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volution of the planets round the fun: the shorter the curve, in proportion to the velocity, the more it is disposed to fly off in a tangent; and the outer parts, most remote from the centre of their tendency, fly off where the turning is tharpeft. To the bodies called non-conductors it tends only at small distances, but arrived in contact it adheres; so that on these it may be accumulated more copiously, and retained longer; and by means of an armature, or conducting medium, to convey it from the whole surface at once, it may be discharged in a much denser stream.
The general laws of the deferent fuid are: That it tends to all bodies, at greater distances than the electric matter tends to any; - that its tendency, like that of the electric matter, is always from the body which has more, to that which has less ;that, cæteris paribus, the body which has most of the electric Auid, has most of the deferent also ;-that the tendency of the deferent to other bodies diminishes, like that of the electric matter, in proportion to the distance ;-that it has a particular affinity with the electric matter, but that their union is very weak, insomuch that the electric fluid is in a perpetual state of decompofition and recompofition, even more so than watery vapours.
Such are the general laws which Mr. De Luc, with great sagacity, has developed and applied to the solution of the several phenomena. We shall give, for an example, the hitherto inexpli. cable phenomenon of the Leyden jar, or (which is the fome thing in a simpler form) the magic picture, that an accumulation of ele&tricity on one side produces a deficiency on the other.
The electric Auid being analogous to watery vapour, let us suppose a place of glass, of the fame temperature with the neighbouring bodies, to be bedewed with decomposed vapour on both fides, and to receive on one of its fides, A, a Itream of vapour warmer than the plate itself. These vapours, on touching the plate, will be in part decomposed; their water will be depofired on the side A, and the fire, now liberated, passing through the glass, will unite with the water on the other side, B, and promote evaporation from that fide. This greater evaporation from the fide B consumes the fire that came from A; and the side A, by this loss of its heat, becomes able to condenfe more vapour. Thus the water continues diminishing on the one surface, and increasing on the other, till the whole plate has acquired the temperature of the vapours: the condensation must then cease, and the inequality of distribution is at iis maximum; in which state, as the fide B is a little more diftant than A from the source of hear, its vapours will have fumewhat less expanfive force than those which fall upon A. The Author thews, that the case is precisely the same with the electric Auid; and describes an apparatus, by which all the phenomena of the electric jar or plate, even the discharge, may be initated with watery vapour,
except only in those particulars which depend upon the extreme rapidity, or other characteristic and incommunicable properties of the electric Auid or its deferent.
The chapter concludes with some conjectures on the component parts of the electric Auid, as they discover themselves in its decomposition. When the quantity surrounding the largest conductor passes off at once in a small thread, its density and velocity must be amazingly increased, and the deferent fluid itself appears to be decompoled, the light, which is the general principle of all the deferents, being disengaged. Some curious hints are added respecting magnetism, and the probable existence of some other Auids as yet unknown. But we must take leave, for the present, of this pleasing, as well as instructive, writer; and hope to meet him again soon, in the second volume.
Art. VI. The Fair Syrian, a Novel. By the Author of Mount
Henneth *, and Barham Downs t. 12mo. 2 Vols. 6s. sewed.
Walter. 1787. IT is unquestionably the business both of the dramatic writer
I and the novelist, “to hold as 't were the mirror up to nature ; to shew virtue her own feature, vice her own image, and the very age and body of the time his form and pressure.” The man of genius, therefore, who writes with the view of affording amusement to his readers, will, when selecting materials for his work, make choice of such particular incidents and scenes in life as may be somewhat familiar to the people in general, but which are still of such a nature as to admit of amplification, and which will allow him to exercise his inventive faculty in a certain and limited degree; that is, in such a degree as that he do not 'o'erstep the modesty of nature,' or in all events, that probability do not receive from it any great or violent shock.
Our three great novel-writers are Richardson, Fielding, and Smollet; and these,-to illustrate one art or profesion by ano- ther, we would compare with Reynolds, Le Brun, and Hogarch. The first for truth and beauty of colouring, the second for a lively display of the passions, and the third for caricatura. We almost despair of seeing them equalled. It is, however, no little satisfaction to us to find, amid the multitude of unfinished things,' which are continually ifTuing from the press under the denomination of novels, or romances; and which we should really be at a loss to characterize, were it not that the writers of them have kindly, and in imitation of the showman, set down in the title-pages of their respective períormances - this is a novel-it is no little satisfaction to us, we say, to meet with
* See Rey. vol. Ixvi. p. 129.
+ Ib. vol. Ixxi. p. 223.
à writer like the present, who to ease and correctness of expresfion unites that very eflential requifire of a novelist, a talent for nice and accurate delineation of character: who contrats his several personages with confiderable skill and ability : who gives to them their appropriate language, spirit, and manners; and who finally presents us with a fable or story, tolerably harmonious in all its parts.
The jult and pertinent observations contained in the following extract will thew that our Author is something more than a novel-writer : he appears, indeed, in the honourable and amiable character of a philosopher, and friend of man--for though in the dialogue which we have here selected, a quaker and a petitmaitre compose the scene, it is very easy to discover that the quaker; the favourite character, Speaks the sentiments of the Author's heart.
• My next excursion was to Philadelphia, to do my baisemains to that terrible congress, whose name is to be celebrated by future Livys, as the ancient preserver' of the only storehouse for liberty in the four quarters of the globe; where thirty generations of men, ex. clusive of accidents, may be furnished with what they want. l'11 tell you a secret, my dear Count; I had it from a Quaker, one of the people who never swear, and very seldom lie.
" The heads of the Kings and rulers of the old world are worm. eaten.” The man is a farmer, and though I have the honour to be the Marquis de St. Claur, and not to know wheat from barley in the blade, yet, as it is the fashion to visit him on account of his numerous improvements, I chose to be in the fashion. His conversation was fo entertaining, his hofpitality so warm, and his wife to pretty, that I fayed three days with him in the country, without becoming an ennuyè, except once, when the disertation upon plants had been stretched out rather too long. I had the misfortune to gape. “I ure thee,” says he. I was asuring him to the contrary. “We Study here the language of nature more than that of politeness," says he; "come, let us take a walk."
• In a field, where many Keep were feeding, one of them very often, holding its head awry, staggered round and round, fell down, and soon role again and eat. “ The brain of that poor animal," fays he,,“ has worms in it; I must order it to the slaughter-house out of compassion. We call this disorder the turn; and I am apt to think, kings have it sometimes. Thou knowest the Americans are struggling for liberty. Thy King, and the King of Spain, who dote upon it so, that they keep it all to themselves, and tell their people it is not for common wear, help us forward in the obtaining it with all their might; and the King of England, who lives but to extend and secure this bleiling to all his subjects, is labouring as luftily to depriye us of it. Much in the same manner acted thy fourteenth Louis, when he revoked the edict of Nantz, to destroy liberty of thinking at home, and sent millions to support it in Germany. What thinkert thou ?- Did not it denote worms ?"
“ Pollbly . “ Possibly it might,” replies I; « but this accusation brought again it the present Kings of France and Spain, comes not well from the mouth of an American.”
“ Thou dost not imagine,” says he, “ that I think they can err on this side. But thou wilt not say they are confitent. Let them give their own people that liberty they endeavour to procure us, and they will be as high in my esteem almost as William Penn."
" I should like to know what standard you mealure merit by? It seems odd to compare the Kings of France and Spain with William Penn.”
" Thou mistakest; I do not. I know of no point of comparison between them. One standard of merit is the good done to mankind. In reading the histories of thy country, one would be apt to conclude Kings thought themselves great in proportion to the mischief they did ; and that their subjects were blind enough to sanctify the error.”
“ Surely mankind is much benefited by being well governed.” “ I grant it. - Is thy country so ?” “ We think it is."" “ Who dolt thou mean by the term we?” “ The public in general."
“ The public in general then must be sunk low indeed in the scale of political freedom. Let us for conversation fake turn na. turalists; and consider man by his inward as well as outward marks. The people of thy country, and ours, are doubtless classed under the name MAN as a GENUS; let us see, if the SPECIES may not differ.
" We will begin the comparison with the rank of peasants, that numerous class employed in railing sublittence for the whole community. In France, how poor they are! how abject! starving in the midst of those delicacies they are daily creating, as it were, for the use of others. See their rags, their black bread, and rancid bacon! If a man of the Noblesse honours them with his commands, they are abymès infiniment, and ready to jump into a well, to Mew their sense of the amazing condescension. View the same rank in America, and acknowledge the difference. It would be insulting thy under. ftanding to point it out. Every man feels himself a Man; claims his share of the common bounties of nature ; and above all, of Liberty. It is true, you have a vart superiority in your trinket men, your tai. leurs, parfumeurs, your perruquiers, and e'pecially your cuifiniers; and may a thousand ages elapse, before America becomes your rival !
“ St. Paul says, whatsoever you do, let it be to the praise and glory of God. A good Frenchman obeys the precept, but his god is the grand Monarque. If half a million are sent to Germany or Flanders, to die of the sword, disease, or famine, the King's glory requires it, and we are content. If Versailles and Fontainbleau waste the treatures of a nation in useless magnificence, or childish splendor, it is for the King's glory, and we are content. In return, the grand Monarque, or the grand Monarque's mistresses, take the trouble to govern these obsequious people according to their own good will and pleasure.
“ At present, thou feest America conceives it possible, though doubtless very amiating, to subsist without this species; and when
they they had it, they said not with the French, We are thy servants, O King, do unto us as seemeth good unto thee.-But, thou art our servant, O King, execute our laws in righteousness. Dost thou perceive any difference?”
“ I do. But Frenchmen have a great deal to learn, and unlearn too, before they can enter into fo licentious a course of thinking, and trample upon the sacred majesty of Kings."
“ 'Sacred majesty of Kings! Lord's anointed! Delegates of heaven! Just less than gods! In my youth I also read tragedies, epic poems, romances, and divinity. Now, I read Common Sense. And what pretty epithets halt thou adapted to the dignity of the sacred order? Wilt thou not think we are given over to all uncleanness of spirit, living, as we do, unsprinkled, dying un-unctioned. Can there be salvation, thinkest thou, without a Bishop? Without that order of men so useful to a nation that chuses to think by proxy? But to tell thee a secret, and it may serve to confirm the difference in fpecie, American heads are so pertinaciously constructed, that ra. ther than not take their own road to heaven, they will take none at all."
" The road to heaven, my dear Sir, has always been represented to us as a thorny path, and hard to find. Why then should we not • take guides?”
“ I grant thee, to the people of thy world, the path is burthened with incumbrances; and prithee who put them there? I fancy it is the work of thy hierarchy only. They seem to me like pilots who tell of a thousand imaginary fand-banks obstructing the road in to port, in order to be paid the pilotage. Scarce any thing to us is so safe, so easy, and so pleasani, as the way that conducts to heaven. Love God; love thy neighbour; and be juit. This is our law and our prophets."
"In all the true holy catholic mother church, my dear Sir, there is not a priest who does not derive his descent, spiritually, from the twelve a postles. We believe they are called to the sacred work of salvation. We believe they know something of what they teach. We are sure we do not know. If they inform is right, we have all the advantage of it. If wrong, as we cannot guide ourselves better, we are no worse than we were.”
" Thy plea is so good a one, that I promise thee whenever the men thou speakest of, prove their descent, excluf: vely--we will come over unto their faith. Till they do this, thou wilt excuse us, for not trusting wholly our eftates to stewards, our consciences to confeflors, or our souls 10 priests. We think all these of importance enough ro look to them ourselves.”
"Well Sir, all that I know is, that you have fucked in one fet of maxims with your mother's milk, and we another. Yours tends to establish reason, that damnable faculty according to our creed; ours faith ; which whosoever has enough of, may remove your Apalachian mountains.”
" Thou art right. Education is all in all.”
Were it within the limits and compass of our Review, we would willingly follow this lively and ingenious writer through the several windings and meanderings of his work; but we muit,