vallisneri, Sennebier, and others, The contemptuous manner in which Mr. Hunter speaks of his Sellow-labourers in this physiological enquiry, is in our opinion somewhat reprehensible. Mentioning, for instance, the opinion that digestion was performed by mechanical or chemical powers, he says, we have no very high idea of experiments made by gentlemen and priests t, who for want of anatomical knowledge, have not been able to pursue their reasoning even beyond the Simple experiment itself,' p. 148. Mr. Hunter ought to recollect, that we are indebted to gentlemen and priests, as he calls them, for the most brilliant discoveries of the present age; witness those of a Watson, a Cavendish, a Kirwan, a Priestley, a Lavoilier, &c. And though Spallanzani and Sennebier are, unfortunately for them, in Mr. Hunter's opinion, priests, and not his equals in anatomical knowledge, yet they are not apparently more deficient in anatomy, than Mr, H. has proved himself to be in another science (chemistry), which is not a less necessary quali. fication for pursuing inquiries on digestion, than anatomy. His ignorance of chemistry is frequently betrayed in this dissertation. He maintains, for instance, that the fæces of animals fed on vegetable food, will probably during fermentation afford fixed air; and of animals fed on animal food, inflammable air. Had Mr. Hunter been colerably informed, he would have known that pu. trid matter, whether animal or vegetable, affords phlogisticated and hepatic, as well as fixed air.
In the following paragraph Mr. Hunter discovers his utter ignorance of a well ascertained faat, namely, the composition of
• Of this paper our Readers will find a long account in the goth volume of our Review, p. 280, et seq.
† From this passage, we may infer, that Mr. H. does not chuse to rank with gentlemen, &c.—as an experimentalif at least,
bone. Although bones,' says he, are in part composed of animal substance, and are so far digeftible, yet they require stronger powers of digestion than common meat, from the animal Substance being guarded by the earth. Thus the animal part of a bone is less readily soluble in an alkali than Aelb, or even the animal part when deprived of its earth by an acid : nor will a bone submit to putrefaction so readily as meat, being guarded by the calcareous earth. It is clear that Mr. H. does not know that bone is composed, not of calcareous earth and animal matter, but of phosphorated lime (an earthy falt) and animal matter.
It is not a little extraordinary, that in the space of 13 years, subsequent observers have not been able to add their evidence to Mr. Hunter's teftimony, that the stomach has been digefted after death by its own juice.
The error of Dr. Ingen bourz and of Count de Milly, who have said that there is, during bathing in water, an aerial transpiration, is corrected in this paper. It is here Thewn by Mr. Hunter (agreeably to Dr. Pearson's reasoning and experiments) that the air, observed on the skin of persons in a cold bath, comes from the water, and not from the body of the bather.
XII. On a Secretion in the Crop of breeding Pigeons, for the Nourishment of their Young. The young pigeon, like the young quadruped, till capable of digesting ordinary food, is fed with a substance prepared for that purpose by the parent animal, not by the female alone, as in quadrupeds, but by the male also, who perbaps furnishes this nutriment in greater abundance. It is a milky substance, secreted from the coats of the crop both of the male and female pigeon; in consistence and appearance it resembles white granulated curd. By examining several pigeons, Mr. Hunter finds that, during incubation, the coats of the crop continually increase in thickness and consistence, like the udder of female quadrupeds during gestation. In the natural state, the crop is thin and membranous, but, at the time the young ones are about to be hatched, the whole becomes thickened, except that part which lies on the trachea, and takes a glandular appearance, having its internal surface irregularly wrinkled. From this furface the liquor is secreted, and most probably soon coagulates to a curd, which alone is the food of the young pigeon for two or three days; after that time it is mixed with other ordi. nary food previously macerated in the crop of the old ones: the fecretion stops at the end of the eighth or ninth day, when the young pigeon, becoming stronger, and having been gradually accustomed to common food, as peas, barley, horse-beans, &c. has no farther occasion for the secreted nutriment, fince its own digestive faculties have acquired such perfection as to bear raw ore dinary food. This dissertation is accompanied with two plates,
representing the pigeon's crop in its natural and in its enlarged ftate. It is a curious fact that the parent pigeon has a power of discharging the curd alone, and afterwards a mixture of the curd and common food in such proportion as is requifite for the young ones.
XIII. On the Colour of the Pigment in the Eye in different Ani. mals. In the eyes of all animals, the choroid coat is lined with a substance, called the pigmentum. This, it is well known, is of different colours in different animals : why it should be so is unknown. Mr. Hunter here delivers a great number of observations, or rather relations of cases, in which he has examined the colour of the pigment, and adds several curious remarks shewing how the colour varies in different animals, and also in different species of the same animal. He has found that the pigment is generally of the colour of the eye-lathes, and that animals whose eyelashes are white can see more diftinctly with a small degree of light than those whose eye-lashes are black. Of this a curious case is related; but for particulars we refer to the book.
The 14th, and last, tract in this collection is a Defiription of the Nerves which supply the Organ of (melling. This being merely a recital of anatomical facts, any abridgment of it would be unentertaining, and indeed unintelligible, without the plates,
As an anatomist, much merit is due to Mr. Hunter ; and the present volume clearly evinces his great knowledge of that science. But we are sorry to see an author so eminent in one branch of science betray his deficiency in those other branches, which are necessary for explaining many parts of physiology. Beside the chemical errors we have already noticed, we must observe, that our Author's method of determining the specific gravity of different animal lubstances, as given in p. 83, is a sufficient proof how little he is acquainted with the modern improvements in natural philosophy.
We cannot conclude this article without remarking, that the places, which illustrate the present performance, deserve coniiderable praise, both with respect to the design and execution.
ART. VIII. Poems and Ejays. Bv a Lady * lately deceased. Svo.
2 Vols. 75. 60. sewed. Bath, printed ; and sold by Dilly in London. 1786. 7 N the Preface to this collection, we are told that the pieces
of which it is composed were written to relieve the tedious hours of many years pain and sickness. The ingenious and amiable Authoress seems to have poflefled no small share of patience and pious refignation, and to have resorted for support
Miss Bowdler, of Bath,