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the inversion of the image by the telescope while the light remains the same ; Mr. R. in several experiments, observed the deception to be removed by illuminating the object with a reflected (which is also an inverred) light. He likewise observed, that vpon taking out the glasses, and looking through the open cube, that the object appeared in irs unnatural or reverted state when illuminated with a reflected light; a tube is necessary to confine the fight from other adjoining objects, which not being in the fame circumstances, would otherwise corre&t the imagination. Description of a remarkable Rock and CÀSCADE near the western
Side of the Youghiogeny River, a quarter of a Mile from Crawford's Ferry, and about Twelve Miles from Union in Fayette County, in the State of Pennsylvania. By Tno. Hucchins.
This description is rather obscure, and ought to have been ilJustrated with a drawing. Any abridgment, we doubt, would be Atill more obscure than the original. The cascade, however, according to this account, certainly exhibits a most fingular, romantic, and grand appearance. An optical Problem proposed by Mr. Hopkinson, and an wered by
Mr. Riitephouse. Mr. Hopkinson holding near to his eye a folk handkerchief, tightly stretched, and looking through it at a lamp which was at a considerable diftance, observed the threads of the handker. chief to be magnified to the fize of coarse wires; on moving the handkerchief slowly to the right and left he was surprized to find that the dark bars did not move at all, but remained permanent before the eye.
Mr. Rittenhouse explains this appearance by a judicious and ingenious method : he confiders the cross bars as an illusion, and not as the magnified threads ; this illusion is caused by the inAexion which the parallel rays coming from the lamp had suffer. ed in palling the edges of the chreads. His arguments are supported by several experiments and illustrations, which could not be understood without the figures. ** The MATHEMATICAL, ASTRONOMICAI, METEOROLO
GICAL, MEDICAL, and other Papers, in our next.
Art. VIII. The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of
Durham. By William Hutchinson, P. A. S. Vol. I. 4to. Sub. fcription for the whole 21. 25. Robinsons. 1785. THIS history is written by Mr. Hutchinson, Author of the
Excursion to the Lakes, and View of Northumberland; who appears to have been particularly fortunate in obtaining a great variety of valuable materials for his work, having not only been indulged with leave to copy the public records of the see, particularly the Doomsday book of ine county of Durham (called
Bolden Buke), and Bilhop Hatfield's Survey, but he has also been: favoured with a great number of valuable communications, such as charters, pedigrees, monumental inscriptions, drawings, and manuscript collections, preserved in divers private libraries ; and these are enumerated and acknowledged in a prefatory advertisement.
Mr. Hutchinson opens his introduction with an eulogium on the labours of an historian :
· The human genius,' says he, knows not a nobler effort than that of collecting the various events of diftant times, and placing them in such successive order and arrangement, as to exhibit a perfect delineation of the rise and progress of Itates, the civilization of mankind, and advances of science. By the labours of the historian are transmitted the great viciffitudes which have attended on human affairs, and the knowledge of those principles which influenced the prosperity as well as the decline of empires; from which affecting examples, wisdom forms her noblest precepts. In such a review we become interested in the fate of the leveral personages who first actempted to release mankind from darkness and barbarism, and our hearts participate the joy of those whose wisdom tamed the ferocity of lavage habits, and cultivated the human mind in the school of science and the liberal arts.
" While through oral tradition alone, interesting events were communicated, history was dark and uncertain ; affected by the fortunes of men, and suffering mutilation by the fall of states, much obscurity frequently enveloped the most important changes; for before the invention of letters, public monuments were the chief means of saving the greatest atchievements of nations, and the most wonderfal acts of providencial interpofition, from oblivion.
“To such we are obliged to resort, when we discuss those disant æras, in which letters did not prevail, or in the contries where they had not acceptation. The work of the historian, in the first ages of literature, was laborious and unpleasant; much depending on the uncertain definition of emblematical images, and mysterious traditions; whilft a retrospection through uncultivated ages, with the progress of ignorant and uncivilized nations, furnished disagreeable scenes. It is some happiness to us, that compassionate angels have with-held the humiliating picture from our eyes.'
Here we cannot help imagining that the conceit of these compassionate angels may be an imitation of Sterne's recording angel, who with a tear blotted out the entry of the oath (worn by Uncle Toby; but, if so, it is not a very happy one!
Our Author then proceeds to give short accounts of the Druidical religion, the manners of the Brigantes, the accession of the Romans to that district, the introduction of Chriftianity, the laws by wbich the Brigantes were governed, the arrival of the Saxons, and the state of religion in Brigantia, the kingdoms of Bernicia and Northumberland, with a fucceffion of the kings, ending with Oswald, and the foundation of the see of Lindisfarne, in which the opulence and honour of the palatinate or Rev. Feb. 1787.
Durham had their origin. To these succeed the lives of the Bishops of Lindisfarne; those of the Bishops of Chester le Street, to which place the corpse of St. Cuthbert was removed, and a new cathedral was there founded by Eardulph, as being nearer the royal residence, then established at York.
The body of St. Cuthbert being again removed on account of a Danish invasion, and settled at Durham, the circumstances of the building and endowing that cathedral are related, with the lives of the Bishops, to the conquest; the effects which that event had on the ecclefiaftical system of this realm, and the rights claimed by the Bishop of Durham in his double capacity of Prince and Baron, are considered and explained ; and the lives of the Bishops, from Walcher, are continued to Bishop Egerton, with whose acceflion, in the year 1771, this volume terminates. At the end of each Bishop's life, from Walcher downward, is a list of the officers of the see. A list is likewise given for the year 1785, with another of benefices and promotions in the gift of the Bishop of Durham, and the names of the incumbents in the same year. · On the whole, Mr. Hutchinson has acquitted himself of his task in a manner that does honour to his industry, and no dir. credit to his abilities : nor was that task an easy one; the vast power of the clergy in former times making them parties in all important matters of state as well political as ecclefiaftical. Hence the history of the Bishops of Durham is in some measure the national history of the times in which those Bishops lived,
The notes, with which this work is illustrated, are many of them curious and interesting, and the portraits of the bishops with which it is decorated, are in general neatly engraved.
There are also iwo different views of the Abbey of Lindisfarne ; that on the north, which is but an indifferent performance, bas, we think, appeared before, in one of Mr. Hutchinson's publications. Divers seals, coats of arms, and pieces of antiquity, are neatly cut in wood.
In order to give our Readers a specimen of Mr. Hutchinson's style, we have transcribed part of the character of Bishop Anthony Beak:
• In taking a review of this prelate's character, it must be remem. bered that he enjoyed a plurality of cures, and was fecretary to the king, at the time he was advanced to the fee of Durham. The first instance in which he fewed the boldness of a resolute judgment, was in his answer to the archbishop's demand of excommunicating his convent. His fortitude, when beset by ruffians at Rome, who broke into his apartment, to revenge the insults committed by his servants, and his antiver to King Edward I. which firit occasioned his sove· reign's hatred, shewed his unshaken magnanimity of soul. Had his other principles been as noble, his character would have been as illustrious as his life was magnificent. But his pride was prevalent in every action of his life ; it was the bias by which every part of his
condu&t was influenced; and that pride affronted, brought forth implacable aversion, as has been seen in his contests with the convent, in which it is evident he could not brook the indignity of contradiction ; so highly did he estimate his own consequence. He was pleased with military parade and martial discipline; but though he was desirous of a retinue of soldiers about him, he affected a seeming indifference and negligence towards them; and Thewed no con, cern whilst the greatest nobles bent the knee to him, and officers of the army waited standing as he fat *. He thought nothing too dear, that could contribute to his public fame for magnificence; as an instance of which, Graystanes tells us, one time, in London, he paid 40 s. for forty fresh herrings (now about 8u1. sterling money) when they had been refused by the most opulent persons of the realm, then assembled in parliament. At another time he bought a piece of cloth, which was held up at so high a price, that, proverbially, it was said to be too dear for the Bishop of Durham, which he ordered to be cut into cloths for his fumpter-horses. He seized the king's palfrey as a deodand, it having killed its rider in the way to Scotland, within the liberties of his palatinate. His breach of confidence in depriving the son of Vesey, and selling the barony of Alnwick, was derived from a wound his pride received in some contemptuous jest the bastard put upon him, which he never could forgive ; and, in gratifying his resentment, he was guilty of the basert perfidy to his deceased friend. He was so impatient of rest, that he never took more than one seep, saying, it was unbecoming a man to turn from one side to the other in bed. He was perpetually either riding from one manor to another, or hunting or hawking. Though bis expences were very great, he was provident enough never to want money. He always rose from his meals with an appetite: and his continence was so fingular, that he never looked a woman full in the face; whence, in the translation of St. William of York, when the oiher bithops declined touching the saint's remains, through a consciousness of having forfeited their virginity, he alone boldly handled them, and allifted the ceremony with due reverence.
* He died at Eltham, 3d March 1310, having sat 28 years, and was buried in the church at Durham, in the eait transept, near the ferretory of St. Cuthbert, between the altars of St. Adrian and St. Michael the archangel, contrary to the cultom of his predeceffors, who, out of respect to the body of St. Cuthbert, never suffered a corple to come within the edifice. It is said they dared not bring the bishop's remains in at the church door, but a breach was made in the wall to receive them, near the place of interment. He died pofseffed of great riches, with several jewels, veífels of silver, hores, and coftly vestments, which he bequcathed to the church.'
* Rob. de Graystanes—Ang. Sac. p. 746.
Art. IX. The Carfe of Stirling : an Elegy. 4to. 13. Edin.
burgh printed ; sold by Johnson, London. THE Author of the poem before us has, it seems, long in
1 dulged himself with contemplacing the beauties which the Carle * of Stirling (or in other words the view from Stirling Castle) presen's to the attentive observer. Stirlingshire, befide being the theatre of many important events, and the residence of several Scottish monarchs, is a fituation remarkable for the Striking beauties of its surrounding scenery. These circumstances, our Author supposes, would have been a sufficient in. ducement for the Muses to have celebrated so distinguished a place. “They,' says he, however, continued to absent themfelves, and the windings of the Forth, with all its uncommon scenery, have remained unsung. On his return to Stirlingshire, after several years absence, he ftill found his favourite scene new and delightful; and, glancing over the pictures of his youthful painting, he observed, or fancied he observed, certain tints, which he conceived might please, and passions which he thought might intereft. - He has perhaps deceived himself; but in whatever light he may appear as a poet, he flatters himself, that, among other motives for publishing The Carse of Stirling, the following will at least screen him from public censure.
"A love of pleasure and diffipation has now so completely diffused itself through all ranks, that agriculture and country improvements seem but secondary concerns with our gentlemen of landed property. Instead of promoting an honeft emulation by their bounty and patronage, the labours of an induftrious peasantry are considered in no other light than as the means of procuring luxuries at the tables of their pampered landlords. Instead of kindling a spirit of enterprize, by their presence and example, the metropolis of these kingdoms teems with men, who yearly doze away their time, and squander their incomes amidit a round of follies, which, while they enervate the mind, bury the importance of a landed gentleman in complete obfcurity. To such the Author of this liitle piece means not to address himself; but, though he may despair of a change of man. ners among the diffipated and the unthinking part of bis countrymen, the picture of rural life he has altempied to draw, may not perhaps be unwelcome to those, who, uncontaminated by example, point at higher pleasures than the steams of a ball-room, or the squeaking of an opera.
The style of the poem is plaintive and fimple : and the numbers, in general, are smooth and harmonious. As a specimen,
* Carse, as we are cold in a note, • fignifies a low flat country, of a rich clayey foil.'