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SWAINSON'S Hints to Families, 535 VINDICATION of the Treaty, 253
of Divinity, by Davy, 473 URWICK's Serm. on Farmer's Death, 543
TATLIR, new Ed
Tales of the 12th and 13th Centu. W A KEFIELD's Edition of Gray's
Wales, Prince of, Inquiry into his cate,
453 Ward's Trasllation of Ramlay's Gentle
WARVILLE, M. de, - Examen Critique
TOWERS's Transation of Hertzberg, 42 WATSON. See LANDAIF. - ne
- (Samuel) Sermon at the Bishop
WHITAKER's Dialogues on the Trinity,
WILKINS'Translation of the Bhagvat.
WILLIAM of Normandy,
WILLIAMS on an Union of England and
TURGOT, M. Lite of,
WOLDE's Edit, of the Alexandrian Greek
Electrical Machine at Haarlem, 581 Worx-Houses. See GIILING WATER:
VATRECX, Caliph, History of,
V OUNG, Mr. Arthur, bis Annals of
View of the Treaty, &c.
For JANUARY, 1787.
Art. 1. ENEA TÌTEPOENTA, or the Diversions of Purley. Part I:
By John Horne Tooke, A. M. late of St. John's College, Can : bridge. 8vo. 78. Boards. Johnson. 1786. TEW persons could guefs at the object of this learned and
T very ingenious publication, by the title which the Author hath give it. Who would fuppose that the Diverfionis of Purleg meant nothing more than profound etymological researches into the origin of English particles, conjunctions, prepositions, and adverbs? Thefe, however, are the WINGED WORDS (ETTE< 7/ porta) that are explored in their birth, their growth, their relation, and use; and the tracing them ab ove usque ad alami conAtitutes the sole entertainment of this, curious work. .
PURLEY was the feat of President Bradshaw. Our Author is supposed to have a secret attachment to the place; from the veneration in which he holds the memory of its former poffeffor. It is a sort of holy ground to a republican ; and every man who is an enthusiast in any system of politics or religion, will have his holy ground in spite of wit and ridicule. Dr. Johnson had his (but not at Purley), and disdained that frigid philofophy that was unmoved at fuch scenes as had been dignified by wisdom, bravery, or virtue. “That man (says the great moralist) is little to be envied, whose patriotism would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon. It is on this principle that Mr. Tooke (more commonly known, as a patriot, under the name of Mr. Horne) kindles with che noble fire of liberty, when he reflects, that the spot he daily treads was hallowed by the feet of him who dared to trample on royalty itself; and who, rising superior to the forms of law, spurned allo at the forms of decorum ; and still more nobly risqued the curfe of God, and the execration of pofterity, to bring his monarch to the block.
The present Diversions of Purley are not, indeed, allowed to take so serious a turn. And it is somewhat diverting to see the fierce patriot ramed into an etymologist; though now and theri the old spirit breaks through the cloud chat oppresses the lustre of freedom :VOL. LXXVI.
* Staring, tremendous, with a threatning eye,
Like some fierce Tyranicir old Tapestry. The manus inimica tyranniss.that once waved the cap of liberty, and was ready to make t o llie Tyrant feel
The keen deep liearchings of the patriot's steel, now holds the bjichoid scourge the grammarians : and, having Aogged through.ihe whole school, redoubles its strokes on Lord Monboddo-as if unwilling to leave his Lord hip one sound point to fit upon.
Wo hope Mr. Tooke will give us as much room to admire his candour as we do his skill. He who censures and laughs so
freely at others, hath no right to complain if others indulge a :: litile ridicule at his expence. But let this be his consolation, : that if his manner of fighting be condemned, yet no one can disa
pute his claim to the victory; and if we smile at the patriot, we must applaud the scholar.
We shall now enter on the confideration of the present work: and we cannot better befriend the interests of Englith literaluse than by giving our readers a general view of its contents. The Author bath the fingular honour of throwing light on such parts of language as had been left in great obscurity by ail preceding lexicographers and cymologifts; and the Diversions of Purley have laid the foundation for a new fyftem of grammar, which we hope to see ftill farther extended by the researches of this acute and penetrating critic: for we are happy to find that this volume is announced only as a fir At part.
The form of the work is not, in our opinion, so happy as its execution. The dialogue seems unsuitable to the dry difquifitions of the grammarian. It rather obscures the subject than illuftrates it.
Bur where the matter is so fubftantial and excellent, it would be faftidious to quarrel with the manner; and for the sake of the former, we could forgive more blemishes and detects in the latter, than we find in the prefent volume.
It contiits of ten chapters. The general titles of which are
IV, Or the roun.
1. Of the article and interjedioa.
Viil, Etymolcgy of ihe Englith conjunctions.
In the first chapter the Author exposes, in a very lively man. ner, the great mistakes into which grammarians and philosophershave fallen, in their several attempts to enumerate the distinct paris of speech. Some have allowed thirty; and none have acknowledged less than eight. But the errors of grammarians have arisen from supposing all words to be immediately, either the signs of THINGS, or the signs of ideas; whereas, in fact, many words are merely abbreviations employed for dispatch, and are the signs of OTHER WORDS. . These are the artificial wings of Mercury (EAE 7lep:oulo), by means of which the Argus.eyes of philosophy have been cheated.'
The ingenious Author proceeds to strip Mercury of his wings: for they do not make a part of his body. It is only to loose the strings from his feet and take off his cap; and we shall then see what sort of a figure he will make without them.
The first aim of language was to communicate our thoughts ; the second, to do it with dispatch. The difficulties and disputes concerning language have arisen almost entirely from neglecting the consideration of the latter purpose of speech; which, though subordinate to the former, is almost as necessary in the commerce of mankind, and has a much greater share in accounting for the different sorts of words. Abbreviations are employed in language three ways:
1. In terms.
3. In construction. Mr. Locke's Essay is acknowledged by our Author to be the best guide to the first; but it is the second only that he undertakes to illustrate and unfold in the present work, because hitherto it hath escaped the proper notice of all who have written on the fubje&t of grammar.
In the fecond chapter Mr. Tooke briefly considers some posi. tions of Mr. Locke ; and though he professes a veneration for his character, yet he hesitates not to Tay, that in the Ellay on Human Understanding, the great writer never did advance one ftep beyond the origin of ideas and the composition of teims.
Mr. Locke was not sufficiently aware of the inseparable corncation between words and knowledge; if he had, it is presumed that he would not have talked of the compofiti.n of ideas ; but would have perceived that it was merely a contrivance of language, and that the only composition was in the terms, and consequently that it was as improper to talk of a complex idea, as it would be to call a constellation a complex far. In fact, they are not ideas, but merely terms, which are general and abAtract.
M:. Locke's reasoning against innate ideas is equally cogent against the composision of ideas. The furmer no more involve an