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abfurdity than the latter. Both are impoffible on the principles of Mr. Locke's theory, and on a physical consideration of the fenses and of the mind. .

The chapter that creats of particles in the Essay on Human Understanding, is very unsatisfactory. The subject is treated in a loose, uncertain manner, as if the Author had not settled his opinion concerning the manner of signification of words. ..Mr. Locke fuppofed, with Aristotle, Scaliger, and Mell, de

Port Royal, that affirming and denying were operations of the · mind; and referred all the other words to the same source; I though (says Mr. Tooke), if the different sorts of words had been (as he was willing to believe) to be accounted for, by the different operations of the mind, it was almost imposible they should have escaped the penetracing eye of Mr. Locke.' ;. The reader ought by no means io lose sight of Mr Tooke's pofition-for it is the leading principle of his whole work-viz. chat particles or indeclinable words (as they have been called), such as conjunctions, prepositions, and adverbs, are the signs of OTHER WORDS: they are merely abbreviations contrived for the dispatch of language: and the source of all the errors into which grammarians have been led, arifeth from considering them fimply as the figns of ideas, or the figns of things. Into what blunders might not the art of shorthand (practised almost exclufively by the English) lead foreign philosophers, who, not knowing that we had any other alphabet, Mould suppose each part to be the sign of a single sound?' In language there are not only figns of sounds, but again, for the sake of abbreviation, figns of those signs, one under another, in continued progression.

In the third chapter the Author considers the parts of speech; and endeavours to establish this position, viz. ... That in English, and in all languages, there are only two forts of words, which are necessary for the communication of our thoughts :

1. Nous, and

1 2. VERB.' But if parts of speech are unnecessarily encreased, there is no number to which they can be limited. In the strict sense of the term, no doubt but the necessary words and the abbreviations are all of them parts of speech; because they are all useful in language, and each has a different manner of signification. But it is of great consequence both to knowledge and to language, to keep the words employed for the different purposes of speech as dira tinet as possible. The Author, therefore, is inclined to allow the denomination of parts of speech only to the necessary words; and to include all the others (which are not necessary to speech, but merely substitutes of the first sort) under the citle of abbreviations. Those substitutes are commodious, but not absolutely sential, to the primary end of language. ! A Dedge (says he) cannot


be drawn along as smoothly, and eafily, and swiftly, as a carriage witb wbeels; but it may be dragged' He therefore maintains, that without using any other fort of word whatever, and merely by the means of the noun and the verb alone, we can communicate or relate any thing that we can relate or coma municate with the help of all the others. Though, indeed, he acknowledges, that without abbreviations language can get or bué lamely; and therefore they bave been introduced, in different plenty, and more or less happily, in all languages.

Upon those two points, abbreviation of terms, and abbreviation in the manner of fignification of words, depends the 'excellence of every language.

In the farther progress of this ingenious work, the Author's pontion is fairly put to the trial. It is examined with the 'moft rigid exa&tness. Obje&ions are proposed in their fullest strength, and answered clearly, minutely, and satisfactorily. Every asCertion is supported by reason and illustrated by example. The ground is cleared by the Author as he advances : and the confia dence which he hath iö the truth and firmness of his system, leads him to invite criticism, and even to seek out objections. He disguises nothing: he paffes over nothing in halte; and his Cóle with seems to be, to get fairly at the truth, and as fairly to communitate it to others.

The fourth chapter treats of nouns; and a noun is defined to be, the kmple or complex, the particular or general figx or kami of one or more ideas.'

In this chapter Mr. Tooke very successfully overthrows Mr. Harris's position relative to genders; and says, that all his reasoning respecting the genders of the sun and moon is fallacious; for in the northern languages fun is feminine, and moon is masa culine ; indeed so feminine is the sun, that our northern mytho.. logy makes her the wife of Tuisco."

Chap. V. Of the article and interjection.

The Author takes the part of the article against those gram : marians who degrade it like the Abbé Girard) to the humble Kación of avant-coureurs merely to announce the approach or entrance of a noun.' Scaliger bestowed on it more opprobrious language ftill. He called it otiofum loquafiffimæ gentis inf?rk. mentum.' " Mr. Tooke endeavours to reitore the article to its primitive honour; but in vindicating its rights, he falls foul on the interjection, and loads it with more abufive and contemptu. ous epitbeis, than Scaliger applied to the article. "The brutish, inarticulate interjection (says he), which has nothing to do with speech, and is only the miserable refuge of the speechless, has been permitted, because beautiful and gaudy, to usurp a place among words, and to exclude the article from its well-earned dignity...on. The neighing of a horse, the lowing of a cow,

B 3

. . the

the barking of a dog, sneezing, coughing, groaning, shrieking, and every other involuntary convulsion with oral round, have almost as good a title to be called parts of speech as interje&tions have. ... And, indeed, where will you look for the interjection? will you find it amongst law, or in books of civil institutions, in history, or in any treatise of useful arts or sciences? No. You may seek for it in rhetoric and poetry, in novels, plays, and romances.'

Though Mr. Locke hath not once mentioned the article, yet he hach sufficiently proved its necessity, by his observations on the use and importance of general terms. Our Author establithes the neceflity of the article on the ground of Mr. Locke's reasonings, and observes, that it is the business of the article to reduce the generality of terms, and, upon occasion, to enable us to employ general terms for particulars. If, in combination with a general term, it is a substitute, yet it is a necessary substitute, which is more than can be said of abbreviations that have been advanced into distinct pars of speech: for they are not essential to tbe communication of our thoughts.

The substance of what is advanced in the four following chapiers hath already been communicated to the Public in a letfer addressed by the Author to Mr. Dunning in the year 1778*.

His reflections on the fate of bis prolecution + for a libel against the state, are parily serious and partly ludicrous. We will not repeat them, because they have liccle concern with philology; though he declares, that it is probable that his papers (drawn up above twenty years ago) would have been finally conligned with himself to oblivion, if he had not been made the miserable victim of two prepositions and a conjunction.

The conjunction that was made one of the fatal inftruments of Mr. Horne Tooke's civil extinction (for such hath actually been the consequence of his prosecution), is largely treated of in the fixth chapier; and is no other than

The word THAT. It is enquired if the conjunction that has any, the smallest, cor. respondence or similarity of signification with that the article or pronoun?

In my opinion? (says our Author), the word that (call it what you please, either article, or pronoun, or conjunction) retains always one and the same signification.' He is so confident of this, that he wishes to have the rule tried by every other language; and hath no doubt of its being found universally true.

* See Rev. vol. lix. p. 161.

+ Our Author, as is well known, was prosecuted by the Attorney General for an advertisement which was construed into a libel. He was found guilty, and sentenced to be imprisoned for one year.

He He examines it by some instances, in which the same signifi. cation of the word is preserved, after the construction of the sentence is resolved.

Ex A M P L E. • I wish you to believe that I would not wilfully hurt a fly.

RESOLUTION. • I would not wilfully hurt a fly; I will you to believe THAT (affertion.)

EXAMPLE • She knowing That Crooke had been indicted for forgery, did Lo and fo.

RE SOLUTION. • Crooke had been indicred for forgery; the, knowing THAT, did lo and so.

After the same manner our Author prefumes, that all sentences may be resolved in all languages, where the conjun&tion that, or its equivalent, is employed; and by such resolution it will always be discovered to have merely the same force and signification, and to be in fa&t nothing else but the very fame word which, in other places, is called an article or a pronoun.

In a note the Author observes, that it is not extraordinary that ut and Quod should be indifferently used for the same conjunctive purpose : for as ut (originally written uti) is nothing but olu; 1o is QUOD (anciently written QUODDE) merely Kas otlu ..... Kai (by a change of the character, but not of the found) became the Latin Que; and Kzo oth became in Latin Qu'otti - Quodda - Quodde-Quod. .... The change of t into D, and vice versa, is familiar to all who have ever paid the smallest attention to language.'

An Example and a Resolution are produced.
Ex. · UT jugulent homines furgunt de nocte latrones.
Reş, 'Latrones jugulent homines (41) oto furgunt de noite.!

Or, in English thus :
Ex. • Thieves rise by night that they may cut men's throats.
Res. • Thieves may cut inen's throats (for) THAT (purpose) they

rife by night.

In the seventh and eighth chapters the Author creats of con. jundions in general, and of the etymology of English conjunctions in particular,

The face of conjunctions hath been various. Mr. Harris says, " that they appear in grammar, like zoophytes in nature, a kind of middle beings of amphibious character ; which, by sharing the attributes of the higher and the lower, conduce to link the whole together.'

Mr. Tooke makes himself very merry with this definition, and asferts, that it is impossible to convey a nothing in a more ingenious manner.' And Lord Monboddo comes in for a share of the ridicule thrown on Mr. Harris's zoophytes ;' for they have made so wonderful an impression on his Lordship’s fancy, that

he hath ufed the allufion, at least twenty times, in the progress of his work on language ; and seems to be always hunting after extremes, merely for the sake of introducing them.

Conjunctions have been compared to plumes on helmets, to handles. to cups, &c. &c. ; they have been called the nails and nerves, the glue, the pitch, and the mortar of language.

· With such fimilies as there, the reader hath been amused, while the grammarian hath luckily sheltered his ignorance.

But all the while the true nature of the conjunction was left in the dark.

Mr. Tooke hath brought it out of the shade of mystery and nonsense, and given it a proper place and station, not among unmeaning or half-meaning indeclinables, but among words that have boch declension and fignification too.

He hath given us a table of the conjunctions, and from a comparison of them with their original Saxon roots, it is clear that they are verbs, used either as participles, or in the imperative mood.

We will present our readers with a specimen, which will lyf, ficiently explain the Author's general idea. IF:

plif i slikan To give,
| Anan

To grant,

lesan To dismirs, ELSE

Ales Alesan To dismiss, THOUGH j i Daf i Đapian To-allow.

Since in English, and 6i88an in Saxon, is the participle of Seon, to fee.

IF was written Gif by G. Douglas ; and if the construction of any sentence where it occurs be resolved, it always signifies to give.

An hath precisely the same meaning. They are the imperatives of the Saxon Lifan and Anan, to give and grant.

$ An the weather be fair to-morrow I will go abroad ;' is the fame as if the weather, &c.' and both are only imperatives of the two verbs which fignify to give or grant.

Dr. Johnson ftrangely misconceived the original meaning of

UNLESS (formerly spelt with an o) is the Saxon onler, dimitte, from the verb onleran, dimitto, I dismiss, or send away.

Let any fentence be examined where it occurs, and is always bears this meaning


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Are the Imperatives

of their respealive Verbs

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